Parappanangadi

Last updated

Parappanangadi
Parappanad
Municipality
Parappanangadi Railway Station name board.jpg
Parappanangadi railway station
India Kerala location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Parappanangadi
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 11°02′59″N75°51′27″E / 11.04972°N 75.85750°E / 11.04972; 75.85750 Coordinates: 11°02′59″N75°51′27″E / 11.04972°N 75.85750°E / 11.04972; 75.85750
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Kerala
District Malappuram
Government
  BodyParappanangadi Municipality
Area
  Total22.5 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total71,239
  Density3,200/km2 (8,200/sq mi)
Languages
  Official Malayalam, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
676303
Telephone code0494
Vehicle registration KL-55, KL-65, KL-10
Nearest cityMalappuram
Literacy100%[ citation needed ]
Lok Sabha constituencyPonnani
Civic agencyParappanangadi Municipality
Climate normal (Köppen)
Website parappanangadimunicipality.lsgkerala.gov.in/ml

Parappanangadi, IPA:  [pɐɾɐpːɐn̺ɐŋːɐːɖi] , is a major town and a municipality in Tirurangadi taluk of Malappuram district, Kerala, India. It is a coastal town located close to the Arabian sea. Parappanangadi railway station is one of the oldest railway stations in Kerala. It was a part of the first rail route (TirurChaliyam) in Kerala. [2] Parappanangadi is located 9 km (5.6 mi) north of Tanur on Tirur-Kadalundi Tipu Sultan Road. [3] The town lies on the bank of Kadalundi River. [4] Parappanangadi town is located north of the estuary of Poorappuzha River, which is a tributary of Kadalundi River, and south of the estuary of Kadalundi River, which lies in Vallikkunnu. [4] Parappanangadi was one of the major ports in the southwestern coast of India during the medieval period. [5] It was ruled by the kingdom of Parappanad, who were vassals to the Zamorin of Calicut, and had the jurisdiction up to Beypore port to the north. [5] In the early medieval period, under the chiefs of Kozhikode and Parappanangadi, Parappanangadi developed as one of the important maritime trade centre on the Malabar Coast. [5] Later it became a part of Eranad Taluk in Malabar District under British Raj. [5]

Contents

Nadukani-Parappanangadi Road connects the coastal area of Malappuram district with the easternmost hilly border at Nadukani Churam bordering Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu, near Nilambur. [6] It passes through major towns such as Tirurangadi, Malappuram, Manjeri, and Nilambur, before reaching the Nadukani Ghat Road. [6] The Koyi Thampurans of Travancore belongs to Parappanad Royal Family. Parappanad royal family is a cousin dynasty of the Travancore royal family.

History

Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE) Periplous of the Erythraean Sea.svg
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)
Thooval Theeram beach Thooval theeram.jpg
Thooval Theeram beach

This town was the headquarters of Parappanad Kingdom during the medieval period. [7] Parappanangadi, which was then an important centre of trade, was known by the name Barburankad to the Arabs. [8] The kingdom of Parappanad had right over Vallikkunnu-Kadalundi-Chaliyam-Beypore region, which is often identified with the ancient maritime trading port of Tyndis, which was a major center of trade, next only to Muziris, between the Cheras and the Roman Empire, during Sangam period (1st-4th century CE). [9]

Pliny the Elder (1st century CE) states that the port of Tyndis was located at the northwestern border of Keprobotos (Chera dynasty). [10] The North Malabar region, which lies north of the port at Tyndis , was ruled by the kingdom of Ezhimala during Sangam period. [11] According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , a region known as Limyrike began at Naura and Tyndis . However the Ptolemy mentions only Tyndis as the Limyrike's starting point. The region probably ended at Kanyakumari; it thus roughly corresponds to the present-day Malabar Coast. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. [12] Pliny the Elder mentioned that Limyrike was prone by pirates. [13] The Cosmas Indicopleustes mentioned that the Limyrike was a source of peppers. [14] [15]

According to the Legend of Cheraman Perumals, the first Indian mosque was built in 624 AD at Kodungallur with the mandate of the last the ruler (the Cheraman Perumal) of Chera dynasty, who converted to Islam during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (c. 570–632). [16] [17] [18] [19] According to Qissat Shakarwati Farmad , the Masjids at Kodungallur, Kollam, Madayi, Barkur, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Dharmadam, Panthalayini, and Chaliyam (Chaliyam was a part of Parappanad), were built during the era of Malik Dinar, and they are among the oldest Masjids in Indian Subcontinent. [20] It is believed that Malik Dinar died at Thalangara in Kasaragod town. [21]

An old map of Parappanangadi on Malabar Coast during Mysore rule (Late 18th century CE) Wikipedia OldMysore.jpg
An old map of Parappanangadi on Malabar Coast during Mysore rule (Late 18th century CE)

The palace of the Kshatriya family of Parappanad Rajas is located at a short distance from Parappanangadi railway station. [7] It was from this family that the consorts of the Rani's Travancore family were usually selected. [7] In 1425, the country was divided into Northern Parappanad (Beypore Swaroopam) and Southern Parappanad (Parappur Swaroopam). [5] The rulers of Parappanad Swaroopam were vassals to the Zamorins of Calicut. [7] The rulers of Parappanad were one of the Kshatriya claiming lineages of medieval Kerala along with the neighbouring Vettathunad rulers and the Cochin Royal Family. [22] Parappanangadi was one of the important coastal towns under the Zamorin rule and was one of the major trade centres of the medieval Kerala coast. [23] Arab traders had the monopoly of trade until 15th century CE. [23] In 1573, the Portuguese seems to have burnt this town. [8]

The Schools built by Basel Evangelistic Mission (BEM) at Parappanangadi and Ponnani during colonial era, have their positions among the oldest modern schools in Kerala. [24] During colonial period, Parappanangadi was placed under the Eranad Taluk of Malabar District. [5] Later in 1957, it became a part of Tirur Taluk, when the Taluk was formed. [7] In 1990's Parappanangadi became a part of the newly formed Tirurangadi Taluk. [25]

Lakshmipuram Palace

Lakshmipuram Palace is the royal palace of the Parappanad royal families at Changanassery. Palace is located at Puzhavathu near to Kavil Bhagavathy Temple. [26] The Lakshmipuram Palace was built in 1811 AD by Travancore ruler Maharani Ayilyom Thirunal Gouri Lakshmi Bayi (1791–1815) on behalf of the family of her husband Raja Raja Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran. [27] Until then, the royal family at the Neerazhi Palace in Changanacherry had been moved to newly built Lakshmipuram Palace. [28]

One of the royal families from Parappanad settled in Neerazhi Palace in the 18th century. [29]

Raja Raja Varma Koil Thampuran, father of Travancore Maharaja Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma, was born in Neerazhi Palace in Changanassery. He was part of the royal family of erstwhile Parappanad (Parappangadi and Beypore), Malabar. [30] Maharani Ayilyom Thirunal Gouri Lakshmi Bayi built a new palace in Changanassery for her husband and his family members during her reign in 1811, which was called Lakshmipuram Palace. Until then, the royal family lived in Neerazhi Palace at Puzhavathu. [31] [32]

Kilimanoor palace

In 1705 (ME 880) the son and two daughters of Ittammar Raja of Parappanad royal house were adopted into the Royal house of Venad. Ittammar Raja's sister and her sons, Rama Varma and Raghava Varma, settled in Kilimanoor and married the now adopted sisters. Marthanda Varma, the founder of the Kingdom of Travancore, was the son of Raghava Varma. The nephew [33] of Raghava Varma, Ravi Varma Koil Thampuran, married the sister of Marthanda Varma. Their son became known as Dharma Raja Kartika Thirunnal Rama Varma.

In 1740 when an allied force, [34] led by Dutchman Captain Hockert supporting the Deshinganadu King, attacked Venad, an army from Kilimanoor resisted and then defeated them. Although a small victory, this was the first time an Indian army had defeated a European power. In 1753, in recognition of this feat, Marthanda Varma exempted the areas controlled by the Kilimanoor palace [35] from taxes, and granted them autonomous status. [36] The present palace complex was built at this time, together with the Ayyappa temple. [37] for the family deity, Sastha or Ayyapan. [38]

Velu Thampi Dalawa held meetings at Kilimanoor palace while planning uprisings against the British. He handed over his sword at the palace before going into his final battle against the British, and India's first President, Dr Rajendra Prasad received this sword from the palace and it was kept in the National Museum in Delhi. Afterwards the sword was moved to the Napier Museum, Trivandrum.

Birthplace of Raja Ravi Varma with his studio in the foreground Studiorrv.jpg
Birthplace of Raja Ravi Varma with his studio in the foreground

Civic administration

The town is administered by Parappanangadi Municipal Council, headed by a Chairman/Chairperson. For administrative purposes, the town is divided into 45 wards, [39] from which the members of the municipal council are elected for a term of five years.

Parappanangadi
Parappanangadi Municipality

Parappanangadi Municipality Election 2020 [40]

S.No.Party NameParty symbolNumber of Councillors
01 UDF UDF kerala 2.O.jpg 27
02Independents No flag.svg 09
03 LDF LDF LOGO.svg 06
04 BJP BJP election symbol.svg -783x768.png 03


== Municipal Council (2020-2025) == [41]

ChairmanA Usman
Vice ChairpersonShaharbanu K
Standing Committee Chairman/Chairpersons
Finance Standing Committee ChairpersonShaharbanu K
Development Standing Committee ChairmanP.V Musthafa
Welfare Standing Committee ChairpersonKP Muhsina
Health Standing Committee ChairmanP.P Shahul Hameed
Public works Standing Committee ChairpersonZeenath Alibappu A
Education, Art, Sports Standing Committee ChairmanC Nizar Ahammed
Councilors
KC NASAR
M. C. NASEEMA
K.K SAITHALAVIKOYA THANGAL
SUMIRANI O
KP RAMLA TEACHER
SUHARA VK
SUBRAHMANIAN
JAYADEVAN CHERUKUTTIYIL
RAMLATH KODALIKKODAN
KP MEREENA TEACHER
GIREESH CHALERI
FATHIMA RAHEEM
KHADEEJATHUL MARIYA
SAMEER M
SHAHINA SAMEER
NM SHAMEJ
KHAIRUNNISA THAHIR
AV HASSAN KOYA
ABDUL AZEEZ KOOLATH
KASMIKOYA CV
JAFARALI NECHIKKATT
HAREERA HASSAN KOYA
DEEPA
ABDUL RAZAK TR
MOHANDAS MASTER
JAINISHA MANNARAKKAL
UMMUKULSU
KUNNUMMAL JUBAIRIYATH
KARTHIKEYAN T
BABY ACHUTHAN
FOUSIYABI
ABDUL RAZAK T
FOUSIYA SIRAJ
MANJUSHA PRALOSH
SAITHALAVI AJYARAKATH
B.P SAHIDA
NASEEMA P.O
FOUSIYA MUHAMMED

Law and Order

The municipality comes under the jurisdiction of the Parappanangadi police station, which was formed on 22 June 1979. [42] The station is located on Neduva area of Parappanangadi Municipality. [42] The station has the jurisdiction over the municipality of Parappanangadi and the Gram panchayat of Vallikkunnu (Four Revenue villages namely Parappanangadi, Vallikkunnu, Neduva, and Ariyallur). [42]

The jurisdictional courts of Parappanangadi Police Station are Judicial First Class Magistrate Court Parappanangadi, Parappanangadi Munsiff Court, Subdivisional Magistrate Court Tirur, and Sessions Court Manjeri. [42]

The border police stations are headquartered at Tenhipalam, Tanur, and Tirurangadi. [42] Parappanangadi Police Station comes under the Tanur subdivision of Malappuram District Police, which is also one among six subdivisions of district police. [43]

Important Courts at Parappanangadi

  • Judicial First Class Magistrate Court - I, Parappanangadi [42]
  • Judicial First Class Magistrate Court - II, Parappanangadi [42]
  • Parappanangadi Munsiff Court [42]

Geography

Parappanangadi Municipality is bounded by Arabian Sea to west, Kadalundi River to east, Vallikkunnu Grama panchayat to north, and Tanur Municipality to south. [25]

Transportation

Palathingal bridge, Parappanangadi Palathingal Bridge Parappanagadi.jpg
Palathingal bridge, Parappanangadi

The nearest airport is at Karipur. Parappanangadi has railway station in the Town. [3] The nearest major railway station is at Tirur. [3]

Nadukani-Parappanangadi Road connects the coastal area of Malappuram district with the easternmost hilly border at Nadukani Churam bordering Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu, near Nilambur, passing through major towns such as Tirurangadi, Malappuram, Manjeri, and Nilambur. [6]

Parappanangadi-Manjeri Road and Chettippadi-Chamravattam Road are two important Roads starting/ending at Parappanangadi. [42] Tirur-Kadalundi Tipu Sultan road passes through the town. [3]

Wards of Parappanangadi

Parappanangadi Fishing Harbour Parappanangadi Beach.JPG
Parappanangadi Fishing Harbour

Parappanangadi Municipality is composed of the following 45 wards: [44]

Ward no.NameWard no.Name
1Vadakke Kadappuram2Laksham Veedu
3Health Centre4Chettipadi East
5Anappadi6Moduvingal
7Keezhchira8Kovilakam
9Ullanam Town10Ullanam North
11Edathiruthikkadavu12Thayyilappadi
13Panayathil14Putharikkal
15Stadium16Attakuzhingara
17Karinkavu18Karingallathani
19Palathingal20Keezhanalloor
21Kottanthala22Naseeb Nagar
23Chiramangalam South24Chiramangalam
25Uppunipuram26Aviyil Beach
27Kurikkal Road28Puthen Kadappuram
29Saddam Beach30Puthen Kadappuram South
31NCC Road32Parappanangadi South
33Parappanangadi Town34Puthen Kadappuram
35Ottummal South36Chappappadi
37Anjappura38 Neduva
39Kodappalli40Angadi
41Yarathingal42Chengattupadam
43Chettipadi44Alungal South
45Alungal North

Notable individuals from Parappanangadi

Kerala Varma Valiya Koyi Thampuran (Kerala Kalidasan), Raja Raja Varma (Kerala Panini) and Raja Ravi Varma (Famous Painter) are from different branches of Parappanad Raja Vamsam (Clan) which migrated to Harippad, Changanassery, Mavelikkara and Kilimanoor. [45] Marthanda Varma, the founder of Travancore, belongs to Parappanad royal family. The former Chief Editor of the daily "The Hindu" (1898 to 1905) and Founder Chief Editor of "The Indian Patriot" Divan Bahadur Cozhisseri Karunakara Menon (1863–1922) was also from Parappanangadi. [46] O. Chandu Menon wrote his novels "Indulekha" and "Saradha" while he was the judge at Parappanangadi Munciff Court. Indulekha is also the first Major Novel written in Malayalam language. Twentieth century Islamic scholar, reformer in Islamic education in Kerala, founder of Kerala Jamiyyathul Ulama [47] and Madeenathul Uloom Arabic College [48] M.C.C Abdul Rahman Moulavi (1906–1964) was from Parappanangadi. He was the son of Chalilakath Kunahmed Haji, a renowned Islamic scholar and reformist. Former Education Minister of Kerala, P. K Abdul Rabb. [49]

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Raja Raja Varma Koil Thampuran

Raja Raja Varma Koil Thampuran, also known as Raja Raja Varma, was a Malayalam language poet and translator from the Indian state of Kerala who had an equal facility in writing in English and Sanskrit. He was born in Neerazhi Palace, Changanassery. He was part of the royal family of erstwhile Parappanad, Malabar.

Malappuram is one of the 14 districts in the South Indian state of Kerala. The district has a unique and eventful history starting from pre-historic times. During the early medieval period, the district was the home to two of the four major kingdoms that ruled Kerala. Perumpadappu was the original hometown of the Kingdom of Cochin, which is also known as Perumbadappu Swaroopam, and Nediyiruppu was the original hometown of the Zamorin of Calicut, which is also known as Nediyiruppu Swaroopam. Besides, the original headquarters of the Palakkad Rajas were also at Athavanad in the district.

Neerazhi Palace Building in Changanassery in Kottayam district, India

Neerazhi Palace was the royal palace of the Thekkumkur kingdom. Palace is located at Puzhavathu in Changanassery. The palace was used by the Thekkumkur dynasty until 1750 and later by the Parappanad dynasty who settled in Changanassery from North Malabar. It was here that the last king of Thekkumkur, Aditya Varman Manikandan escaped to Nattassery of Kottayam in the Travancore invasion of 1790. The Neerazhi palace was earlier known as Neerazhikettu.

Lakshmipuram Palace Building in Changanassery in Kottayam district, India

Lakshmipuram Palace is the royal palace of the Parappanad royal families at Changanassery. Palace is located at Puzhavathu near to Kavil Bhagavathy Temple. The Lakshmipuram Palace was built in 1811 AD by Travancore ruler Maharani Ayilyom Thirunal Gouri Lakshmi Bayi (1791–1815) on behalf of the family of her husband Raja Raja Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran. Until then, the royal family at the Neerazhi Palace in Changanacherry had been moved to newly built Lakshmipuram Palace. It was the seat of the royal family of Koi thampurans and has produced many illustrious writers such as Raja Raja Varma Koil Thampuran, Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran and A. R. Raja Raja Varma. Noted Malayalam singer and classical musician L. P. R. Varma also hails from this palace.

South Malabar Geographical / Historical Area in Kerala, India

South Malabar refers to a geographical area of the southwestern coast of India covering some parts of the present-day Kerala. South Malabar covers the regions included in present-day Kozhikode Taluk of Kozhikode district, whole area of Malappuram district, Chavakkad Taluk of Thrissur district, and Palakkad district excluding parts of Chittur Taluk. The Fort Kochi region of Kochi city also historically belongs to South Malabar. The term South Malabar refers to the region of the erstwhile Malabar District which lies south to the river Korapuzha and bears high cultural similarity with both the Cochin as well as the North Malabar region.

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