Pamela Margaret Young (née Rawlinson) was the first New Zealand woman to live and work in Antarctica.In 1969–70, she worked at Cape Bird as field assistant to her husband Euan, a biologist, and was among the first six women to fly to the South Pole. She wrote a book about her trip (Penguin summer or a rare bird in Antarctica). The Young Peaks in Antarctica are named after her.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Cape Bird is a cape which marks the north extremity of Ross Island. Discovered in 1841 by a British expedition under Ross, and named by him for Lieutenant Edward J. Bird of the ship Erebus.
The daughter of Caren Cecilia Rawlinson (née Lyders) and Arthur Field Rawlinson,Pamela Young studied at the University of Otago and graduated BA in 1958. In 1959, she married Euan Cameron Young, a zoology lecturer at the University of Canterbury. Euan Young visited Antarctica for the first time during the 1959/60 season to work at Cape Royds, while Pamela spent the summer employed in a jam factory.
The University of Otago is a collegiate university based in Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand. It scores highly for average research quality, and in 2006 was second in New Zealand only to the University of Auckland in the number of A-rated academic researchers it employs. In the past it has topped the New Zealand Performance Based Research Fund evaluation.
Cape Royds is a dark rock cape forming the western extremity of Ross Island, facing on McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. It was discovered by the Discovery Expedition (1901–1904) and named for Lieutenant Charles Royds, Royal Navy, who acted as meteorologist on the expedition. Royds subsequently rose to become an Admiral and was later Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, London. There is a hut at Cape Royds built and used by Ernest Shackleton and his team during their 1907–1909 expedition.
Euan and Pamela Young lived in England for several years before returning to Christchurch and Euan Young, again working for the University of Canterbury, then went on four more trips to Antarctica.
Only a small number of New Zealanders had been to Antarctica at this time. “The number of OAEs (Old Antarctic Explorers) remained small, and invested with mystique. New Zealand’s Antarctic programme was then the prerogative of small DSIR parties, and the universities were only just beginning to realise the possibilities for research. The continent remained unvisited except by a small, privileged handful of people."
The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) is a now-defunct government science agency in New Zealand, founded in 1926 and broken into Crown Research Institutes in 1992.
As late as 1965, Admiral James Reedy had uttered his famous definition of Antarctica as 'the womanless white continent of peace',but attitudes were slowly changing. Euan told Pamela that “the Americans are keen to take girls down this year.… so it would be fair enough for us to send one New Zealander.”
Pamela Young joined her husband as his field assistant at Cape Bird on his sixth trip. She was not the first New Zealand woman in Antarctica (that was zoologist Marie Darby, who visited Antarctica in January 1968), but she was the first to live and work there as a member of a research team, although not trained as a scientist. She was described as the "First Lady for Scott Base" when her selection was announced in June 1969.
The presence of even one woman involved extra planning for equipment, accommodation and bathroom facilities. Lane Walker Rudkin, a local clothing manufacturer, gave her woollen jerseys and ski pants, as well as “two pairs of special long-johns in the finest of creamy white wool”, so she didn't have to wear men's ones.
In November 1969, Pamela and Euan Young flew in a Starlifter from Christchurch to Williams Field and took a Snotrack to Scott Base.They spent ten weeks living and working with a small team at Cape Bird. On 17 January 1970, they made the final penguin count and headed back to Scott Base and home.
In 1971, when Penguin summer was published, Pamela and Euan Young and their two children were living in Western Samoa where Euan was carrying out research into the rhinoceros beetle, an introduced pest of the coconut palm. In 1972, the family moved back to New Zealand when Euan Young was appointed to the chair of zoology at the University of Auckland.Pamela Young was a teacher at Epsom Girls' Grammar School.
The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south. It is claimed by New Zealand. Since the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961, Article IV of which states: "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica," most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica.
Ross Island is an island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound. Ross Island lies within the boundaries of Ross Dependency, an area of Antarctica claimed by New Zealand.
Vanda Station was an Antarctic research base in the western highlands of the Ross Dependency, specifically on the shore of Lake Vanda, at the mouth of Onyx River, in the Wright Valley. The four original station buildings were constructed in the austral summers of 1967–1968 and 1968–1969, just prior to the first winter-over by a five-man team from January to October 19, 1969. Subsequent wintering parties occupied the station in 1970 and 1974. During summer seasons, Vanda station was fully staffed until 1991. Scientific programs principally included meteorology, hydrology, seismology, earth currents, and magnetics. The station was administered by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), and was supported logistically by the permanent New Zealand research base of Scott Base on Ross Island.
McMurdo Sound and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres (34 mi) long and wide. The sound connects the Ross Sea to the north with the Ross Ice Shelf cavity to the south via Haskell Strait. The strait is largely covered by the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The Royal Society Range rises from sea level to 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on the western shoreline. Ross Island, an historic jumping-off point for polar explorers, designates the eastern boundary. The active volcano Mount Erebus at 3,794 metres (12,448 ft) dominates Ross Island. Antarctica's largest scientific base, the United States' McMurdo Station, as well as the New Zealand Scott Base are on the southern shore of the island. Less than 10 percent of McMurdo Sound's shoreline is free of ice. It is the southernmost navigable body of water in the world.
This is a timeline of the history of New Zealand's involvement with Antarctica.
Cape Adare is the north-easternmost peninsula in Victoria Land, East Antarctica.
Cape Shirreff is a prominent cape at the north end of the rocky peninsula which separates Hero Bay and Barclay Bay on the north coast of Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. The cape was named by Edward Bransfield in 1820 after Captain William H. Shirreff, the British commanding officer in the Pacific at that time.
Tourism in Antarctica started by the sea in the 1960s. Air overflights of Antarctica started in the 1970s with sightseeing flights by airliners from Australia and New Zealand, and were resumed in the 1990s. The (summer) tour season lasts from November to March. Most of the estimated 14,762 visitors to Antarctica from 1999–2000 were on sea cruises. During the 2009 to 2010 tourist season, over 37,000 people visited Antarctica.
Ardley Island is an island 1.9 kilometres (1 nmi) long, lying in Maxwell Bay close off the south-west end of King George Island, in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. It was charted as a peninsula in 1935 by Discovery Investigations personnel of the Discovery II and named for Lieutenant R.A.B. Ardley, Royal Naval Reserve, an officer on the ship in 1929–31 and 1931–33. Aerial photography has since shown that the feature is an island with Braillard Point being the headland forming the northeast end of Ardley Island. It has been designated an Antarctic Specially Protected Area because of the importance of its seabird colonies.
Michelle Rogan-Finnemore is the Executive Secretary of the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP) which is the international association which brings together the National Antarctic Programs that make up its members. She is also the namesake of Finnemore Peak.
Gillian Shirley Wratt was the first woman director of the New Zealand Antarctic Programme (1992–1996) and made a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to Antarctica.
Lois M. Jones was an American geochemist who led the first all-woman science team to Antarctica in 1969. They were also the first women to reach the South Pole. Jones was well regarded for her contribution to geological research in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, one of the few ice-free areas of Antarctica, and published many papers and abstracts.
Margaret Ann Bradshaw is a British-born New Zealand geologist and a retired staff member at the University of Canterbury. She is considered a trailblazer and influential female role model in Antarctic research.
This is a Timeline ofwomen in Antarctica. This article describes many of the firsts and accomplishments that women from various countries have accomplished in different fields of endeavor on the continent of Antarctica.
Christine Muller-Schwarze, a German-born psychologist from Utah State University, was the first American scientist to work on the Antarctic mainland.
Marion Marie Stringer Darby was a New Zealand marine biologist and teacher. She was the first New Zealand woman to visit the Antarctic mainland. In January 1968, she travelled on the Magga Dan, the first tourist vessel to the Ross Sea, and visited Scott Base with other staff and tourists. She prepared a checklist of sub-Antarctic birds for the information of tourists on board and later wrote an article on summer seabirds to be seen between New Zealand and McMurdo Sound. Mt Darby in Antarctica is named after her.
Dorothy Pearl Braxton was the first female journalist from New Zealand to visit Antarctica. In February 1968, she travelled on the Magga Dan to the Ross Sea. She was also among the first women to visit Cape Hallett. She wrote a book, The abominable snow-women, about her trip.
Thelma Rodgers is a retired Antarctic scientist from New Zealand. She was the first woman to spend a winter at Scott Base, New Zealand's scientific base in Antarctica.
Laurence Fearnley is a short story writer, novelist and non-fiction writer. Several of her books have been shortlisted for or have won awards, both in New Zealand and overseas, including The Hut Builder, which won the fiction category of the 2011 NZ Post Book Awards. She has also been the recipient of a number of writing awards and residencies including the Robert Burns Fellowship, the Janet Frame Memorial Award and the Artists to Antarctica Programme. She lives in Dunedin, New Zealand.