Paradoxurus

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Paradoxurus [1]
Paradox hermaph 060924 ltn.jpg
Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Viverridae
Subfamily: Paradoxurinae
Genus: Paradoxurus
Cuvier, 1822
Species

see table

Paradoxurus range.png
Paradoxurus ranges

Paradoxurus is a genus of three palm civets within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. [2] The Paradoxurus species have a broad head, a narrow muzzle with a large rhinarium that is deeply sulcate in the middle. Their large ears are rounded at the tip. The tail is nearly as long as the head and body. [3]

Contents

The three species are the Asian palm civet, the Golden palm civet, and the Brown palm civet. [1]

Characteristics

Paradoxurus species have a broad head, a narrow muzzle with a large rhinarium that is deeply sulcate in the middle. Their large ears are rounded at the tip, the interior ridges and bursae are well developed. The skull exhibits marked muscular moulding, and the postorbital area is deeply constricted shortly behind the well-developed postorbital processes. It is considerably narrower than the interorbital area and than the muzzle above the canines. The dental formula is 3.1.4.23.1.4.2. The palate is not produced behind to cover the anterior half of the mesopterygoid fossa, and is flat and expanded between the posterior cheek teeth. The tail is nearly as long as the head and body, sometimes quite as long, and about six times as long as the hind foot. [3]

Taxonomy

As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia: [1]

NameImageDistribution
Asian palm civet, P. hermaphroditus(Pallas, 1777) [4] Asian Palm Civet (14157389395).jpg Asian Palm Civet area.png
Golden palm civet, P. zeylonensisPallas, 1778 [5] Paradoxurus zeylonensis 2.jpg Sri Lanka
Brown palm civet, P. jerdoni Blanford, 1885 [6] Brown palm civet.jpg Western Ghats, India

In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus, Cuvier, 1822), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus, Kelaart, 1852) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus, Groves et al., 2009), which are endemic to Sri Lanka. [7] A subsequent study found very low genetic diversity and no geographical structure within the golden palm civet and did not support the proposed split. [8] Comparison of morphological data indicate that the Asian palm civet comprises three major clades that should be recognized as separate species: namely one in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia (as Paradoxurus hermaphroditus sensu stricto), one in Sumatra, Java and other small islands ( Paradoxurus musanga ), and the third in the Philippines and the Mentawai Islands ( Paradoxurus philippensis ). [8] Genetic data, however, do not support species level distinction. [9]

Related Research Articles

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Felidae is a family of mammals in the order Carnivora, colloquially referred to as cats, and constitutes a clade. A member of this family is also called a felid. The term "cat" refers both to felids in general and specifically to the domestic cat.

Mongoose A family of mammals in Africa and Asia

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. This family is currently split into two subfamilies, the Herpestinae and the Mungotinae. The Herpestinae comprises 23 living species that are native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, whereas the Mungotinae comprises 11 species native to Africa. The Herpestidae originated about 21.8 ± 3.6 million years ago in the Early Miocene and genetically diverged into two main genetic lineages between 19.1 and 18.5 ± 3.5 million years ago.

Viverridae family of mammals, the viverrids

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids are found in South and Southeast Asia, across the Wallace Line, all over Africa, and into southern Europe. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

<i>Felis</i> Genus of mammals (cats)

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Asiatic linsang genus of mammals

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang and the spotted linsang. Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Asian palm civet Species of viverrid

The Asian palm civet is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, it is IUCN Red Listed as Least Concern as it accommodates to a broad range of habitats. It is widely distributed with large populations that in 2008 were thought unlikely to be declining. In Indonesia, it is threatened by poaching and illegal wildlife trade; buyers use it for the increasing production of kopi luwak, a form of coffee that involves ingestion and excretion of the beans by the animal.

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber German entomologist

Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber, often styled J.C.D. von Schreber, was a German naturalist.

African civet largest representative of the African Viverridae

The African civet is a large viverrid native to sub-Saharan Africa, where it is considered common and widely distributed in woodlands and secondary forests. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. In some countries, it is threatened by hunting, and wild-caught individuals are kept for producing civetone for the perfume industry.

<i>Leopardus</i> genus of mammals

Leopardus is a genus of spotted small cats mostly native to Middle and South America, with a very small range extending into the southern United States. The genus is considered the oldest branch of a lineage of small cats that crossed into the Americas, with the genera Lynx and Puma being later branches of the same group. The largest species in Leopardus is the ocelot ; most of the other species resemble domestic cats in size, with the kodkod being the smallest cat in the Americas. The margay is more highly adapted to arboreal life than any other cat in the Americas.

Sulawesi palm civet species of mammal

The Sulawesi palm civet, also known as Sulawesi civet, musang and brown palm civet is a little-known palm civet endemic to Sulawesi. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List due to population decline estimated to have been more than 30% over the last three generations inferred from habitat destruction and degradation.

Blond capuchin species of mammal

The blond capuchin is a species of the capuchin monkeys group, the genus Sapajus. This critically endangered species was rediscovered in 2006. It is endemic to northeastern Brazil, and only an estimated 180 individuals remain.

Golden palm civet species of mammal

The golden palm civet is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining.

Brown palm civet species of mammal

The brown palm civet also called the Jerdon's palm civet is a palm civet endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

Ruddy mongoose Species of mammal

The ruddy mongoose is a mongoose species native to hill forests in India and Sri Lanka. This mongoose, along with the striped-neck and Indian grey mongeese, are the only mongoose species endemic to India and Sri Lanka. The ruddy mongoose is very closely related to Indian grey mongoose, but distinguished by its slightly larger size and black-tipped tail extending for 2 to 3 inches at the distal end. There are two subspecies of this mongoose, H. smithii smithii in India, and H. smithii zeylanicus in Sri Lanka.

Civet Mammals of the families Viverridae and Nandiniidae

A civet is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia. The best-known civet species is the African civet, Civettictis civetta, which historically has been the main species from which a musky scent used in perfumery was obtained. The word civet may also refer to the distinctive musky scent produced by the animals.

Viverrinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Paradoxurinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Paradoxurinae are a subfamily of the viverrids that was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. Pocock subordinated the oriental genera Paradoxurus, Paguma and Arctictis to this subfamily.

<i>Paradoxurus aureus</i> species of mammal

Paradoxurus aureus, the golden palm civet, also called golden paradoxurus and golden wet-zone palm civet is a viverrid species native to Sri Lanka. It was first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822.

Paradoxurus montanus, the Sri Lankan brown palm civet, is a viverrid species endemic to Sri Lanka where it is known as ශ්‍රී ලංකා බොර කලවැද්දා in Sinhala. Until 2009, it was considered as the same species as the golden palm civet, but proposed to be given specific rank.

Paradoxurus stenocephalus, or the golden dry-zone palm civet, is a viverrid species point endemic to Sri Lanka where it is known as ශ්‍රී ලංකා රන් කලවැද්දා in Sinhala. It was considered as the same species as Paradoxurus aureus, but confined to new species status in 2009.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Genus Paradoxurus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 550–551. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  2. Cuvier, F. (1822). "Du genre Paradoxure et de deux espèces nouvelles qui s'y rapportent". Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle Paris. 9: 41–48.
  3. 1 2 Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Paradoxurus". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Volume 1. Mammalia. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 379–415.
  4. Pallas, P. S. (1778). "Das Zwitterstinkthier". In Schreber, J. C. D. (ed.). Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. p. 426.
  5. Pallas, P. S. (1778). "Der Boshond". In Schreber, J. C. D. (ed.). Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. p. 451.
  6. Blanford, W. T. (1885). "A Monograph of the Genus Paradoxurus, F. Cuvier". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 53 (4): 780–808. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1885.tb02921.x.
  7. Groves, C. P.; Rajapaksha, C.; Mamemandra-Arachchi, K. (2009). "The taxonomy of the endemic golden palm civet of Sri Lanka" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 155: 238–251. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00451.x.
  8. 1 2 Veron, G.; Patou, M.-L.; Tóth, M.; Goonatilake, M.; Jennings, A. P. (2015). "How many species of Paradoxurus civets are there? New insights from India and Sri Lanka" (PDF). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 53 (2): 161–174. doi:10.1111/jzs.12085.
  9. Duckworth, J.W.; Timmins, R.J.; Choudhury, A.; Chutipong, W.; Willcox, D.H.A.; Mudappa, D.; Rahman, H.; Widmann, P.; Wilting, A. & Xu, W. (2016). "Paradoxurus hermaphroditus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T41693A45217835.

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