Parakramabahu VI of Kotte

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Parakramabahu VI
King of Kotte
Coin Lion P bahu obvin.jpg Coin Lion P bahu revin.JPG
Obverse coin of Parakramabahu VI (left); Reverse coin of Parakramabahu VI (right)
ReignA.D 1412-1467
PredecessorWeerabahu
Successor Jayabahu II of Kotte
DiedKotte
Burial
Kotte
SpouseQueen Consort Swarnamanikya
(a Kirawalle Princess)

Queen Consort Madura
(another Kirawelle Princess)

Royal Consort Subadhra
IssueCrown Princess Ulakudaya Devi/Lokanatha

Princess Chandrawathi

Prince Siriwardhana Jayamahalena/ Parakramabahu Jnr./ Prince Kanitu Rukule (කනිටු රුකුලේ කුමරු) < /ref>si:ශ්‍රී වර්ධන

Adopted sons

Prince Sapumal (සපුමල් කුමරු) later King Bhuvanaikabahu VI of Kotte,

Prince Ambulugala (අම්බුළුගල කුමරු) later king Parakramabahu VIII of Kotte

Prince Rahula/Jayaba also known as Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera
House House of Siri Sanga Bo
Dynasty Maurya
FatherLord Lameni Jayamahalena
MotherMother Queen Sunethra Devi
Religion Buddhism

Parâkramabâhu VI (1410/1412/1415–1467) was a king in the Sri Lankan kingdom of Kotte. He is the last great king in Sri Lanka who managed to unite the island under one flag. [1] His rule is famous for the political stability which he maintained in that time period and the thriving of literature, especially poetry. Classical literature (prose and verse) as well as many rock inscriptions and royal grant letters (patent letters, sannas) have been found, rendering much information pertaining to this period.

Contents

Early life

His father was Lameni Jayamahalena, and his mother was Sunethra Maha Devi.[ citation needed ] If so, he is the grandson of Parakramabahu V, who was Savulu Vijayabahu's son. Savulu Vijayabahu was the fifth to go by the name Vijayabahu. Another scholar states that Jayamahalena was the grandfather of Parakramabahu VI. However, he is supposed to belong to the family, that came after Parakramabahu V. [2]

Reign

Kingship

Parakramabahu VI was allied with Ming China who forcibly dethroned Alakeshvara in favor of him. [3] [4] As documented in Chinese records, Parakramabahu VI was elected by the Sinhalese present at the Ming court, nominated by the Ming emperor, and installed by Admiral Zheng He with the backing of his fleet. [4]

During his reign, economic relations between the Ming dynasty and the Kotte kingdom increased; he sent alteast five diplomatic missions to China in order to confirm that sea piracy in the Sea of Kotte had been abolished. [5] The Galle Trilingual inscription was also placed by Zheng He during this period. [6]

Rebellion

King Parakramabahu VI suppressed the revolts in Malayarata. The chiefs of Vanni who wielded power there, were defeated by this king. [7] In 1435, a south Indian invasion from the Vijayanagara Empire, is recorded. Sri Lankan sources say that the king that started the invasion successfully but south Indian records contradict this. Soon after this time, king Parâkramabâhu VI directed a naval attack on south Indian ports, resulting from a dispute that arose after the incident of stealing a cargo ship by an Indian called Rayan Malavar around the year 1443. [8]

Conquering Yapa Patuna

This battle was led by king Parâkramabâhu VI's adopted son, Prince Sapumal. Selalihini Sandeshaya [9] records that the prince returned after winning the Yapa Patuna (Jaffna), about year 1449. The king took advantage that AryaChakravarthi could no longer get military assistance from Vijayanagara. As troops advanced across Mannar to Jaffna by land, naval forces must have cut south Indian assistance by patrolling the Palk Strait. The first fierce battle happened in JavaKotte (Chavakacheri) near Elephant pass. Later Jaffna was attacked and Arya chakravarthi was forced to retreat to India. [10] [11]

Demise

In year 1463, there was a rebellion in the hill country and Sena sammatha Wikramabahu became king of Senkadagala. The king died in 1467. And his grand son Jayabahu VI became king. But this was followed by much political turmoil. The stability of king Parâkramabâhu VI would not return for centuries to come.

Contribution to literature

He also played a main role in the contribution to literature. King Parakramabahu VI showed a great interest in literature and arts. Also the offering of Royal favour is influenced to flourish of Sinhalese Literature. His period is considered as the Golden Era in Sinhalese Literature. That was the heyday of 'Sandesha Poetry.'

Contribution to Buddhism

He had built a 'Dalada Maligawa', a 3-floor building that became the repository of tooth relic. In addition to that he constructed a monument in honour of his mother called. This building is called the 'Papiliyane Sunethradevi Piriwena'.

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Jaffna Kingdom, also known as Kingdom of Aryachakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula. It was traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India. Established as a powerful force in the north, north east and west of the island, it eventually became a tribute-paying feudatory of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1258, gaining independence in 1323, when the last Pandyan ruler of Madurai was defeated and expelled in 1323 by Malik Kafur, the army general of the Delhi Sultanate. For a brief period, in the early to mid-14th century, it was an ascendant power in the island of Sri Lanka when all regional kingdoms accepted subordination. However, the kingdom was eventually overpowered by the rival Kotte Kingdom, around 1450 when it was invaded by Prince Sapumal under the orders of Parakramabahu VI.

Aryacakravarti dynasty Kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka

The Arya Chakravarti dynasty were kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka. The earliest Sri Lankan sources, between 1277 and 1283, mention a military leader of this name as a minister in the services of the Pandyan Empire; he raided the western Sri Lankan coast and took the politically significant relic of the Buddha’s tooth from the Sinhalese capital city of Yapahuwa. Political and military leaders of the same family name left a number of inscriptions in the modern-day Tamil Nadu state, with dates ranging from 1272 to 1305, during the late Pandyan Empire. According to contemporary native literature, such as Cekaracecekaramalai, the family also claimed lineage from the Tamil Brahmins of the prominent Hindu pilgrimage temple of Rameswaram in the modern Ramanathapuram District of India. They ruled the Jaffna kingdom from the 13th until the 17th century, when the last of the dynasty, Cankili II, was ousted by the Portuguese.

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The current capital of Sri Lanka is Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte. In the course of history, the national capital has been in many locations other than Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte.

Kingdom of Kotte Sinhalese kingdom in southwestern Sri Lanka from 1412 to 1597

The Kingdom of Kotte, named after its capital, Kotte, was a Sinhalese kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century.

The Ming–Kotte War was a military conflict between the expeditionary forces of Ming China and the Sinhalese Kotte Kingdom in the southern territories of Ceylon. The conflict happened when Ming China's treasure fleet returned to Ceylon in 1410 or 1411 and resulted in the overthrow of King Alakeshvara of the Alagakkonara feudatory, who was replaced by Parakramabahu VI of the previous royal family.

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The Kotte conquest of the Jaffna kingdom was an expedition against the Jaffna kingdom by the Kotte kingdom. The Kotte's campaign had several phases against Jaffna dated between A.D. 1449–50 and 1453-4. The first campaign, led by Prince Sapumal, adopted son of Parakramabahu VI in 1450. In the second campaign, Prince Sapuma defeated Kanakasooriya Cinkaiariyan and ruled the region nearly 17 years as a representative of Kotte.

References

Citations

  1. "Sri Lanka - Kotte - 1415-1521". www.globalsecurity.org.
  2. "History".
  3. Ray, Haraprasad (1987). "An Analysis of the Chinese Maritime Voyages into the Indian Ocean during Early Ming Dynasty and their Raison d'Etre". China Report. 23 (1): 74–75. doi:10.1177/000944558702300107. S2CID   154116680.
  4. 1 2 Holt, John Clifford (1991). Buddha in the Crown: Avalokiteśvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka . Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp.  109–110. ISBN   0-19-506418-6..
  5. Hall, Kenneth R (2010). "Ports-of-Trade, Maritime Diasporas, and Networks of Trade and Cultural Integration in the Bay of Bengal Region of the Indian Ocean: c. 1300-1500". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Empires and Emporia: The Orient in World Historical Space and Time. 53 (1): 109–145. doi:10.1163/002249910X12573963244287. JSTOR   25651214.
  6. Duyvendak, J. J. L. (1939). "The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century". T'oung Pao. 34 (5): 369. doi:10.1163/156853238X00171. JSTOR   4527170.
  7. "Mahavamsa".
  8. A. S. F. Weerasuriya, Kurukula Charithaya, p.232-8 (1960) Sujatha Publishers
  9. Dhammika, Shravasti (2008). Sacred Island: A Buddhist Pilgrim's Guide to Sri Lanka. ISBN   9789552402715.
  10. The fifteenth century route to Yapa Patuna Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine , Padma EDIRISINGHE (Sunday Observer) Retrieved 20 November 2015
  11. "Portuguese encounter with King of Kotte in 1517". Denis N. Fernando. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.

Sources

  • Shrilankave Ithihasaya, Department of educational publications, Sri Lanka.