Parliament of India

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Coordinates: 28°37′2″N77°12′29″E / 28.61722°N 77.20806°E / 28.61722; 77.20806


Parliament of India

Bhāratīya Sansad
Emblem of India.svg
Houses Rajya Sabha (Upper house)
Lok Sabha (Lower house)
Founded26 January 1950(71 years ago) (1950-01-26)
Preceded by Constituent Assembly of India
Harivansh Narayan Singh [3] , JDU
since 14 September 2020
Thawar Chand Gehlot [4] , BJP
since 11 June 2019
Ghulam Nabi Azad, INC
since 8 June 2014
since 23 May 2019
Vacant (Since 26 May 2014, No party has 10% Seats)
245 Members of Rajya Sabha
543 Members of Lok Sabha
Rajya Sabha Feb 2021 .svg
Rajya Sabha political groups
Loksabha 2021.svg
Lok Sabha political groups
Single transferable vote
Rajya Sabha last election
2 November 2020
Lok Sabha last election
11 April – 19 May 2019
Rajya Sabha next election
Lok Sabha next election
May 2024
Meeting place
New Delhi government block 03-2016 img3.jpg
Sansad Bhavan, Sansad Marg, New Delhi, India
Constitution of India

The Parliament of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Sansad) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers.

Those elected or nominated (by the President) to either house of Parliament are referred to as Members of Parliament (MP). The Members of Parliament, Lok Sabha are directly elected by the Indian public voting in Single-member districts and the Members of Parliament, Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of all State Legislative Assembly by proportional representation. The Parliament has a sanctioned strength of 543 in Lok Sabha and 245 in Rajya Sabha including the 12 nominees from the expertise of different fields of science, culture, art and history. The Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.


The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India. Following India's independence from Britain in 1947, its members served as the nation's first Parliament.

Parliament House

The Parliament House (Sansad Bhavan) is located in New Delhi. It was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, who were responsible for planning and construction of New Delhi by British government. The construction of building took six years and the opening ceremony was performed on 18 January 1927 by the then Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Lord Irwin. The construction costs for the building were 8.3 million (US$120,000). The parliament is 21 metres (70 ft) tall, 170 metres (560 ft) in diameter and covers an area of 2.4 hectares (6 acres). The Central Hall consists of the chambers of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and the Library hall. Surrounding these three chambers is the four-storeyed circular structure providing accommodations for members and houses Parliamentary committees, offices and the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. [7]

Statue of Chandragupta Maurya at Parliament of India Statue of Chandragupta Maurya at Parliament of India.jpg
Statue of Chandragupta Maurya at Parliament of India

General layout of the Parliament

The centre and the focus of the building is the Central Hall. It consists of chambers of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha, and the Library Hall and between them lie garden courts. Surrounding these three chambers is the four-storeyed circular structure providing accommodations for ministers, chairmen, parliamentary committees, party offices, important offices of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Secretariat, and also the offices of the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. The Central Hall is circular in shape and the dome is 30 metres (98 ft) in diameter. It is a place of historical importance. The Indian Constitution was framed in the Central Hall. The Central Hall was originally used in the library of the erstwhile Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of States. In 1946, it was converted and refurbished into Constituent Assembly Hall. At present, the Central Hall is used for holding joint sittings of both the houses of parliament and also used for address by the President in the commencement of first session after each general election.

Proposal for a new building

Prime Minister Narendra Modi performing the ground-breaking ceremony for the new Parliament Building on 10 December 2020. The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi performing Bhoomi Pujan at the foundation stone laying ceremony of the New Parliament Building, at Sansad Marg, in New Delhi on December 10, 2020 (5).jpg
Prime Minister Narendra Modi performing the ground-breaking ceremony for the new Parliament Building on 10 December 2020.

A new Parliament building may replace the existing complex. The new building is being considered on account of the stability concerns regarding the current complex. [8] A committee to suggest alternatives to the current building has been set up by the Former Speaker, Meira Kumar. The present building, an 85-year-old structure suffers from inadequacy of space to house members and their staff and is thought to suffer from structural issues. The building also needs to be protected because of its heritage tag. [9]

Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation of new Parliament Building. He also performed the ground-breaking ceremony for the building, which is expected to be completed by 2022 at an estimated cost of Rs 971 crore. [10]


The Indian Parliament consists of two houses called the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head.

Sansad seat distribution.png

President of India

The President of India, the head of state, is a component of Parliament. Under Article 60 and Article 111, the President's responsibility is to ensure that laws passed by the Parliament are in accordance with the constitutional mandate and that the stipulated procedure is followed before according his/her approval to the bills. The President of India is elected by the elected members of Parliament of India and the state legislatures and serves for a term of 5 years. [11]

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha (House of the People) or the lower house has 543 members. 543 members are directly elected by citizens of India on the basis of universal adult franchise representing Parliamentary constituencies across the country. Between 1952 and 2020, 2 additional members of the Anglo-Indian community were also nominated by the President of India on the advice of Government of India, which was abolished in January 2020 by the 104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019. [12] Every citizen of India who is over 18 years of age, irrespective of gender, caste, religion, or race and is otherwise not disqualified, is eligible to vote for the Lok Sabha. The Constitution provides that the maximum strength of the House be 552 members. It has a term of five years. To be eligible for membership in the Lok Sabha, a person must be a citizen of India and must be 25 years of age or older, mentally sound, should not be bankrupt, and should not be criminally convicted. The total elective membership is distributed among the states in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each state and the population of the state is, so far as practicable, the same for all states. [13]

Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha (Council of States) or the upper house is a permanent body not subject to dissolution. One third of the members retire every second year, and are replaced by newly elected members. Each member is elected for a term of six years. [14] Its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the states. The Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 250 members. It currently has a sanctioned strength of 245 members, of which 233 are elected from States and Union Territories and 12 are nominated by the President. The number of members from a state depends on its population. The minimum age for a person to become a member of Rajya Sabha is 30 years.

Session of Parliament

The period during which the House meets to conduct its business is called a session. The Constitution empowers the President to summon each House at such intervals that there should not be more than a six-month gap between the two sessions. Hence the Parliament must meet at least twice a year. In India, the Parliament conducts three sessions each year: [15]

Lawmaking procedures

Legislative proposals are brought before either house of the Parliament in the form of a bill. A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, which, when passed by both houses of Parliament and assented to by the President, becomes an Act of Parliament. Money bills must originate in the Lok Sabha. The Council of States can only make recommendations over the bills to the House, within a period of fourteen days. [16]

Parliamentary committees

Parliamentary committees are formed to deliberate specific matters at length. The public is directly or indirectly associated and studies are conducted to help committees arrive at the conclusions. Parliamentary committees are of two kinds: Ad hoc committees and the Standing committees. [17] [18] [19]

Standing committees are permanent committees constituted from time to time in pursuance of the provisions of an act of Parliament or rules of procedure and conduct of business in Parliament. The work of these committees is of a continuing nature. Ad hoc committees are appointed for a specific purpose and they cease to exist when they finish the task assigned to them and submits a report.


On 13 December 2001, Indian Parliament was attacked by an Islamic terrorist group. The perpetrators were Lashkar-e-Taiba (Let) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) terrorists. The attack led to the deaths of five terrorists, six Delhi Police personnel, two Parliament Security Services personnel, and a gardener, which totalled 14 fatalities. The incident led to increased tensions between India and Pakistan, resulting in the India–Pakistan standoff. [20]

Joint Sessions and debates

On 16 November 2016, during the winter session of Indian Parliament, the sittings in both Upper and Lower Houses of Parliament observed strong opposition and uproar by political parties on demonetisation (note ban) initiative by the Narendra Modi Government.

See also

Related Research Articles

Rajya Sabha Upper house of the Parliament of India

The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. It currently has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through Open Ballot while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. The potential seating capacity of the Rajya Sabha is 250, according to article 80 of the Indian Constitution. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with elections every year but almost a third of the 233 designates up for election every two years, specifically in even-numbered years. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, being the lower house of the Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, which is the upper house of Parliament, is not subjected to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President.

Lok Sabha Lower house of the Parliament of India

The Lok Sabha, or House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.

Government of India Legislative, executive and judiciary powers of India

The Government of India, often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of twenty eight states and eight union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. The seat of the Government is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.

India is a country, divided into states and union territories, with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which defines the power distribution among the federal government and the states.

A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the legislature of State government in the Indian system of government. From each constituency, the people elect one representative who then becomes a member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Each state has between seven and nine MLAs for every Member of Parliament (MP) that it has in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's bicameral parliament. There are also members in three unicameral legislatures in Union Territories: the Delhi Legislative Assembly, Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly Puducherry Legislative Assembly.

Parliament House (India) Seat of the Parliament of India in Delhi

The Sansad Bhavan is the seat of the Parliament of India. At a distance of 750 meters from Rashtrapati Bhavan, it is located along Sansad Marg which crosses the Central Vista and is surrounded by the India Gate, war memorial, prime minister's office and residence, ministerial buildings and other administrative units of Indian government. It houses the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha which represent lower and upper houses respectively in India's bicameral parliament.

This is a brief description of the lawmaking procedure in India.

Sushma Swaraj Indian politician

Sushma Swaraj was an Indian politician and a Supreme Court lawyer. A senior leader of Bharatiya Janata Party, Swaraj served as the Minister of External Affairs of India in the first Narendra Modi government (2014–2019). She was the second woman to hold the office, after Indira Gandhi. She was elected seven times as a Member of Parliament and three times as a Member of the Legislative Assembly. At the age of 25 in 1977, she became the youngest cabinet minister of Indian state of Haryana. She also served as 5th Chief Minister of Delhi for a short duration in 1998 and became the First female Chief Minister of Delhi.

Hansraj Gangaram Ahir Indian Politician

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Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (India)

The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs is an Indian government ministry.

Vishvjit Singh

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Central Legislative Assembly Lower house of the British Indian Imperial Legislative Council (1919–1947)

The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house of the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India. It was created by the Government of India Act 1919, implementing the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms. It was also sometimes called the Indian Legislative Assembly and the Imperial Legislative Assembly. The Council of State was the upper house of the legislature for India.

Sanjaya Sinh Indian politician

Sanjaya Sinh is an Indian politician and a former member of the Rajya Sabha. He was twice elected to the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh during the 1980s and held state ministerial posts. In 1990, he became a member of the upper house of the Parliament of India, which is known as the Rajya Sabha, and in 1998 he was elected to the lower house, called the Lok Sabha. His term in the 12th Lok Sabha session lasted until the following year. Subsequently, in 2009, he was successful in obtaining a second term in that house as a member of the 15th Lok Sabha representing the Sultanpur constituency of Uttar Pradesh. He represented the state of Assam in the Rajya Sabha. He resigned from Rajya Sabha and Indian National Congress to join Bharatiya Janata Party on 30 July 2019.

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Rajeev Shankarrao Satav is an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress. He is a member of the Rajya Sabha the upper house of Indian Parliament from Maharashtra.

The President is indirectly elected by means of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of the Parliament of India and the Legislative assemblies of the States of India and the Union territories of Delhi, Jammu & Kashmir, and Puducherry. The number and value of votes are based on the population in 1971 rather than the current population, as a result of the 42nd Amendment, and extended by the 84th Amendment, with the intention to encourage family planning programs in the states by ensuring that states are not penalised for lowering their population growth.

Elections in Bihar

Elections in the state of Bihar, India are conducted in accordance with the Constitution of India. The Assembly of Bihar creates laws regarding the conduct of local body elections unilaterally while any changes by the state legislature to the conduct of state level elections need to be approved by the Parliament of India.

Sansad Ratna Award

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Member of parliament, Lok Sabha Representative of the Indian people in the lower house of the Indian Parliament

A Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of parliament of Lok Sabha are chosen by direct elections on the basis of the adult suffrage. Parliament of India is bicameral with two houses; Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The maximum permitted strength of members of parliament in the Lok Sabha is 550. This includes maximum 530 members to represent the constituencies and states and up to 20 members to represent the union territories. Between 1952 and 2020, two seats were reserved for members of the Anglo-Indian community. The current elected strength of the Lok Sabha is 543. The party—or coalition of parties—having a majority in the Lok Sabha chooses the Prime Minister of India.


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Further reading