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Engraving of Ibrahim Pasha
|28th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire|
27 June 1523 –14 March 1536
|Preceded by||Piri Mehmed Pasha|
|Succeeded by||Ayas Mehmed Pasha|
|Ottoman Governor of Egypt|
|Preceded by||Güzelce Kasım Pasha|
|Succeeded by||Güzelce Kasım Pasha|
Parga, Republic of Venice
|Died||15 March 1536|
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns, phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences, double entendres, and telling character names.
The Topkapı Palace, or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans.
The Ottoman Empire, also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
Ibrahim, born a Christian, was enslaved during his youth. He and Suleiman became close friends in their youth. In 1523, Suleiman appointed Ibrahim as Grand Vizier to replace Piri Mehmed Pasha, who had been appointed in 1518 by Suleiman's father, the preceding sultan Selim I. Ibrahim remained in office for the next 13 years. He attained a level of authority and influence rivaled by only a handful of other grand viziers of the Empire, but in 1536, he was executed on Suleiman's orders and his property was confiscated by the state.
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and society. The main sources of slaves were war captives and organized enslavement expeditions in North and East Africa, Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the Caucasus. It has been reported that the selling price of slaves fell after large military operations. In Constantinople, the administrative and political center of the Empire, about a fifth of the population consisted of slaves in 1609. Sixteenth- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbul's additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700.
Piri Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman Turk statesman. He was grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1518 to 1523.
Selim I , known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly his conquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of the Levant, Hejaz, Tihamah, and Egypt itself. On the eve of his death in 1520, the Ottoman Empire spanned about 576,900 sq mi (1,494,000 km2), having grown by seventy percent during Selim's reign.
Ibrahim was born to Orthodox Christian parents in Parga, Epirus, then part of the Republic of Venice. His ethnicity is unknown, but he probably originally spoke a Slavic dialect and also knew Greek and Albanian. His father was either a sailor or a fisherman.Some time between 1499 and 1502 he was captured in a raid by Iskender Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Bosnia, becoming a slave. He first met Prince Suleiman while residing at Iskender Pasha's estate near Edirne, most likely in 1514. It was then that he was taken into Suleiman's service.
Parga is a town and municipality located in the northwestern part of the regional unit of Preveza in Epirus, northwestern Greece. The seat of the municipality is the village Kanallaki. Parga lies on the Ionian coast between the cities of Preveza and Igoumenitsa. It is a resort town known for its natural environment.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania. It lies between the Pindus Mountains and the Ionian Sea, stretching from the Bay of Vlorë and the Acroceraunian mountains in the north to the Ambracian Gulf and the ruined Roman city of Nicopolis in the south. It is currently divided between the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece and the counties of Gjirokastër, Vlorë, and Berat in southern Albania. The largest city in Epirus is Ioannina, seat of the region of Epirus, with Gjirokastër the largest city in the Albanian part of Epirus.
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
After his rival Hain Ahmed Pasha, the governor of Egypt, declared himself independent of the Ottoman Empire and was executed in 1524, Ibrahim Pasha traveled south to Egypt in 1525 and reformed the Egyptian provincial civil and military administration system. He promulgated an edict, the Kanunname, outlining his system.
Hain Ahmed Pasha was an Ottoman governor, beylerbey, and statesman. He was appointed as the Governor of Egypt in 1523. Disappointed that he had not been made Grand Vizier and his rival Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha had been appointed in his place, he declared himself the Sultan of Egypt, independent from the Ottoman Empire. He struck coins with his own face and name in order to legitimize his power and captured Cairo Citadel and the local Ottoman garrisons in January 1524. However, after surviving an assassination attempt in his bath by two emirs that he had previously sacked, he fled Cairo and was finally captured and executed by Ottoman authorities by decapitation. His rebellion created a short period of instability in the nascent Egypt Eyalet. After his death, his rival Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha came down to Egypt and reformed the provincial military and civil administration.
In a lavish ceremony in 1523, Ibrahim Pasha was married to Muhsine Hatun, the granddaughter of the same Iskender Pasha who had captured him more than two decades previously. This marriage appears to have been politically motivated as a method of integrating Ibrahim, an outsider, into the Ottoman elite. While Muhsine was initially skeptical about her new husband, they eventually formed a loving relationship. Although historians once believed that the woman Ibrahim married was Hatice Sultan, the sister of Sultan Suleiman, this had been based on scanty evidence and conjecture. As a result of research carried out by the historian Ebru Turan, including the discovery of multiple references to Muhsine in Venetian and Ottoman texts as well as a signed letter from her to Ibrahim, it is now generally accepted that Ibrahim's wife was Muhsine and not Hatice.
Hatice Sultan was an Ottoman princess, daughter of Sultan Selim I and Hafsa Sultan. She was the sister of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
His palace, which still stands on the west side of the Hippodrome in Istanbul, has been converted into the modern-day Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.
The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. Today it is a square named Sultanahmet Meydanı in the Turkish city of Istanbul, with a few fragments of the original structure surviving.
Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the East and West.
The Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum is a museum located in Sultanahmet Square in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey. Constructed in 1524, the building was formerly the palace of Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, who was the second grand vizier to Suleiman the Magnificent, and was once thought to have been the husband of the Sultan's sister, Hatice Sultan.
On the diplomatic front, Ibrahim's work with Western Christendom was a complete success. Portraying himself as "the real power behind the Ottoman Empire", Ibrahim used a variety of tactics to negotiate favorable deals with the leaders of the Catholic powers. The Venetian diplomats even referred to him as "Ibrahim the Magnificent", a play on Suleiman's usual sobriquet. In 1533, he convinced Charles V to turn Hungary into an Ottoman vassal state. In 1535, he completed a monumental agreement with Francis I that gave France favorable trade rights within the Ottoman Empire in exchange for joint action against the Habsburgs. This agreement would set the stage for joint Franco-Ottoman naval maneuvers, including the basing of the Ottoman fleet in southern France (in Toulon) during the winter of 1543–1544.
Although Ibrahim Pasha had long since converted to Islam, he maintained some ties to his roots, even bringing his parents to live with him in the Ottoman capital, where they also converted to Islam. His father took the name Yusuf and joined the Ottoman elite, becoming a governor in Epirus.
On March 15 of 1536, Ibrahim Pasha, at age 43, was strangled to death without explanation by mute executioners at a dinner party on Suleiman's orders.
Mehmed III was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death in 1603.
Suleiman I, commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over 15 to 25 million people.
Ibrahim was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640 until 1648. He was born in Istanbul the son of Ahmed I by Valide Kösem Sultan, an ethnic Greek originally named Anastasia.
Suleiman II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. After being brought to the throne by an armed mutiny, Suleiman and his grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Pasha were successfully able to turn the tide of the War of the Holy League, reconquering Belgrade in 1690, as well as carrying out significant fiscal and military reforms.
Ibrahim Pasha may refer to the following Ottoman statesmen:
Damat Ibrahim Pasha was an Ottoman military commander and statesman who held the office of grand vizier three times (the first time from 4 April to 27 October 1596; the second time from 5 December 1596 to 3 November 1597; and for the third and last time, from 6 January 1599 to 10 July 1601. He is known as the conqueror of Kanije.
Rüstem Pasha Opuković was a Croatian born Ottoman statesman. He served as the grand vizier of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Rüstem Pasha is also known as Damat Rüstem Pasha as a result of his marriage to the sultan's only daughter, Mihrimah sultan. He is known as one of the most influential and successful grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire. He was the wealthiest grand vizier in history.
Ayas Mehmed Pasha (1483–1539) was an Ottoman statesman and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1536 to 1539. He was an Albanian born in Himare region. His father was from city of Shkodra, in the north of Albania, and his mother was from Vlora, in the south of Albania. He was taken to Istambul under the Devşirme practice, and eventually became Agha of the Janissaries. He participated in the Battle of Chaldiran (1514), and Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17). During 1520–1521 he was beylerbey of Anatolia Eyalet and governor of Damascus. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, he served as beylerbey of Rumelia Eyalet and was made a vizier after the Ottoman conquest of Rhodes in 1522. He also participated in the Battle of Mohács, Siege of Vienna, and the war in Iraq (1534–1535).
Hadım Suleiman Pasha was an Ottoman statesman and military commander. He was the (viceroy) of Ottoman Egypt in 1525–1535 and 1537–1538, and Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 1541 and 1544. He was a Hungarian eunuch, his epithet hadım meaning "eunuch" in Turkish.
Lütfi Pasha was an Ottoman statesman and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent from 1539 to 1541.
Şehzade Ahmet was an Ottoman prince who fought to gain the throne of the Ottoman Empire in 1512–13.
İskender Çelebi was a long-serving defterdar of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Possibly the most notable events which befell him took place during the war of 1532–55 against the Safavid Empire.
The Siege of Marburg or Siege of Maribor was a siege of present-day Maribor, then known by its German name Marburg, in the Duchy of Styria within the Archduchy of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. In the siege that happened during September 1532, local garrison and citizens defended the fortified town of Maribor against the overwhelming force of the Ottoman Empire, led by their Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his Grand Vizier Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha. The Ottomans were marching south after their unsuccessful plan of the siege of Vienna, which was compromised at the Siege of Güns where Ottomans have been delayed nearly four weeks.
The Ibrahim Pasha Palace is an Ottoman imperial court residence of Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha. It is located in Sultanahmet Square of Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey. Currently, the building is mainly used as the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.
Çoban Mustafa Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. Likely born in Bosnia-Herzegovina or Serbian Sandzak, and collected through Devshirme to Janissaries, where he gradually raised through the ranks, he eventually served as kapıcıbaşı, vizier, and beylerbey for the Ottoman Empire during various parts of his life.
Fatma Sultan was an Ottoman princess. She was the daughter of Sultan Ahmed I and Kösem Sultan, sister of Murad IV and Ibrahim, and the paternal aunt of Mehmed IV. She is known for her many political marriages.
Gevherhan Sultan was an Ottoman princess, daughter of Sultan Ahmed I and Kösem Sultan, half-sister of Sultan Osman II, and sister of Sultans Murad IV (1623–40) and Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire.
Deli Hüsrev Paşa was an Ottoman statesman from the Sanjak of Bosnia. His epithet "deli" means "crazy" in Turkish, which was ascribed to him because of his quick temper.
Muhsine, granddaughter of an illustrious statesman, is now largely accepted as Ibrahim's wife.
Originally, he probably spoke a Slavic dialect; sources mention that during the peace negotiations with the Habsburgs in 1533 he conversed in his mother tongue with Ferdinand I's representative Jerome of Zara, who was a Croatian... Venetian sources indicate that the pasha could also speak Greek and Albanian.
Piri Mehmed Pasha
| Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire |
27 June 1523 – 14 March 1536
Ayas Mehmed Pasha
Güzelce Kasım Pasha
| Ottoman Governor of Egypt |
Güzelce Kasım Pasha