Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha

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Pargalı · Frenk · Makbul · Maktul ·

Ibrahim

Pargali Ibrahim Pasa.jpg
Engraving of Ibrahim Pasha
28th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
In office
27 June 1523 14 March 1536
Monarch Suleiman I
Preceded by Piri Mehmed Pasha
Succeeded by Ayas Mehmed Pasha
Ottoman Governor of Egypt
In office
1525–1525
Monarch Suleiman I
Preceded by Güzelce Kasım Pasha
Succeeded by Güzelce Kasım Pasha
Personal details
Bornc. 1495
Parga, Republic of Venice
Died15 March 1536(1536-03-15) (aged 40–41) (22 Ramadan 942 AH)
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Nationality Ottoman
Spouse(s)Muhsine Hatun [1]

Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha ("Ibrahim Pasha of Parga"; c. 1495 – 15 March 1536), also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha ("the Westerner"), Makbul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Favorite"), which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha ("the Executed") after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.

Word play literary technique

Word play or wordplay is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement. Examples of word play include puns, phonetic mix-ups such as spoonerisms, obscure words and meanings, clever rhetorical excursions, oddly formed sentences, double entendres, and telling character names.

Topkapı Palace palace in Istanbul, Turkey; primary residence of the Ottoman sultans for approximately 400 years (1465–1856)

The Topkapı Palace, or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Contents

Ibrahim, born a Christian, was enslaved during his youth. He and Suleiman became close friends in their youth. In 1523, Suleiman appointed Ibrahim as Grand Vizier to replace Piri Mehmed Pasha, who had been appointed in 1518 by Suleiman's father, the preceding sultan Selim I. Ibrahim remained in office for the next 13 years. He attained a level of authority and influence rivaled by only a handful of other grand viziers of the Empire, but in 1536, he was executed on Suleiman's orders and his property was confiscated by the state.

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and traditional society. The main sources of slaves were wars and politically organized enslavement expeditions in North and East Africa, Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the Caucasus. It has been reported that the selling price of slaves decreased after large military operations. In Constantinople, became the administrative and political center of the Ottoman Empire, about a fifth of the population consisted of slaves in 16th - 17th century. Sixteenth- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbul's additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1453 to 1700.

Piri Mehmed Pasha Ottoman Grand Vizier

Piri Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman Turk statesman. He was grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1518 to 1523.

Selim I Ottoman sultan

Selim I , known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute, was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly his conquest between 1516 and 1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of the Levant, Hejaz, Tihamah, and Egypt itself. On the eve of his death in 1520, the Ottoman Empire spanned about 576,900 sq mi (1,494,000 km2), having grown by seventy percent during Selim's reign.

Biography

Origin

Ibrahim was born to Orthodox Christian parents in Parga, Epirus, then part of the Republic of Venice. His ethnicity is unknown, but he probably originally spoke a Slavic dialect and also knew Greek and Albanian. His father was either a sailor or a fisherman. [2] Some time between 1499 and 1502 he was captured in a raid by Iskender Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Bosnia, becoming a slave. He first met Prince Suleiman while residing at Iskender Pasha's estate near Edirne, most likely in 1514. It was then that he was taken into Suleiman's service. [3]

Parga Place in Greece

Parga is a town and municipality located in the northwestern part of the regional unit of Preveza in Epirus, northwestern Greece. The seat of the municipality is the village Kanallaki. Parga lies on the Ionian coast between the cities of Preveza and Igoumenitsa. It is a resort town known for its natural environment.

Epirus historical region in the Balkans

Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania. It lies between the Pindus Mountains and the Ionian Sea, stretching from the Bay of Vlorë and the Acroceraunian mountains in the north to the Ambracian Gulf and the ruined Roman city of Nicopolis in the south. It is currently divided between the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece and the counties of Gjirokastër, Vlorë, and Berat in southern Albania. The largest city in Epirus is Ioannina, seat of the region of Epirus, with Gjirokastër the largest city in the Albanian part of Epirus.

Republic of Venice Former state in Northeastern Italy

The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima, was a sovereign state and maritime republic in what is now northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Citizens spoke primarily the still-surviving Venetian language, although publishing in (Florentine) Italian language became the norm during the Renaissance and after.

Political career

After his rival Hain Ahmed Pasha, the governor of Egypt, declared himself independent of the Ottoman Empire and was executed in 1524, Ibrahim Pasha traveled south to Egypt in 1525 and reformed the Egyptian provincial civil and military administration system. He promulgated an edict, the Kanunname, outlining his system. [4] [5]

Hain Ahmed Pasha was an Ottoman governor, beylerbey, and statesman. He was appointed as the Governor of Egypt in 1523. Disappointed that he had not been made Grand Vizier and his rival Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha had been appointed in his place, he declared himself the Sultan of Egypt, independent from the Ottoman Empire. He struck coins with his own face and name in order to legitimize his power and captured Cairo Citadel and the local Ottoman garrisons in January 1524. However, after surviving an assassination attempt in his bath by two emirs that he had previously sacked, he fled Cairo and was finally captured and executed by Ottoman authorities by decapitation. His rebellion created a short period of instability in the nascent Egypt Eyalet. After his death, his rival Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha came down to Egypt and reformed the provincial military and civil administration.

In a lavish ceremony in 1523, Ibrahim Pasha was married to Muhsine Hatun, the granddaughter of the same Iskender Pasha who had captured him more than two decades previously. This marriage appears to have been politically motivated as a method of integrating Ibrahim, an outsider, into the Ottoman elite. While Muhsine was initially skeptical about her new husband, they eventually formed a loving relationship. Although historians once believed that the woman Ibrahim married was Hatice Sultan, the sister of Sultan Suleiman, this had been based on scanty evidence and conjecture. As a result of research carried out by the historian Ebru Turan, including the discovery of multiple references to Muhsine in Venetian and Ottoman texts as well as a signed letter from her to Ibrahim, it is now generally accepted that Ibrahim's wife was Muhsine and not Hatice. [1]

Hatice Sultan was an Ottoman princess, daughter of Sultan Selim I and Hafsa Sultan. She was the sister of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.

Ibrahim Pasha Palace in Sultanahmet, Fatih, now the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum. Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum 01.jpg
Ibrahim Pasha Palace in Sultanahmet, Fatih, now the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.

His palace, which still stands on the west side of the Hippodrome in Istanbul, has been converted into the modern-day Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.

Hippodrome of Constantinople Historic hippodrome in Istanbul

The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. Today it is a square named Sultanahmet Meydanı in the Turkish city of Istanbul, with a few fragments of the original structure surviving.

Istanbul Metropolitan municipality in Marmara, Turkey

Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality.

Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum museum of Islamic arts

The Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum is a museum located in Sultanahmet Square in Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey. Constructed in 1524, the building was formerly the palace of Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, who was the second grand vizier to Suleiman the Magnificent, and was once thought to have been the husband of the Sultan's sister, Hatice Sultan.

Draft of the 1536 Treaty negotiated between French ambassador Jean de La Foret and Ibrahim Pasha, a few days before his execution, expanding to the whole Ottoman Empire the privileges received by France in Egypt from the Mamluks before 1518. Draft of the 1536 Treaty negotiated between Jean de La Forest and Ibrahim Pacha expanding to the whole Ottoman Empire the privileges received in Egypt from the Mamluks before 1518.jpg
Draft of the 1536 Treaty negotiated between French ambassador Jean de La Forêt and Ibrahim Pasha, a few days before his execution, expanding to the whole Ottoman Empire the privileges received by France in Egypt from the Mamluks before 1518.

On the diplomatic front, Ibrahim's work with Western Christendom was a complete success. Portraying himself as "the real power behind the Ottoman Empire", Ibrahim used a variety of tactics to negotiate favorable deals with the leaders of the Catholic powers. The Venetian diplomats even referred to him as "Ibrahim the Magnificent", a play on Suleiman's usual sobriquet. In 1533, he convinced Charles V to turn Hungary into an Ottoman vassal state. In 1535, he completed a monumental agreement with Francis I that gave France favorable trade rights within the Ottoman Empire in exchange for joint action against the Habsburgs. This agreement would set the stage for joint Franco-Ottoman naval maneuvers, including the basing of the Ottoman fleet in southern France (in Toulon) during the winter of 1543–1544.

Although Ibrahim Pasha had long since converted to Islam, he maintained some ties to his roots, even bringing his parents to live with him in the Ottoman capital, where they also converted to Islam. His father took the name Yusuf and joined the Ottoman elite, becoming a governor in Epirus. [6]

On March 15 of 1536, Ibrahim Pasha, at age 43, was strangled to death without explanation by mute executioners at a dinner party on Suleiman's orders. [7]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Turan, Ebru (2009). "The Marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (ca. 1495-1536): The Rise of Sultan Süleyman's Favorite to the Grand Vizierate and the Politics of the Elites in the Early Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Empire". Turcica. 41: 3–36.
    • Şahin, Kaya (2013). Empire and Power in the reign of Süleyman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World. Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN   978-1-107-03442-6.
    • Peirce, Leslie (2017). Empress of the East: How a European Slave Girl Became Queen of the Ottoman Empire. Basic Books. p. 157. Muhsine, granddaughter of an illustrious statesman, is now largely accepted as Ibrahim's wife.
  2. Turan, Ebru (2009). "The Marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (ca. 1495-1536): The Rise of Sultan Süleyman's Favorite to the Grand Vizierate and the Politics of the Elites in the Early Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Empire". Turcica. 41: 5–6. Originally, he probably spoke a Slavic dialect; sources mention that during the peace negotiations with the Habsburgs in 1533 he conversed in his mother tongue with Ferdinand I's representative Jerome of Zara, who was a Croatian... Venetian sources indicate that the pasha could also speak Greek and Albanian.
  3. Turan, Ebru (2009). "The Marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (ca. 1495-1536): The Rise of Sultan Süleyman's Favorite to the Grand Vizierate and the Politics of the Elites in the Early Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Empire". Turcica. 41: 6–9.
  4. Raymond, André (2001). Cairo: City of History. Translated by Willard Wood (Harvard ed.). Cairo, Egypt; New York: American University in Cairo Press. p. 191. ISBN   978-977-424-660-9.
  5. Holt, P. M.; Gray, Richard (1975). Fage, J.D.; Oliver, Roland (eds.). "Egypt, the Funj and Darfur". The Cambridge History of Africa. London, New York, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. IV: 14–57. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521204132.003.
  6. Turan, Ebru (2009). "The Marriage of Ibrahim Pasha (ca. 1495-1536): The Rise of Sultan Süleyman's Favorite to the Grand Vizierate and the Politics of the Elites in the Early Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Empire". Turcica. 41: 6.
  7. "Why did Suleiman the Magnificent have Ibrahim Pasha killed? Did Roxelana really have a lot to do with this and if so why?". Reddit. Retrieved 26 February 2019.

Bibliography


Political offices
Preceded by
Piri Mehmed Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
27 June 1523 – 14 March 1536
Succeeded by
Ayas Mehmed Pasha
Preceded by
Güzelce Kasım Pasha
Ottoman Governor of Egypt
1525
Succeeded by
Güzelce Kasım Pasha