Parliament of Romania

Last updated

Parliament of Romania

Parlamentul României
9th Legislature
Coat of arms of Romania.svg
Type
Type
Houses Senatul
Camera Deputaților
History
Founded1862
1990 (current form)
Leadership
Anca Dragu, USR PLUS
since 21 December 2020
Ludovic Orban, PNL
since 22 December 2020
Structure
Seats136 Senators
330 Deputies
Romania Senate 2020.svg
Senate political groups
Government (75)
  •   PNL (41)
  •   USR PLUS (25)
  •   UDMR (9)

Opposition (61)

Romania Chamber of Deputies 2020.svg
Chamber of Deputies political groups
Government (168)

Confidence and supply (18)

Opposition (144)

Elections
1992 – 2008, 2016 – present: Closed list, D'Hondt method
2008 - 2016: Mixed member proportional representation
1992 – 2008, 2016 – present: Closed list, D'Hondt method
2008 - 2016: Mixed member proportional representation
Senate last election
6 December 2020
Chamber of Deputies last election
6 December 2020
Senate next election
6 December 2024
Chamber of Deputies next election
6 December 2024
Meeting place
Avenida de la Union, Bucarest, Rumania, 2016-05-29, DD 57.jpg
Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania
Website
http://www.parlament.ro/

The Parliament of Romania (Romanian : Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat). It meets at the Palace of the Parliament in Bucharest.

Contents

Prior to the modification of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but each house has designated matters it gets to deliberate before the other, in capacity of "deciding chamber" (Romanian : cameră decizională). If that first chamber adopts a law proposal (relating to its competences), it is passed on to the other one, which can approve or reject. If it makes amendments, the bill is sent back to the deciding chamber, the decision of which is final.

In 2009, a referendum was held to consult the population about turning the parliament into a unicameral body and reducing the number of representatives to 300. Although the referendum passed, the results are not binding, a referendum explicitly mentioning the modification of the constitution being required to achieve this. [1]

History

The parliamentary history of Romania starts in May 1831 in Wallachia, where a constitutional document was adopted, Regulamentul Organic ("The Organic Statute" or "The Organic Regulation"); less than a year later, in January 1832, this same statute was implemented in Moldavia as well. The organic regulation laid the foundations for the parliamentary institution in the Romanian Principalities.

The Paris Convention of 19 August 1858 and, especially, Statutul Dezvoltător ("The Expanding Statute") of that convention (which introduced a bicameral parliament, by founding Corpul Ponderator, later renamed Senat), adopted on the initiative of prince (Domnitor) Alexandru Ioan Cuza, by means of a plebiscite in 1864, perfected and enlarged the principle of national representation. Under the political regime established by the Paris Convention, the legislative power faced an obvious process of modernization, and the legislative power as National Representation, which operated in accordance with the organization and operation mode of parliaments in Western Europe at that time. [2]

The historical process of formation of the Parliament of Romania in the modern age strongly boosted the affirmation of national sovereignty, subsequently leading to the Union of the two Principalities, in 1859. Under the dome of the Romanian Parliament, on 9 May 1877, the Declaration of Romania's Independence was read, and, in 1920, the documents of union with Transylvania and Bessarabia under the Treaty of Trianon were read, the formal beginning of Greater Romania.

In February 1938, amid the rather chaotic European political association that eventually led to World War II, King Carol II, who always tended to favor his own personal rule over parliamentarism, imposed a rule of authoritarian monarchy. Under the royal dictatorship, the parliament became merely a decorative body, deprived of its main attributes.

Carol abdicated in September 1940, and the succeeding National Legionary State suspended parliament. The National Legionary State as such lasted less than five months, but it was succeeded by Ion Antonescu's military dictatorship, and parliament remained suspended. After 23 August 1944, under the pressure of Soviet and other communist forces, the parliament was re-organized as a single legislative body, the Assembly of Deputies, changed under the 1948 constitution, into the Great National Assembly, a merely formal body, totally subordinate to the power of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).

The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 opened the road for Romanians to restore authentic pluralistic electoral democracy, respecting human rights, and observing the separation of powers and the rulers' responsibility before representative bodies. Thanks to the documents issued by the provisional revolutionary power, Romania has returned to a bicameral parliamentary system. All these stipulations can be found in the country's new Constitution, approved by referendum in 1991.

During more than a decade of post-communist transition, the Chamber of Deputies and Senate debated and adopted numerous laws and regulations aimed at reforming the entire society on a democratic basis, guaranteeing respect of fundamental human rights, promoting reform and privatization, consolidating market economic institutions and those of a state ruled by law, which led to Romania's integration into such institutions at NATO and the European Union.

List of presidents of the Houses

The 1866, 1923, and 1938 Constitution of Romania state that the assembly presidents are elected at the beginning of each session. This tradition was kept in the early years of the People's Republic. In modern times, both presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate are elected for the entire duration of that house's term. Under special circumstances the presidents of the houses can be revoked.

The political stance of the presidents of the assembly prior to the development of a modern party system is shown by:

  C (Conservative)  MC (Moderate Conservative)
  RL (Radical Liberal)  ML (Moderate Liberal)

The political stance of the presidents of the assembly after the development of a modern party system is shown by:

  PNL = National Liberal Party (present-day)/historical   PC = Conservative Party
  PNR/PȚB/PNȚ/PNȚ-CD = Romanian National Party/Bessarabian Peasants' Party/National Peasants' Party/Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party   PP = People's Party
  PCD = Conservative-Democratic Party   PCP = Progressive Conservative Party
  PND = Democratic Nationalist Party   PNC = National Christian Party
  FRN = National Renaissance Front
(from 1940 PN; Party of the Nation)
  FP = Ploughmen's Front
  PMR = Romanian Workers' Party
(from 1965 PCR; Romanian Communist Party)
  FSN/PD/PDL = National Salvation Front/Democratic Party/Democratic Liberal Party
  PDSR = Party of Social Democracy in Romania
(from 2001 PSD; Social Democratic Party)
  ALDE = Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
  USR PLUS = Save Romania Union and Freedom, Unity and Solidarity Party
  Mil. = Military
  Ind. = Independent

19th Century

El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSEUPPER HOUSE
#NamePortraitBorn-DiedTook officeLeft officeParty#NamePortraitBorn-DiedTook officeLeft officeParty
1862IAssembly of Deputiesnot yet established
1 Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă Nyphon, Metropolitan of Wallachia.jpg 24 January 18622 May 1864Ind.
1864II2 Alexandru Emanoil Florescu No image.svg 1822-190729 December 186425 June 1865CCorpul Ponderator
1 Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă Nyphon, Metropolitan of Wallachia.jpg 6 December 18641 June 1866Ind.
3 Emanoil Costache Epureanu Manolache Costache Epureanu.jpg 1823–188012 December 18653 January 1866C
4 Nicolae Catargiu No image.svg 1830–18829 January 186612 February 1866C
1866
(Apr)
III(3) Emanoil Costache Epureanu Manolache Costache Epureanu.jpg 1823–18809 May 18666 July 1866CSenat
(1) Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă Nyphon, Metropolitan of Wallachia.jpg 1 June 18666 June 1868Ind.
1866
(Nov)
IV5 Lascăr Catargiu Lascarcatargiu.jpg 1823–189912 December 18661 November 1867C
6 Anastasie Fătu A. Fetul ca. 1850.png 1816–188615 January 186815 November 1868RL2 Ștefan Golescu Stefan Golescu desen.png 1809–18746 September 186815 November 1868RL
7 Ion C. Brătianu Ion C. Bratianu 01.png 1821–189118 November 186829 January 1869RL3 Nicolae Golescu Nicolae Golescu desen.png 1810–187718 November 18689 July 1869RL
1869V8 Costache Negri Costache Negri.jpg 1812–18768 May 186917 November 1869ML4 Alexandru Plagino D. William - Alexandre Const. Plagino - Ancien Ministre des affaires etrangeres.jpg 1821–18942 September 18694 March 1871MC
9 Grigore Balș No image.svg -189520 November 18691 May 1870MC
1870VI10 Gheorghe Costa-Foru No image.svg 1820–18762 July 18703 February 1871C
11 Nicolae Pǎcleanu No image.svg 5 February 187116 March 1871RL
1871VII12 Dimitrie Ghica Dimitrie Ghica.jpg 1816–189726 May 187117 February 1876C(1) Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusailă Nyphon, Metropolitan of Wallachia.jpg 4 March 18715 May 1875Ind.
1875VIII5 Metropolitan-primate Calinic Miclescu Carol Popp de Szathmary - Miclescu Calinic.jpg 9 June 187525 March 1879Ind.
13 Constantin N. Brăiloiu No image.svg 1809/10 - 188918 February 18763 May 1876C
1876IX14 Constantin A. Rosetti Constantin Alexandru Rosetti.jpg 1816–188525 June 187626 May 1878 PNL
15 Gheorghe Vernescu D. William - G. Vernesco - Ancien Ministre et Depute.jpg 1829–19006 June 187815 November 1878 PNL
(14) Constantin A. Rosetti Constantin Alexandru Rosetti.jpg 1816–188517 November 18789 June 1881 PNL
1879X6 Constantin Bosianu Constantin Bosianu.jpg 1815–188225 May 187915 November 1879 PNL
7 Dimitrie Ghica Dimitrie Ghica.jpg 1816–189717 November 18798 September 1888 PNL
1881XI16 Dimitrie C. Brǎtianu Dimitrie Bratianu.png 1818–18929 June 188121 October 1882 PNL
17 Dimitrie Lecca No image.svg 1832–188821 October 18825 March 1883 PNL
1883XII(14) Constantin A. Rosetti Constantin Alexandru Rosetti.jpg 1816–188516 May 188317 October 1883 PNL
(17) Dimitrie Lecca No image.svg 1832–188819 October 18834 July 1888 PNL
1884XIII
1888XIV(5) Lascăr Catargiu Lascarcatargiu.jpg 1823–189910 November 188814 January 1889 PC 8 Ion Emanoil Florescu Emanoil Ion Florescu 01.jpg 1819–18934 November 18887 December 1889 PC
18 Constantin Grădișteanu No image.svg 1833–189019 January 188916 November 1889 PC 9 Nicolae Crețulescu Nicolae Cretulescu.jpg 1812–190013 December 18896 June 1890 PC
19 Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino Cantacuzino.jpg 1833–191316 November 188922 February 1891 PC (8) Ion Emanoil Florescu Emanoil Ion Florescu 01.jpg 1819–189317 November 189021 February 1891 PC
1891XV20 Gheorghe Rosnovanu No image.svg 1832–19043 May 189111 December 1891 PC 10 Constantin Boerescu No image.svg 1845–19281 March 189111 December 1891 PC
1892XVI21 Gheorghe Manu Gheorghe Manu.jpg 1833–191126 February 189224 October 1895 PC 11 Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino Cantacuzino.jpg 1833–191325 February 189224 October 1895 PC
1895XVII22 Petre S. Aurelian Petre S Aurelian.jpg 1833–19099 December 189521 November 1896 PNL (7) Dimitrie Ghica Dimitrie Ghica.jpg 1816–18979 December 189515 February 1897 PNL
12 Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza Sturdza.jpg 1833–191420 February 189731 March 1897 PNL
23 Dimitrie Gianni No image.svg 1832–190223 November 189621 April 1899 PNL 13 Eugeniu Stătescu Eugeniu Statescu.jpg 1836–190531 March 189718 November 1897 PNL
14 Nicolae Gane Nicolae Gane - Foto02.jpg 1838–191618 November 189721 April 1899 PNL
1899XVIII24 Constantin Olănescu No image.svg 1845–192813 June 189921 September 1900 PC (10) Constantin Boerescu No image.svg 1836–190813 June 189914 February 1901 PC
(19) Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino Cantacuzino.jpg 1833–191325 September 190014 February 1901 PC

20th Century

El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSEUPPER HOUSE
#NamePortraitBorn-DiedTook officeLeft officeParty#NamePortraitBorn-DiedTook officeLeft officeParty
1901XIXAssembly of DeputiesSenate
25 Mihail Pherekyde 1910 - Mihail Pherekide - presedintele Camerei Deputatilor.PNG 1842–192624 March 19019 December 1904 PNL (13) Eugeniu Stătescu Eugeniu Statescu.jpg 1836–190524 March 190115 November 1902 PNL
26 Ștefan Șendrea No image.svg 1842–19079 December 190423 December 1904 PNL 15 Petre S. Aurelian Petre S Aurelian.jpg 1833–190916 November 190223 December 1904 PNL
1905XX27 Grigore Trandafil No image.svg 1840–190725 February 190523 February 1907 PC (10) Constantin Boerescu No image.svg 1836–190825 February 190526 April 1907 PC
28 Constantin Cantacuzino-Pașcanu No image.svg 1856–192726 February 190726 April 1907 PC
1907XXI(25) Mihail Pherekyde 1910 - Mihail Pherekide - presedintele Camerei Deputatilor.PNG 1842–19268 June 190715 December 1909 PNL (15) Petre S. Aurelian Petre S Aurelian.jpg 1833–19099 June 190724 January 1909 PNL
29 Basile M. Missir No image.svg 1843–192915 December 190916 February 1910 PNL
(25) Mihail Pherekyde 1910 - Mihail Pherekide - presedintele Camerei Deputatilor.PNG 1842–192616 February 191010 January 1911 PNL 16 Constantin Budișteanu No image.svg 1838–191128 January 190910 January 1911 PNL
1911XXII(24) Constantin Olănescu No image.svg 1845–19288 March 191117 October 1912 PC (11) Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino Cantacuzino.jpg 1833–191310 March 191123 March 1913 PC
1912XXIII(28) Constantin Cantacuzino-Pașcanu No image.svg 1856–19271 December 191211 January 1914 PCD
17 Theodor Rosetti Teodor Rosetti.jpg 1837–193227 March 19133 July 1913 PC
18 Ion Lahovari Nicolae Petrescu Gaina - Ion Lahovari.jpg 1844–19153 July 191311 January 1914 PC
1914XXIV(25) Mihail Pherekyde 1910 - Mihail Pherekide - presedintele Camerei Deputatilor.PNG 1842–192621 February 191411 December 1916 PNL 19 Basile M. Missir No image.svg 1843–192921 February 19149 December 1916 PNL
30 Vasile C. Morțun 1910 - Vasile G Mortun - ministrul lucrarilor publice.PNG 1860–191911 December 191625 April 1918 PNL 20 Emanoil Porumbaru Emanoil Porumbaru - Foto01.jpg 1845–19219 December 191625 April 1918 PNL
1918XXV31 Constantin Meissner No image.svg 1854–19425 June 19185 November 1918 PCP 21 Dimitrie I. Dobrescu No image.svg 1869–19484 June 19185 November 1918 PCP
1919XXVI32 Alexandru Vaida-Voevod Vaida-Voevod.jpg 1872–195028 November 19191 December 1919 PNR 22 Paul Bujor No image.svg 1862 - 195228 December 191826 March 1920 PȚB
33 Nicolae Iorga RetratoNicolaeIorga.png 1871–19409 December 191926 March 1920 PND
1920XXVII34 Duiliu Zamfirescu Duiliu Zamfirescu - Foto01.jpg 1858–192230 June 192022 January 1922 PP 23 Constantin Coandă Constantin Coanda.jpg 1857–193222 June 192022 January 1922 PP
1922XXVIII35 Mihail Orleanu 1910 - Mihail Orleanu - ministrul industriei si comertului.PNG 1859–19426 April 192227 March 1926 PNL 24 Mihail Pherekyde 1910 - Mihail Pherekide - presedintele Camerei Deputatilor.PNG 1842–192631 March 192224 January 1926 PNL
25 Constantin I. Nicolaescu No image.svg 1861–19453 February 192627 March 1926 PNL
1926XXIX36 Petre P. Negulescu No image.svg 1870–195110 July 19265 June 1927 PP (23) Constantin Coandă Constantin Coanda.jpg 1857–19328 July 19265 June 1927 PP
1927XXX37 Nicolae Săveanu No image.svg 1866–195230 July 192710 November 1928 PNL 26 Constantin I. Nicolaescu No image.svg 1861–194518 June 192710 November 1928 PNL
1928XXXI38 Ștefan Cicio Pop No image.svg 1865–193423 December 192830 April 1931 PNȚ 27 Traian Bratu TBratu.jpg 1875–194023 December 192830 April 1931 PNȚ
1931XXXII39 Dimitrie Pompeiu DimitriePompeiu.jpg 1873–195420 June 193110 June 1932 PND 28 Mihail Sadoveanu Mihail Sadoveanu (cropped).jpg 1880–196118 June 193110 June 1932Ind.
1932XXXIII(38) Ștefan Cicio Pop No image.svg 1865–193410 August 193218 November 1933 PNȚ 29 Neculai Costăchescu No image.svg 1876–19394 August 193218 November 1933 PNȚ
1933XXXIV(37) Nicolae Săveanu No image.svg 1866–195210 February 193419 November 1937 PNL 31 Leonte Moldovan No image.svg 1865–194310 February 193415 November 1935 PNL
1934XXXV
32 Constantin Dimitriu-Dovlecel No image.svg 1872–194515 November 193515 November 1936 PNL
33 Alexandru Lapedatu Alexandru I. Lapedatu sitting.png 16 November 193620 March 1937 PNL
1937XXXVI
1939XXXVII(32) Alexandru Vaida-Voevod Vaida-Voevod.jpg 1872–19509 June 19395 September 1940 FRN/PN 34 Nicolae Iorga RetratoNicolaeIorga.png 1871–19409 June 193913 June 1939Ind.
35 Constantin Argetoianu Constantin Argetoianu. Portret fotografic..jpg 1871–195515 June 19395 August 1940 FNR/PN
1946XXXVIII40 Mihail Sadoveanu Mihail Sadoveanu (cropped).jpg 1880–19615 December 194624 February 1948 BPD suspended
1948XXXIXGreat National Assemblydisbanded
41 Gheorghe Apostol Gheorghe Apostol.jpg 1913–20107 April 194811 June 1948 PMR
42 Constantin Agiu Constantin Agiu.jpg 1891–196111 June 194827 December 1948 PMR
43 Constantin Pârvulescu Constantin Pirvulescu.jpg 1895–199227 December 19485 July 1949 PMR
44 Dumitru Petrescu No image.svg 5 July 194928 December 1949 PMR
45 Alexandru Drǎghici No image.svg 28 December 194926 January 1950 PMR
(44) Dumitru Petrescu No image.svg 26 January 195029 May 1950 PMR
46 Constantin Doncea No image.svg 1904–197329 May 19506 September 1950 PMR
(41) Gheorghe Apostol Gheorghe Apostol.jpg 1913–20106 September 19505 April 1951 PMR
47 Ioan Vințe No image.svg 1910–19965 April 195126 March 1952 PMR
(41) Gheorghe Apostol Gheorghe Apostol.jpg 1913–201026 March 19526 June 1952 PMR
48 Gheorghe Stoica No image.svg 2 June 195230 November 1952 PMR
1952XL(45) Constantin Pârvulescu Constantin Pirvulescu.jpg 1895–199223 January 19535 March 1961 PMR
1957XLI
1961XLII
49 Ștefan Voitec No image.svg 1900–198420 March 196128 March 1974 PMR/PCR
1965XLIII
1969XLIV
50 Miron Constantinescu Miron Constantinescu.jpg 1917–197428 March 197418 July 1974 PCR
51 Nicolae Giosan No image.svg 26 July 197412 December 1989 PCR
1975XLV
1980XLVI
1985XLVII
1990XLVIIIAssembly of DeputiesSenate
52 Marțian Dan No image.svg 1935–2002 [3] 19 June 199016 October 1992 FSN 35 Alexandru Bârlădeanu Alexandru Barladeanu.jpg 1911–199718 June 199016 October 1992 FSN
1992XLIXChamber of Deputies36 Oliviu Gherman No image.svg 1930–202022 October 199222 November 1996 FDSN/PDSR
53 Adrian Năstase Adrian Nastase3.jpg 1950–28 October 199222 November 1996 FDSN/PDSR
1996L54 Ion Diaconescu Ion Diaconescu.jpg 1917–201127 November 199630 November 2000 PNȚ-CD 37 Petre Roman Petre Roman.jpg 1946–27 November 199622 December 1999 PD
38 Mircea Ionescu-Quintus No image.svg 1917–20174 February 200030 November 2000 PNL
2000LI55 Valer Dorneanu No image.svg 1944–15 December 200030 November 2004 PDSR/PSD 39 Nicolae Văcăroiu Nicolae Vacaroiu.jpg 1943–15 December 200014 October 2008 PDSR/PSD

21st Century

El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSEUPPER HOUSE
#NamePortraitBorn-DiedTook officeLeft officeParty#NamePortraitBorn-DiedTook officeLeft officeParty
2004LIIChamber of DeputiesSenate
(53) Adrian Năstase Adrian Nastase3.jpg 1950–19 December 200416 March 2006 PSD 39 Nicolae Văcăroiu Nicolae Vacaroiu.jpg 1943–15 December 200014 October 2008 PDSR/PSD
56 Bogdan Olteanu Bogdan Olteanu.png 1971–20 March 200613 December 2008 PNL
Doru Ioan Tărăcilă
(acting)
No image.svg 1951–14 October 200828 October 2008 PSD
40 Ilie Sârbu Ilie Sarbu.jpg 1950–28 October 200813 December 2009 PSD
2008LIII57 Roberta Anastase Roberta Anastase.jpg 1976–19 December 20083 July 2012 PDL 41 Mircea Geoană Mircea Geoana la reuniunea BPN - 02.12.2013 (11173070964) (cropped 2).jpg 1958–19 December 200923 November 2011 PSD
Petru Filip (acting) No image.svg 1955–23 November 201128 November 2011 PDL
43 Vasile Blaga Vasile Blaga 2012-10-18.jpg 1956–28 November 20113 July 2012 PDL
58 Valeriu Zgonea Vizita Presedintelui Camerei Deputatilor Valeriu Zgonea la Slobozia2 (14278114469) (cropped).jpg 1967–3 July 201220 December 2012 PSD 44 Crin Antonescu Crin Antonescu.jpg 1959–3 July 201220 December 2012 PNL
2012 LIV20 December 201213 June 201619 December 20124 March 2014
Cristian Dumitrescu Cristian Dumitrescu.jpg 1955–5 March 201410 March 2014 PSD
45 Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu Victor Ponta la semnarea declaratiei politice privind infiintarea USL 2.0 - 14.11 (4) (15621866127) (cropped 2).jpg 1952–10 March 201421 December 2016Ind./PLR/ALDE
Florin Iordache HANDSHAKE - BRATISLAVA INFORMAL PARLIAMENTARY SUMMIT 2016-10-07 (30166706425) (cropped).jpg 1960–13 June 2016September 2016 PSD
59 Florin Iordache September 201621 December 2016
2016 LV60 Liviu Dragnea Conferinta de presa la sediul PSD Arad - 22.05 (7) (14465750525).jpg 1962–21 December 201627 May 2019 PSD 21 December 20162 September 2019 ALDE
61 Marcel Ciolacu Marcel Ciolacu.png 1967–29 May 201921 December 2020 PSD
Șerban Valeca  [ ro ]1956–2 September 201910 September 2019 PSD
46 Teodor Meleșcanu Teodor Melescanu in 2017.jpg 1941–10 September 20193 February 2020 Ind. with
PSD support
Titus Corlățean Titus Corlatean.jpg 1968–3 February 20209 April 2020 PSD
Robert Cazanciuc 1971–9 April 202021 December 2020 PSD
2020 LVI62 Ludovic Orban OrbanLudovicRO.jpg 1963–22 December 2020present PNL 47 Anca Dragu Anca-paliu-dragu.jpg 1972–21 December 2020present USR PLUS

Functioning

Prior to the modifications of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. This French procedure proved to be extremely long and inefficient with respect to the expectations of the Romanians towards democracy.

After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but in some matters one is "superior" to the other, being called "decision chamber" ("cameră decizională"). This eliminates the process of "negotiation" between the two houses, and keeps the Senate as the upper house and the Chamber as the lower house.

Committies

Committees of the Chamber of Deputies (15):
– The committee for legal affairs, appointments, discipline, immunities and validations;
– Committee on Budget, finance, banking and capital market;
– The commission for economy, industry and services;
– Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development;
– The Committee on Foreign Affairs;
– Committee on public administration, the territory and environmental protection;
– The commission for defense, public order and national security;
– Commission for work, family and social protection;
– Committee for Education, Science, Youth and Sports;
– Committee on Public Health;
– Committee for culture, art and media information in the table;
– Commission on Human Rights, religious and minority;
– The Committee on Equal Opportunities;
– Commission for privatization and management of state assets;
– Committee on research abuses, corruption and petitions.

Committees of the Senate (14):
– Committee for Economic Policy, Reform, and Privatization;
– Committee for Budget, Finance, and, Banks, Committee for Industries and Services, Committee for Agriculture, Forestry, Food Industry and Specific Services;
– Committee for Human Rights, Cults and National Minorities Issues;
– Committee for Public Administration Territorial Planning and Ecological Balance;
– Committee for Labour and Social Protection, Committee for Health and Family;
– Committee for Education, Science, Youth, and Sport;
– Committee for Culture, Arts, Mass Information Means;
– Committee for Legal Matters, Discipline, and Immunities;
– Committee for Defense Public Order, and National Security;
– Committee for Foreign Policy;
– Committee for the Investigation of Abuses, Corrupt Practices, and for Petitions;
– Committee for Standing Orders;
– Committee for information technologies and communications;
– Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men.

Joint committees :
Standing committees:
– The Committee on European Affairs;
– The former Committee for European Integration;
– The Joint Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for the exercise of parliamentary control over the activity of the Romanian Intelligent Service;
– The Joint Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for the exercise of parliamentary control over the activity of the Foreign Intelligent Service;
– The Parliamentary Committee for the control of the implementation of the Law no.42/1990 for honoring the martyr heroes and granting rights to their successors, to the persons wounded in, and to the fighters for the victory of the Revolution of December 1990;
– The Joint Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for the statute of the Senator and Deputy, and organizing and functioning of the joint sessions of the Chambers;
– The Joint Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for the relation with UNESCO.

Special committees:
– The Joint Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for the elaboration of the legislative proposal regarding the election of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, of the President of Romania, of the authorities of the public local administration, financing of the elections campaign, and the election of the members of the European Parliament;
– The Joint Special Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for the control of the budget execution of the Court of Accounts during the year 2003;
– The Joint Special Standing Committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate for establishing the antenna times for the election of the Romanian Members of the European Parliament;
– The Joint Special Standing Committee of Parliament for the antenna times for the national referendum regarding the introduction of the uninominal election of the members of the Parliament of Romania.

Inquiry committees:
– The parliamentary inquiry committee for investigations and clarifying the status of the bank accounts of Nicolae Ceaușescu;
– The parliamentary inquiry committee for investigations and clarifying the activity of ICE Dunărea;
– The parliamentary inquiry committee for investigations regarding interception of communications;
– The parliamentary inquiry committee of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate regarding the Bordei Park;
– The parliamentary inquiry committee for investigations and clarifying the spending way of the money obtained as a 2% quota from the privatization value, destined to the building of social housing, as established by the article 44, 2nd paragraph of the Law 10/2001 regarding the judiciary regime of the buildings abusively acquired by the state in the period 6 March 1945 – 22 December 1989, republished.

Composition

2020–2024

Seats in the Senate of Romania

e    d  
Party Election seating LostWonPresent seating
Seats %Seats %
  Social Democratic Party 4734.55%004734.55%
  National Liberal Party 4130.14%004130.14%
USR PLUS 2518.38%002518.38%
Alliance for the Union of Romanians 1410.29%011310.29%
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 96.61%0096.61%
Total136100136100

Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania

e    d  
Party Election seating LostWonPresent seating
Seats %Seats %
  Social Democratic Party 11033.33%0410633.11%
  National Liberal Party 9328.18%119328.18%
USR PLUS 5516.66%005516.66%
Alliance for the Union of Romanians 3310%023110%
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 216.4%01206.36%
  Parties of ethnic minorities 185.45%01185.45%
Total330100330100

2016–2020

Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania

e    d  
Party Election seating LostWonPresent seating
Seats %Seats %
  Social Democratic Party 15446.95%21013340.43%
  National Liberal Party 6921%2158224.92%
  Save Romania Union 309.15%30278.20%
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 216.4%00216.38%
  Alliance of Liberals and Democrats 206.1%74144.26%
  People's Movement Party 185.5%60154.55%
  Independents 2383610.94%
  Parties of ethnic minorities 175.17%00175.17%
Total329100329100

2008–2012

e    d  Seats in the Senate of Romania, 6th legislature
Party Election seating LostWonPresent seating
Seats %Seats %
  Democratic Liberal Party 5137.22%1923525.54%
  Social Democratic Party 4935.76%1534029.19%
  National Liberal Party 2820.43%1642719.70%
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 96.57%2075.10%
  National Union for the Progress of Romania 412128.75%
  Independents 221.45%
 Vacant seats14
Total137100137100
e    d  Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania, 6th legislature
Parliamentary Group Election seating LostWonPresent
Seats %Seats %
  Democratic Liberal Party 11534.43%291210631.73%
  Social Democratic Party 11434.13%2929127.24%
  National Liberal Party 6519.46%2165616.76%
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 226.58%20205.98%
  Ethnic minorities parties 185.39%20164.79%
  National Union for the Progress of Romania 1616123.59%
  Independents 82.39%
 Vacant seats25
Total334100334100

2004–2008

Party % of seatsSeats
  Social Democratic Party 32.31105
  Democratic Liberal Party 20.6267
  National Liberal Party 18.1559
  Greater Romania Party 6.7722
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 6.7722
  Conservative Party 5.8519
  Parties of ethnic minorities 5.5418
  Independents 4.0013
Total100325

2000–2004

Party % of seatsSeats
  Social Democratic Party 44.92155
  Greater Romania Party 24.3484
  Democratic Party 8.9831
  National Liberal Party 8.6930
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 7.8227
  Parties of ethnic minorities 5.2118
Total100345

1996–2000

Party % of seatsSeats
Romanian Democratic Convention 35.56122
  Party of Social Democracy in Romania 26.5391
  Social Democratic Union 15.4553
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 7.2825
  Greater Romania Party 5.5319
  Romanian National Unity Party 5.2418
  Parties of ethnic minorities 4.3715
Total100343

1992–1996

Party % of seatsSeats
  Democratic National Salvation Front 34.31117
Romanian Democratic Convention 24.0482
  National Salvation Front 12.6043
  Romanian National Unity Party 8.7930
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 7.9127
  Greater Romania Party 4.6916
Socialist Party of Labour 3.8113
  Parties of ethnic minorities 3.8113
Total100341

1990–1992

Party % of seatsSeats
  National Salvation Front 66.41263
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 7.3229
  National Liberal Party 7.3229
Ecological Movement of Romania 3.0312
  Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 3.0312
Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party 3.0312
  Others 9.8639
  Parties of ethnic minorities 3.0312
Total100396

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References

  1. For the modification of the structure of parliament, a constitutional amendment is needed. (euractiv.ro)
  2. "Governmental responsibility and parliamentary irresponsibility in the Romanian constitutional tradition by radu Carp". Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  3. Ultimul up-date 12:44 GMT+2. "Dan Martian, ambasadorul Romaniei in Portugalia, a decedat - Ziarul de Iasi". Ziaruldeiasi.ro. Retrieved 8 November 2012.

Coordinates: 44°25′38″N26°05′15″E / 44.42722°N 26.08750°E / 44.42722; 26.08750