Parmigianino

Last updated
Parmigianino
Parmigianino Selfportrait.jpg
Born
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola

(1503-01-11)11 January 1503
Died24 August 1540(1540-08-24) (aged 37)
Nationality Italian
Known for Painting, etching
Notable work Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror
Vision of Saint Jerome
Madonna with the Long Neck
Movement Mannerist

Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (11 January 1503 24 August 1540), also known as Francesco Mazzola or, more commonly, as Parmigianino ( UK: /ˌpɑːrmɪæˈnn/ , [2] US: /-ɑːˈ-/ , [3] Italian:  [parmidʒaˈniːno] ; "the little one from Parma"), was an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma. His work is characterized by a "refined sensuality" and often elongation of forms and includes Vision of Saint Jerome (1527) and the iconic if somewhat anomalous Madonna with the Long Neck (1534), and he remains the best known artist of the first generation whose whole careers fall into the Mannerist period. [4]

Contents

His prodigious and individual talent has always been recognised, but his career was disrupted by war, especially the Sack of Rome in 1527, three years after he moved there, and then ended by his death at only 37. He produced outstanding drawings, and was one of the first Italian painters to experiment with printmaking himself. While his portable works have always been keenly collected and are now in major museums in Italy and around the world, his two large projects in fresco are in a church in Parma and a palace in a small town nearby. This in conjunction with their lack of large main subjects has resulted in their being less well known than other works by similar artists. He painted a number of important portraits, leading a trend in Italy towards the three-quarters or full-length figure, previously mostly reserved for royalty.

Bardi Altarpiece (1521) Parmigianino, pala di bardi.jpg
Bardi Altarpiece (1521)

Early years

Parmigianino was the eighth child of Filippo Mazzola and one Donatella Abbati. His father died of the plague two years after Parmigianino's birth, and the children were raised by their uncles, Michele and Pier Ilario, who according to Vasari were modestly talented artists. [5] In 1515, his uncle received a commission from Nicolò Zangrandi for the decoration of a chapel in San Giovanni Evangelista; a work later completed by a young Parmigianino. By the age of eighteen, he had already completed the Bardi Altarpiece . In 1521, Parmigianino was sent to Viadana (along with painter Girolamo Bedoli who was to marry his cousin) to escape the wars between the French, Imperial, and papal armies. In Viadana, he painted two panels in tempera, depicting Saint Francis for the church of the Frati de' Zoccoli, and the Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine for San Pietro. He also worked in San Giovanni and met Correggio, who was at work on the fresco decorations of the cupola.

Work in Fontanellato and travel to Rome

Vision of Saint Jerome (detail) Parmigianino, visione di san girolamo 03.jpg
Vision of Saint Jerome (detail)

In 1524, he traveled to Rome with five small paintings, including the Circumcision of Jesus and his Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror , seeking patronage of the Medici pope, Clement VII. Vasari records that in Rome, Parmigianino was "celebrated as a Raphael reborn". In January 1526, Parmigianino and his uncle, Pier Ilario, agreed with Maria Bufalina from Città di Castello, to decorate the church of San Salvatore in Lauro with an altarpiece of the Vision of Saint Jerome (1526–27, National Gallery, London). Within a year, the Sack of Rome caused Parmigianino, and many other artists, to flee.

Bologna and return to Parma

He resided in Bologna for nearly three years. At around 1528, he painted the Madonna and Child with Saints (Pinacoteca, Bologna), then later in 1528, he painted Madonna con la Rosa (Dresden) and Madonna with Saint Zachariah (Uffizi). By 1530 Parmigianino had returned to Parma.

In 1531, Parmigianino received a commission for two altarpieces, depicting Saint Joseph and Saint John the Baptist, from the unfinished church of Santa Maria della Steccata. The brotherhood overseeing the church advanced him salary and promised him the supplies and materials; however, by 1535, the project was unfinished. In December, he nominated Don Nicola Cassola, a Parman cleric at the Roman Curia, to act as his legal representative. Parmigianino authorized him to collect the 50 gold scudi from Bonifazio Gozzadini for the Madonna with St. John the Baptist and St. Zacharias.

In 1534, it was decided that the Madonna dal collo lungo (the Madonna with the Long Neck) would hang in the chapel of the family of Elena Baiardi.

Parmigianino had probably expected to succeed Correggio in the favour of the church. However, in April 1538, the administrative offices commissioned initially Giorgio Gandini del Grano, then Girolamo Bedoli, to decorate the apse and choir of the Parma Cathedral.

It is believed that at this time, he became a devotee of alchemy. Vasari hypothesizes that this was due to his fascination with magic. Scholars now agree that Parmigianino's scientific interests may have been due to his obsession with trying to find a new medium for his etchings.[ citation needed ] As a result of his alchemical researches, he completed little work in the church. He was imprisoned for two months for breach of contract after the Confraternita decided unanimously to ban him from continuing in their church. He was replaced between 1539 and 1540 by Giulio Romano, who also promptly withdrew from the contract.

Parmigianino died of a fever in Casalmaggiore on 24 August 1540 at the age of 37 years. He is buried in the church of the Servite Friars "naked with a cross made of cypress wood on his chest".

Among those closely influenced by Parmigianino were his cousin Girolamo Mazzuoli and Girolamo's son Alessandro Mazzuoli; Pomponeo Amidano; Giacomo Bertoia; and Francesco Borgani. [6]

Works

Self-portrait with red beret (1540) Parmigianino Selfportrait 1540.jpg
Self-portrait with red beret (1540)
Portrait of Galeazzo Sanvitale, 1524, Museo di Capodimonte Il Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola 1503-1540) - ritratto di Galeazzo Sanvitale (1524) - Museo di Capodimonte Napoli.jpg
Portrait of Galeazzo Sanvitale , 1524, Museo di Capodimonte

Parmigianino was also an early Italian etcher, a technique that was pioneered in Italy by Marcantonio Raimondi, but which appealed to draughtsmen. Though the techniques of printing the copper plates required special skills, the ease with which acid, as a substitute for ink, could reproduce the spontaneity of an artist's hand attracted Parmigianino, a "master of elegant figure drawing". [7] Parmigianino also designed chiaroscuro woodcuts, and although his output was small he had a considerable influence on Italian printmaking. Some of his prints were done in collaboration with Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio.

Selected works

See also

Notes

  1. Oil on wood, diameter 24.4 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  2. "Parmigianino". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2021-09-27.
  3. "Parmigianino". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  4. Hartt, pp. 568–578, 578 quoted
  5. Vasari, Giorgio (Bull, George, translator) (1988). Lives of the Artists: Volume 2, pp. 185–99. Penguin Classics. ISBN   0-14-044460-2.
  6. The picture amateur's handbook and dictionary of painters, by Philippe Daryl and Paschal Grousset, Londong, 1878.
  7. Michelle Leicht, "Correggio and Parmigianino", exhibition, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001 (on-line review)

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antonio da Correggio</span> Italian Renaissance painter (1489–1534)

Antonio Allegri da Correggio, usually known as just Correggio, was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the High Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the sixteenth century. In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Baroque art of the seventeenth century and the Rococo art of the eighteenth century. He is considered a master of chiaroscuro.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Annibale Carracci</span> Bolognese painter (1560–1609)

Annibale Carracci was an Italian painter and instructor, active in Bologna and later in Rome. Along with his brother and cousin, Annibale was one of the progenitors, if not founders of a leading strand of the Baroque style, borrowing from styles from both north and south of their native city, and aspiring for a return to classical monumentality, but adding a more vital dynamism. Painters working under Annibale at the gallery of the Palazzo Farnese would be highly influential in Roman painting for decades.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andrea Mantegna</span> Italian Renaissance painter (1431–1506)

Andrea Mantegna was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Luca Signorelli</span> Italian Renaissance painter

Luca Signorelli was an Italian Renaissance painter who was noted in particular for his ability as a draftsman and his use of foreshortening. His massive frescoes of the Last Judgment (1499–1503) in Orvieto Cathedral are considered his masterpiece.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antonello da Messina</span> 15th-century Italian painter

Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina, was an Italian painter from Messina, active during the Early Italian Renaissance. His work shows strong influences from Early Netherlandish painting, although there is no documentary evidence that he ever travelled beyond Italy. Giorgio Vasari credited him with the introduction of oil painting into Italy, although this is now disputed. Unusually for a southern Italian artist of the Renaissance, his work proved influential on painters in northern Italy, especially in Venice.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lorenzo Lotto</span> Italian painter

Lorenzo Lotto was an Italian painter, draughtsman, and illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school, though much of his career was spent in other north Italian cities. He painted mainly altarpieces, religious subjects and portraits. He was active during the High Renaissance and the first half of the Mannerist period, but his work maintained a generally similar High Renaissance style throughout his career, although his nervous and eccentric posings and distortions represented a transitional stage to the Florentine and Roman Mannerists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antonis Mor</span> Painter from the Northern Netherlands (1519–1575)

Anthonis Mor, also known as Anthonis Mor van Dashorst and Antonio Moro, was a Netherlandish portrait painter, much in demand by the courts of Europe. He has also been referred to as Antoon, Anthonius, Anthonis or Mor van Dashorst, and as Antonio Moro, António Mouro, Anthony More, etc., but signed most of his portraits as Anthonis Mor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pietro Perugino</span> Italian Renaissance painter

Pietro Perugino, born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moretto da Brescia</span> Italian painter

Alessandro Bonvicino, more commonly known as Moretto, or in Italian Il Moretto da Brescia, was an Italian Renaissance painter from Brescia, where he also mostly worked. His dated works span the period from 1524 to 1554, but he was already described as a master in 1516. He was mainly a painter of altarpieces that tend towards sedateness, mostly for churches in and around Brescia, but also in Bergamo, Milan, Verona and Asola; many remain in the churches they were painted for. Most are on canvas, but a number even of large ones are on wood panel. Only a handful of drawings survive.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bronzino</span> Italian Mannerist painter (1503–1572)

Agnolo di Cosimo, usually known as Bronzino or Agnolo Bronzino, was an Italian Mannerist painter from Florence. His sobriquet, Bronzino, may refer to his relatively dark skin or reddish hair.

Andrea Solari (1460–1524) was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Milanese school. He was initially named Andre del Gobbo, but more confusingly as Andrea del Bartolo a name shared with two other Italian painters, the 14th-century Siennese Andrea di Bartolo, and the 15th-century Florentine Andrea di Bartolo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Raffaellino del Garbo</span> Italian painter

Raffaellino del Garbo was a Florentine painter of the early Renaissance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Museo di Capodimonte</span> Art museum and historic site in Naples, Italy

Museo di Capodimonte is an art museum located in the Palace of Capodimonte, a grand Bourbon palazzo in Naples, Italy. The museum is the prime repository of Neapolitan painting and decorative art, with several important works from other Italian schools of painting, and some important ancient Roman sculptures. It is one of the largest museums in Italy. The museum was inaugurated in 1957.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andrea del Sarto</span> Italian painter (1486-1530)

Andrea del Sarto was an Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism. He was known as an outstanding fresco decorator, painter of altar-pieces, portraitist, draughtsman, and colorist. Although highly regarded during his lifetime as an artist senza errori, his renown was eclipsed after his death by that of his contemporaries Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

<i>Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror</i> Painting by Parmigianino

Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror is a painting by the Italian late Renaissance artist Parmigianino. It is housed in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.

<i>Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist</i> (Parmigianino) Painting by Parmigianino

Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist is a painting by Parmigianino, executed c. 1528. It was in the Palazzo Farnese in Rome until 1662, when it moved to Parma. There it hung in the Palazzo del Giardino and later in the Galleria Ducale - the 'Descrizione' of the latter in 1725 called it one of the finest works on display there. It and the rest of the Farnese collection were later moved to Naples and the work was exhibited for a few years in the Palazzo Reale before moving to its present home in the National Museum of Capodimonte. Two early copies remain in the Galleria Nazionale and Palazzo Comunale in Parma.

<i>Portrait of a Man</i> (Parmigianino) Painting by Parmigianino

Portrait of a Young Man is an oil on panel painting by Parmigianino, executed c. 1530, now in the Uffizi in Florence, whose collection it entered on 27 October 1682. Three copies survive in the Museo di Capodimonte, Rome's Accademia di San Luca and the Galleria nazionale di Parma.

<i>Female Martyr with Two Angels</i> Painting by Parmigianino

Female Martyr with Two Angels is a c.1523-1524 oil on panel painting by Parmigianino, now in the Städel Museum in Frankfurt, to which it was donated in 1913 by Baroness Emilie Margarethe Beaulieu-Marconnay, member of a family of bankers and art patrons in the city.

References

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Parmigianino at Wikimedia Commons