Pantherinae

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Pantherinae [1]
Temporal range: Late Miocene to Holocene
Lydekker - Pantherinae collage.jpg
Pantherinae subfamily members (from left): jaguar, leopard, lion, tiger, snow leopard and clouded leopard
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Pocock, 1917
Genera

Pantherinae is a subfamily within the family Felidae, which was named and first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1917. [2] The Pantherinae and the Felinae diverged from a common ancestor between 10.8 and 11.5 million years ago. [3] [4]

Contents

Characteristics

The members of the Pantherinae have an imperfectly ossified suspensorium of the hyoid apparatus. It is connected to the base of the base skull by an elastic tendon, which provides mobility to the larynx. [2] They have a single rounded vocal fold with a thick mucosal lining, a large vocalis muscle and a large cricothyroid muscle with long and narrow membranes. The vocal fold is longer than 9 mm (0.35 in). This structure of the larynx enables them to roar. [5]

Their rhinarium is flat and, at most, only barely reaches the dorsal side of the nose. The area between the nostrils is narrow and not extended sidewards as in the Felinae. [6]

Evolution

The divergence of Pantherinae from Felinae has been estimated to have occurred between six and ten million years ago. [7] DNA analysis suggests that the snow leopard Uncia uncia is basal to the entire Pantherinae and should be renamed Panthera uncia . There is also evidence of distinct markers for the mitochondrial genome for Felidae. [8] [9]

Results of a DNA-based study indicate that the tiger (Panthera tigris) branched off first, followed by the jaguar (P. onca), the lion (P. leo), then the leopard (P. pardus) and snow leopard (P. uncia). [10] The oldest known skull, dated to 2.16 to 2.55 mya, belongs to the Longdan tiger (Panthera zdanskyi), which is seen as a sister species to the modern tiger. [11]

Felis pamiri, formerly referred to as Metailurus , is now considered a probable relative of extant Pantherinae. [12]

Classification

Pocock originally defined the Pantherinae as comprising the genera Panthera and Uncia. [2]

Living genera

The following table shows the extant taxa within the Pantherinae, grouped according to the traditional phenotypical classification. [13]

GenusSpecies IUCN Red List status and distribution
Panthera Oken, 1816 [14] Tiger (P. tigris) (Linnaeus, 1758) [15]

Panthera tigris tigris.jpg

EN [16]

Tiger map.jpg

Lion (P. leo) (Linnaeus, 1758) [17]

Lionss of king.jpg

VU [18]

Lion distribution.png

Jaguar (P. onca) (Linnaeus, 1758) [19]

Standing jaguar.jpg

NT [20]

Panthera onca distribution.svg

Leopard (P. pardus) (Linnaeus, 1758) [21]

Namibie Etosha Leopard 01edit.jpg

VU [22]

Leopard distribution.jpg

Snow leopard (P. uncia) (Schreber, 1775) [23]

Schneeleoparden Kailash und Dshamilja frontal.jpg

VU [24]

SnowLeopard distribution.jpg

Neofelis Gray, 1867 [25] Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa) (Griffith, 1821) [26]

Neofelis nebulosa.jpg

VU [27]

Clouded-leopard distribution.jpg

Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi) (Cuvier, 1823) [28]

Borneo clouded leopard.jpg

VU [29]

Sunda-Clouded-leopard distribution.jpg

Fossil taxa

See also

Related Research Articles

Felidae Family of mammals

Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat.

<i>Panthera</i> Genus within Felidae

Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae that was named and described by Lorenz Oken in 1816 who placed all the spotted cats in this group. Reginald Innes Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard on the basis of common cranial features. Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN Red List assessors in 2008.

<i>Felis</i> Genus of mammals (cats)

Felis is a genus of small and medium-sized cat species native to most of Africa and south of 60° latitude in Europe and Asia to Indochina. The genus includes the domestic cat. The smallest Felis species is the black-footed cat with a head and body length from 38 to 42 cm. The largest is the jungle cat with a head and body length from 62 to 76 cm.

Felinae subfamily of mammals

The Felinae are a subfamily of the family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not roar.

<i>Leopardus</i> genus of mammals

Leopardus is a genus of spotted small cats mostly native to Middle and South America, with a very small range extending into the southern United States. The genus is considered the oldest branch of a lineage of small cats that crossed into the Americas, with the genera Lynx and Puma being later branches of the same group. The largest species in Leopardus is the ocelot ; most of the other species resemble domestic cats in size, with the kodkod being the smallest cat in the Americas. The margay is more highly adapted to arboreal life than any other cat in the Americas.

New Zealand dotterel Species of bird

The New Zealand dotterel is a species of shorebird found only in certain areas of New Zealand. It is also called the New Zealand plover or red-breasted dotterel, and its Māori names include tūturiwhatu, pukunui, and kūkuruatu.

African leopard Leopard subspecies

The African leopard is the nominate subspecies of the leopard, native to many countries in Africa. It is widely distributed in most of sub-Saharan Africa, but the historical range has been fragmented in the course of habitat conversion. Leopards have been recorded in North Africa as well.

<i>Python</i> (genus) genus of reptiles

Python is a genus of constricting snakes in the Pythonidae family native to the tropics and subtropics of the Eastern Hemisphere.

<i>Herpestes</i> genus of mammals

Herpestes is a genus within the mongoose family Herpestidae. It is the type genus of the family and comprises ten living species, with a number of subspecies, and one extinct species.

<i>Acroloxus lacustris</i> species of Gastropoda

Acroloxus lacustris, or the lake limpet, is a small freshwater limpet or snail, a species of aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Acroloxidae.

<i>Pecten jacobaeus</i> Species of mollusc

Pecten jacobaeus, the Mediterranean scallop, is a species of scallop, an edible saltwater scallop, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pectinidae, the scallops.

<i>Viverra</i> genus of mammals

Viverra is a mammalian genus that was first nominated and described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 as comprising several species including the large Indian civet. The genus was subordinated to the viverrid family by John Edward Gray in 1821.

<i>Pila ampullacea</i> species of mollusc

Pila ampullacea, is a species of freshwater snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails.

<i>Conus stercusmuscarum</i> species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies

Conus stercusmuscarum, common name the fly-specked cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.

<i>Patella rustica</i> species of mollusc

Patella rustica, common name rustic limpet is a species of sea snail, a true limpet, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Patellidae, one of the families of true limpets.

<i>Labiostrombus epidromis</i> species of mollusc

Labiostrombus epidromis, common name the swan conch, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Strombidae, the true conchs.

<i>Ahaetulla mycterizans</i> species of reptile

Ahaetulla mycterizans, the Malayan green whipsnake or Malayan vine snake, is a slender arboreal snake found in Western Peninsular Malaysia, Java and Sumatra of Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and possibly Laos up to elevation of 350 m.

<i>Sertularella polyzonias</i> species of cnidarian

Sertularella polyzonias is a branching colonial hydroid in the family Sertulariidae.

<i>Alopoglossus angulatus</i> species of reptile

Alopoglossus angulatus, known commonly as the northern teiid, is a species of lizard in the family Alopoglossidae. The species is endemic to northern South America.

References

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  23. Schreber, J. C. D. (1777). "Die Unze". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 386–387.
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  29. Hearn, A.; Ross, J.; Brodie, J.; Cheyne, S.; Haidir, I. A.; Loken, B.; Mathai, J.; Wilting, A.; McCarthy, J. (2016). "Neofelis diardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T136603A97212874. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T136603A50664601.en .{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)