The Plaza Guillermo Baca in downtown Parral, showing the Searcher of Dreams Fountain and the Cathedral Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, seat of the Diocese of Parral
|Municipality||Hidalgo del Parral|
|Founded||July 14 of 1631|
|• Mayor||César Omar Dajlala Amaya (PRI)|
|Elevation||1,620 m (5,310 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC-7 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-6 (MDT)|
Hidalgo del Parral, is a city and seat of the municipality of Hidalgo del Parral in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It is located in the southern part of the state, 220 kilometres (140 mi) from the state capital, the city of Chihuahua, Chih. As of 2015, the city of Hidalgo del Parral had a population of 109,510 inhabitants, while the metro area has a population of 129,688 inhabitants. The city was founded as San José del Parral. The name was changed after independence from Spain, in honour of Fr Miguel Hidalgo, widely considered the 'Father of the Country'.
Chihuahua, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.
According to legend, Juan Rangel de Biezma came here in 1629, picked up a rock on the “Cerro la Prieta” (La Prieta Hill), licked it and proclaimed “There is a mineral deposit here.” This deposit produced silver for 340 years.
Parral was once a bustling center for silver mining. As early as 1567, the silver mines at Santa Barbara were established in the territory of the Conchos Indians. However, in 1631, a vast new silver strike was made in what is now southern Chihuahua. Later, in 1640, it was declared "Capital of the World of Silver" by monarch Philip IV of Spain, at the very height of the Spanish Empire, that included territories in Eastern Asia, Italy, and the Low Countries [ citation needed ].
Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
Santa Bárbara is a city and seat of the municipality of Santa Bárbara, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the city of Santa Bárbara had a population of 8,765, up from 8,673 as of 2005.
Philip IV was King of Spain and Portugal. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War.
The large area of southern Chihuahua inhabited by the Tarahumara people included the highway between the mining districts of Parral, Cusihuiriachic, and Chihuahua.[ citation needed ] Asarco managed the La Prieta mine until the boom ended in the early 1930s; the minerals that were extracted were sent to the United States for final processing and then shipped back to Mexico, the US and other markets. After the end of the silver mining boom, Parral was almost completely abandoned in the early 1930s (although the surrounding district continues to be mined for silver and base metals.)
ASARCO LLC is a mining, smelting, and refining company based in Tucson, Arizona, which mines and processes primarily copper. The company is a subsidiary of Grupo México. ASARCO is known for several environmental and health-related disasters.
Currently, Parral is a medium-sized town in the state of Chihuahua mainly dedicated to commerce, and is an important regional center for trade between the southern regions of Chihuahua and northern Durango. It received its first local television station in 1969, the now-defunct XHJMA-TV channel 3,and it currently has one local station, XHMH-TV channel 13.
XHJMA-TV was a television station in Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico, broadcasting on channel 3 from 1969 until April 2014.
Urban development has been slow due to the lack of potable water and its complex physical geography. Its intricate network of streets and alleys are distinctive features of the city, helping to preserve its colonial style.
Parral is often associated with several historical figures, including Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, who was assassinated in Parral on July 20, 1923, and initially buried here; and border ruffian "Dirty" Dave Rudabaugh, a sometime friend and foe of Billy the Kid.
It belonged to one of the most prominent families in Parral, descendants of Pedro Alvarado owning the silver mine called “La Palmilla.” This family was rich enough to offer the President Porfirio Díaz to pay the national external debt. The palace was constructed by Federico Amérigo Rouvier and it is now a museum and cultural center. It has preserved much of the original European-made furniture. The walls of the patio were painted by Italian painter Antionio Decanini between 1946 and 1948.
This historical building was a gift from Don Pedro Alvarado to Pancho Villa and is located next to the Plaza Guillermo Baca.
This is where Elisa Griensen was born. She distinguished herself in Parral history by fighting against a contingent of U.S. soldiers sent to capture Pancho Villa after he crossed the border and attacked Columbus, New Mexico.
The Francisco Villa Museum is a historical building located on the street near the spot where Villa’s enemies waited days for him to pass and ultimately assassinated him in 1923. Every year in July, his death is reenacted here.
This was a beautiful and luxurious palace (during the era), with a beautiful baroque style; decorated in the facade with many beings from the Nordic mythology, that once belonged to the Stallforth family—who along with the Alvarado family, became the town's main benefactors, contributing much to its infrastructure.
The annual staging of the Murder of Francisco Villa, a recreation using props from the era, in the exact place of the historical event.
The annual Cabalgata Villista, is a long-distance horse ride with statewide massive participation and a spectacular visual event as thousands of horses enter the city(see Cavalcade).
In addition to its diverse and rich History, Parral is famous for its traditional foods. Parral was recently named as one of the “Ten Gastronomic Marvels of Mexico,” primarily for its artisan confectioneries dulces de leche. These include a wide variety of candies and pastries from old recipes based on milk, sugar, and natural fruits. Some other notable recipes with a touch of Parral are enchiladas, rayadas, barbacoa, steaks and cabrito (goat).
Dulces de leche are cooked-milk confections found nationwide in Mexico; Parral has been historically acclaimed since the 1930s because of the distinctive flavor of its dulces de leche—candys made with nuts like pecans, peanuts, hazelnuts, and fruits such as apricot, pineapple, coconut and others. Parral's candies have been shipped around the world; interesting destinations include Vatican City, Washington DC, and London.
These traditional confections arrived in Parral in the early 20th century. The origin of recipes is unknown, although it is believed that they arrived in southern Mexico from Europe during the colonial times. Then, these recipes were transferred to later generations.
One of the most famous confectionery artisans in Parral was Don Pablo Rodríguez, founder of La Gota de Miel. Don Pablito (as the Parralenses knew him) was born in Teocaltiche, Jalisco in the late 19th century. He and his wife arrived in Parral in the early 20th century, after working for several years in the State of Coahuila as a baker and a cook in the Hacienda del Rosario (now Parras de la Fuente) for Francisco Madero and Mercedes González (parents of President Francisco I. Madero). It is believed that their recipes might have acquired some influence from professional chefs also working in the hacienda at the time.
Several local artisans in Parral had recently—in the late 1990s—attempted to imitate Don Pablito's original recipe without success.
Enchiladas are a specialty Mexican plate also found nationwide, and Parral is traditionally famous for its delicious enchiladas. They are a rolled maize tortilla stuffed with meat and covered with a tomato and chile sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with a variety of ingredients, including meat, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables, or seafood.
These other tradition in Parral, started in the early 20th century and they gained notoriety in the mid-late 20th century. Enchiladas originated in Mexico. Anthropological evidence suggests that the indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico traditionally ate corn tortillas folded or rolled around small fish. Writing at the time of the Spanish conquistadors, Bernal Díaz del Castillo documented a feast enjoyed by Europeans hosted by Hernán Cortés in Coyoacán. In the 19th century, as Mexican cuisine was being memorialized, enchiladas were mentioned in the first Mexican cookbook, El cocinero mexicano (The Mexican Chef), published in 1831, and in Mariano Galván Rivera's Diccionario de Cocina, published in 1845. Probably, as with the dulces de leche, this recipes arrived to Parral from immigrants from the south of Mexico.
Among the most famous cookers of enchiladas in Parral was Doña Cuca, near the historical Calicanto bridge.
Barbacoa is meat from cattle or sheep slowly cooked over an open fire or, more traditionally, in a hole dug in the ground covered with maguey leaves; although the interpretation is loose, in the present day it may refers to meat steamed until tender.
During colonial and post-colonial times, Parral was famous because of its delectable barbacoa or birria de hoyo. Such barbacoa contained ingredients as laurel (bay leaf), garlic, maguey, onions, and other condiments. It was one of the luscious foods of the executives, foreigners, and miners working in the silver mines at Parral.
Parral has one of the best clubs of Judo throughout Latin America: Judokan Parral. It is a Judo academy in one of the most isolated places in Mexico, and Gabriel González. Among the most recognized alumni of Judokan is Vanessa Zambotti. She is an Olympic judo-fighter with international experience. She started practicing the sport at Judokan Parral (for her complete history see: ).
Judokan is increasingly becoming one of the most important cultures for future generations who follow the sport closely in the North of Mexico. Right now, some historians are working on achieving oral testimonies and photographs to sketch part of northern Mexico popular history, and they will include the impact of judo among practitioners.
Parral is famous, primarily in the North of Mexico, for its baseball team Los Mineros de Parral.
Parral has an altitude-moderated semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with rainfall limited to heavy thunderstorms during the hot summer months. During the dry season from October to May, days range from mild to hot and nights from chilly to mild. Frosts are common though not persistent in the winter.
|Climate data for Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||18.4|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.9|
|Average low °C (°F)||1.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||−15.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||7.8|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.7||1.4||0.6||1.4||2.8||7.0||12.8||13.0||9.4||3.8||1.8||1.7||57.4|
|Average snowy days||0.46||0.20||0.07||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.11||0.40||1.24|
|Average relative humidity (%)||57||54||50||46||44||53||63||65||67||61||61||61||57|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||188||214||212||295||276||233||272||249||220||209||232||192||2,792|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional|
|Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days)|
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An enchilada is a corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a chili pepper sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with a variety of ingredients, including various meats, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables or combinations. Originating in Mexico, enchiladas are a popular dish throughout Mexico and the American Southwest.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.
The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2017, the city of Chihuahua had a population of 878,062 inhabitants. while the metropolitan area had a population of 1,036,806 inhabitants.
Guanajuato, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, are the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 46 municipalities and its capital city is Guanajuato. The largest city in the state is León.
Pachuca, formally known as Pachuca de Soto, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Hidalgo. It is located in the south-central part of the state. Pachuca de Soto is also the name of the municipality of which the city serves as municipal seat. Pachuca is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) from Mexico City via Mexican Federal Highway 85. There is no consensus about the origin of the name Pachuca. It has been traced to the word pachoa, Pachoacan, and patlachuican.
Dulce de leche is a confection from Latin America prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a substance that derives its flavour from the Maillard reaction, also changing colour, with an appearance and flavour similar to caramel. Dulce de leche in Spanish for "candy [made] of milk" or "caramel". In Chile dulce de leche is known as "manjar de leche" or just "manjar". Its origin is disputed.
Cajeta is a confection of thickened syrup usually made of sweetened caramelised goat's milk. It is a type of dulce de leche. In Mexico, it is considered a specialty of the city of Celaya in the state of Guanajuato.
The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro was an historic 2,560-kilometre-long (1,590 mi) trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882. It was the northernmost of the four major "royal roads" that linked Mexico City to its major tributaries during and after the Spanish colonial era.
Casa Chihuahua Centro de Patrimonio Cultural, once known as the Federal Palace of Chihuahua, is an early 20th-century building in the city centre of Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico. It served as the federal building for the city until 2004, when it was renovated as a city museum, specialising in travelling exhibits. It also houses, in the basement, the jail cell of father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, considered the Father of the Nation. Father Hidalgo was the first leader of the insurgency for independence from Spain. He was captured by the Spaniards early in 1811, tried and executed on 30 July 1811 at the neighbouring Government Palace. His jail cell is a national shrine.
The Historical Museum of the Mexican Revolution in the Mexican city of Chihuahua, Chih., is housed in the former estate of General Francisco Villa and his widow, Sra. María Luz Corral de Villa. The house and its extensive collection of Villa memorabilia, as well as souvenirs and documents relating to other revolutionary leaders, was turned over to the Mexican government in 1981 upon the death of Mrs. Villa.
Uruguayan cuisine is a fusion of cuisines from several European countries, with a particular emphasis on Mediterranean food from Spain, Italy, Portugal and France. Other possible influences on the cuisine may result from immigration from countries such as Germany and Britain. The food is very similar to Argentine cuisine. Uruguayan gastronomy is a result of immigration, rather than local Amerindian cuisine, because the new colonies did not trust the native Charrúa people. Spanish influences are very abundant: desserts like churros, flan, ensaimadas yoo (Catalan sweet bread), and alfajores were all brought from Spain. There are also all kinds of stews known as guisos or estofados, arroces, and fabada. All of the guisos and traditional pucheros (stews) are also of Spanish origin. Uruguayan preparations of fish, such as dried salt cod (bacalao), calamari, and octopus, originate from the Basque and Galician regions, and also Portugal. Due to its strong Italian tradition, all of the famous Italian pasta dishes are present in Uruguay including ravioli, lasagne, tortellini, fettuccine, and the traditional gnocchi. Although the pasta can be served with many sauces, there is one special sauce that was created by Uruguayans. Caruso sauce is a pasta sauce made from double cream, meat, onions, ham and mushrooms. It is very popular with sorrentinos and agnolotti. Additionally, there is Germanic influence in Uruguayan cuisine as well, particularly in sweet dishes. The pastries known as bizcochos are Germanic in origin: croissants, known as medialunas, are the most popular of these, and can be found in two varieties: butter- and lard-based. Also German in origin are the Berlinese known as bolas de fraile, and the rolls called piononos. The facturas were re-christened with local names given the difficult German phonology, and usually Uruguayanized by the addition of a dulce de leche filling. Even dishes like chucrut (sauerkraut) have also made it into mainstream Uruguayan dishes.
A cavalcade is a procession or parade on horseback, or a mass trail ride by a company of riders. The focus of a cavalcade is participation rather than display. Often, the participants do not wear costumes or ride in formation. Often, a cavalcade re-enacts an important historical event and follows a long distance trail. A cavalcade may also be a pilgrimage.
Hidalgo del Parral is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Hidalgo del Parral. The municipality covers an area of 1,751 km².
Federal Highway 24 is a free part of the federal highways corridors. Fed. 24 is intended to cross the Sierra Madre Occidental from the area of Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua, on the east, to the area of Culiacán, Sinaloa, on the west. A limited central section of about 40 to 50 km is not yet completed or graded. This section lies between the villages of Los Frailes, Durango, on the east, and Soyatita, Sinaloa, on the west. Travel is possible through this area, where the road is not yet completed, on unimproved roads using high clearance two-wheel drive vehicles. The two unconnected segments that extend through Los Frailes and Soyatita are graded, but each segment is unpaved for about the last 75 km. The central gap in the highway is in the rugged mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental. This uncompleted and unpaved portion of the road is not well signed, there are many intersections with other unimproved roads, and it is easy to get lost off the intended route of the highway. As noted later, getting lost may not be a safe proposition. Further, the unfinished segment on the west is at about 820 meters elevation at Soyatita. Just outside Los Frailes, the road coming from the east is at 2,750 meters elevation. The traveler crossing this gap will have to negotiate this dramatic change in elevation traveling a good deal of the way on unimproved dirt roads. Travel times in this central section can be quite slow.
NellieFrancisca Ernestina Campobello Luna was a Mexican writer. She is notable for having written one of the few chronicles of the Mexican Revolution from a woman's perspective: Cartucho, a book that chronicles her experience as a young girl in Northern Mexico at the height of the struggle between forces loyal to Pancho Villa and those who followed Venustiano Carranza. She moved to Mexico City in 1923, where she spent the rest of her life and associated with many of the most famous Mexican intellectuals and artists of the epoch. Like her half-sister Gloria, a well-known ballet dancer, she was also known as an enthusiastic dancer and choreographer; she was the director the Mexican National School of Dance.
Pedro Alvarado Torres of Parral, Chihuahua was a mining magnate and philanthropist who operated the Palmilla mine near Parral in Chihuahua Mexico that was one of the country's richest silver mines.
The Border War, or the Border Campaign, refers to the military engagements which took place in the Mexico–United States border region of North America during the Mexican Revolution. The Bandit War in Texas was part of the Border War. From the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, the United States Army was stationed in force along the border and on several occasions fought with Mexican rebels or federals. The height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico. In response, the United States Army, under the direction of General John J. Pershing, launched an expedition into northern Mexico, to find and capture Villa. Though the operation was successful in finding and engaging the Villista rebels, and in killing Villa's two top lieutenants, the revolutionary himself escaped and the American army returned to the United States in January 1917. Conflict at the border continued, however, and the United States launched several additional, though smaller operations into Mexican territory until after the American victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales, leading to the establishment of a permanent border wall. Conflict was not only subject to Villistas and Americans; Maderistas, Carrancistas, Constitutionalistas and Germans also engaged in battle with American forces during this period.
The following television stations broadcast on digital or analog channel 22 in Mexico: