Parral, Chihuahua

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Parral
City
ParralPlaza.jpg
The Plaza Guillermo Baca in downtown Parral, showing the Searcher of Dreams Fountain and the Cathedral Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, seat of the Diocese of Parral
Hgoparral.jpg
Coat of arms
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Parral
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 26°56′N105°40′W / 26.933°N 105.667°W / 26.933; -105.667
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Chihuahua
Municipality Hidalgo del Parral
FoundedJuly 14 of 1631
Government
   Mayor César Omar Dajlala Amaya (PRI)
Elevation
1,620 m (5,310 ft)
Population
(2015 [1] )
  City109,510 [1]
   Metro
129,688 [1]
Time zone UTC-7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-6 (MDT)
Postal Code
31104
Area code(s) 627
Climate BSk
Website www.hidalgodelparral.gob.mx

Hidalgo del Parral, is a city and seat of the municipality of Hidalgo del Parral in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It is located in the southern part of the state, 220 kilometres (140 mi) from the state capital, the city of Chihuahua, Chih. As of 2015, the city of Hidalgo del Parral had a population of 109,510 inhabitants, [1] while the metro area has a population of 129,688 inhabitants. [1] The city was founded as San José del Parral. The name was changed after independence from Spain, in honour of Fr Miguel Hidalgo, widely considered the 'Father of the Country'.

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

Contents

History

According to legend, Juan Rangel de Biezma came here in 1629, picked up a rock on the “Cerro la Prieta” (La Prieta Hill), licked it and proclaimed “There is a mineral deposit here.” This deposit produced silver for 340 years. [2]

Parral was once a bustling center for silver mining. As early as 1567, the silver mines at Santa Barbara were established in the territory of the Conchos Indians. However, in 1631, a vast new silver strike was made in what is now southern Chihuahua. Later, in 1640, it was declared "Capital of the World of Silver" by monarch Philip IV of Spain, at the very height of the Spanish Empire, that included territories in Eastern Asia, Italy, and the Low Countries [ citation needed ].

Silver Chemical element with atomic number 47

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua City in Chihuahua, Mexico

Santa Bárbara is a city and seat of the municipality of Santa Bárbara, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the city of Santa Bárbara had a population of 8,765, up from 8,673 as of 2005.

Philip IV of Spain King of Spain

Philip IV of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal as Philip III. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War.

The large area of southern Chihuahua inhabited by the Tarahumara people included the highway between the mining districts of Parral, Cusihuiriachic, and Chihuahua.[ citation needed ] Asarco managed the La Prieta mine until the boom ended in the early 1930s; the minerals that were extracted were sent to the United States for final processing and then shipped back to Mexico, the US and other markets. After the end of the silver mining boom, Parral was almost completely abandoned in the early 1930s (although the surrounding district continues to be mined for silver and base metals.)

Asarco

ASARCO LLC is a mining, smelting, and refining company based in Tucson, Arizona, which mines and processes primarily copper. The company is a subsidiary of Grupo México.

Currently, Parral is a medium-sized town in the state of Chihuahua mainly dedicated to commerce, and is an important regional center for trade between the southern regions of Chihuahua and northern Durango. It received its first local television station in 1969, the now-defunct XHJMA-TV channel 3, [3] and it currently has one local station, XHMH-TV channel 13.

XHJMA-TV was a television station in Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico, broadcasting on channel 3 from 1969 until April 2014.

Urban development has been slow due to the lack of potable water and its complex physical geography. Its intricate network of streets and alleys are distinctive features of the city, helping to preserve its colonial style.

Parral is often associated with several historical figures, including Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, who was assassinated in Parral on July 20, 1923, and initially buried here; and border ruffian "Dirty" Dave Rudabaugh, a sometime friend and foe of Billy the Kid.

The Palacio Alvarado was once the home of one of the wealthiest mining barons in Parral. PalAlvarado.jpg
The Palacio Alvarado was once the home of one of the wealthiest mining barons in Parral.

Notable sites

El Palacio de Alvarado

It belonged to one of the most prominent families in Parral, descendants of Pedro Alvarado owning the silver mine called “La Palmilla.” This family was rich enough to offer the President Porfirio Díaz to pay the national external debt. The palace was constructed by Federico Amérigo Rouvier and it is now a museum and cultural center. It has preserved much of the original European-made furniture. The walls of the patio were painted by Italian painter Antionio Decanini between 1946 and 1948.

El Hotel Hidalgo

This historical building was a gift from Don Pedro Alvarado to Pancho Villa and is located next to the Plaza Guillermo Baca.

La Casa de la Familia Griensen (the Griensen Family House)

This is where Elisa Griensen was born. She distinguished herself in Parral history by fighting against a contingent of U.S. soldiers sent to capture Pancho Villa after he crossed the border and attacked Columbus, New Mexico.

The Francisco Villa Museum

The Francisco Villa Museum is a historical building located on the street near the spot where Villa’s enemies waited days for him to pass and ultimately assassinated him in 1923. Every year in July, his death is reenacted here.

Casa Stallforth

This was a beautiful and luxurious palace (during the era), with a beautiful baroque style; decorated in the facade with many beings from the Nordic mythology, that once belonged to the Stallforth family—who along with the Alvarado family, became the town's main benefactors, contributing much to its infrastructure. [2]

Notable events

The annual staging of the Murder of Francisco Villa, a recreation using props from the era, in the exact place of the historical event.

The annual Cabalgata Villista, is a long-distance horse ride with statewide massive participation and a spectacular visual event as thousands of horses enter the city(see Cavalcade).

Food

In addition to its diverse and rich History, Parral is famous for its traditional foods. Parral was recently named as one of the “Ten Gastronomic Marvels of Mexico,” primarily for its artisan confectioneries dulces de leche. These include a wide variety of candies and pastries from old recipes based on milk, sugar, and natural fruits. Some other notable recipes with a touch of Parral are enchiladas, rayadas, barbacoa, steaks and cabrito (goat).

Dulces de leche

Dulces de leche are cooked-milk confections found nationwide in Mexico; Parral has been historically acclaimed since the 1930s because of the distinctive flavor of its dulces de leche—candys made with nuts like pecans, peanuts, hazelnuts, and fruits such as apricot, pineapple, coconut and others. Parral's candies have been shipped around the world; interesting destinations include Vatican City, Washington DC, and London.

These traditional confections arrived in Parral in the early 20th century. The origin of recipes is unknown, although it is believed that they arrived in southern Mexico from Europe during the colonial times. Then, these recipes were transferred to later generations.

One of the most famous confectionery artisans in Parral was Don Pablo Rodriguez, founder of La Gota de Miel. Don Pablito (as the Parralenses knew him) was born in Teocaltiche, Jalisco in the late 19th century. He and his wife arrived to Parral in the early 20th century, after working for several years in the State of Coahuila as a baker and a cook in the Hacienda del Rosario (now Parras de la Fuente) for Francisco Madero and Mercedes González (parents of President Francisco I. Madero). It is believed that their recipes might have acquired some influence from professional chefs also working in the hacienda at the time.

Several local artisans in Parral had recently—in the late 1990s—attempted to imitate Don Pablito's original recipe without success.

Enchiladas

Enchiladas are a specialty Mexican plate also found nationwide, and Parral is traditionally famous for its delicious enchiladas. They are a rolled maize tortilla stuffed with meat and covered with a tomato and chile sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with a variety of ingredients, including meat, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables, or seafood.

These other tradition in Parral, started in the early 20th century and they gained notoriety in the mid-late 20th century. Enchiladas originated in Mexico. Anthropological evidence suggests that the indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico traditionally ate corn tortillas folded or rolled around small fish. Writing at the time of the Spanish conquistadors, Bernal Díaz del Castillo documented a feast enjoyed by Europeans hosted by Hernán Cortés in Coyoacán. In the 19th century, as Mexican cuisine was being memorialized, enchiladas were mentioned in the first Mexican cookbook, El cocinero mexicano (The Mexican Chef), published in 1831, and in Mariano Galvan Rivera's Diccionario de Cocina, published in 1845.[4][8] Probably, as with the dulces de leche, this recipes arrived to Parral from immigrants from the south of Mexico.

Among the most famous cookers of enchiladas in Parral was Doña Cuca, near the historical Calicanto bridge.

Barbacoa

Barbacoa is meat from cattle or sheep slowly cooked over an open fire or, more traditionally, in a hole dug in the ground covered with maguey leaves; although the interpretation is loose, in the present day it may refers to meat steamed until tender.

During colonial and post-colonial times, Parral was famous because of its delectable barbacoa or birria de hoyo. Such barbacoa contained ingredients as laurel (bay leaf), garlic, maguey, onions, and other condiments. It was one of the luscious foods of the executives, foreigners, and miners working in the silver mines at Parral.

Sports

Judo
Parral has one of the best clubs of Judo throughout Latin America: Judokan Parral. It is a Judo academy in one of the most isolated places in Mexico, and Gabriel González. Among the most recognized alumni of Judokan is Vanessa Zambotti. She is an Olympic judo-fighter with international experience. She started practicing the sport at Judokan Parral (for her complete history see: ). (The history of how judo started in Parral is needed here)

Judokan is increasingly becoming one of the most important culturks for future generations—who follow the sport closely—in the North of Mexico. Right now, some historians are working on achieving oral testimonies and photographs to sketch part of northern Mexico popular history, and they will include the impact of judo among practitioners (this needs verification and further elaboration).

Baseball
Parral is famous, primarily in the North of Mexico, for its baseball team Los Mineros de Parral (The complete history of baseball in Parral goes here).

Notable people from Parral

Climate

Parral has an altitude-moderated semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with rainfall limited to heavy thunderstorms during the hot summer months. During the dry season from October to May, days range from mild to hot and nights from chilly to mild. Frosts are common though not persistent in the winter.

Climate data for Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.0
(89.6)
34.0
(93.2)
38.0
(100.4)
39.0
(102.2)
40.0
(104.0)
49.6
(121.3)
42.5
(108.5)
41.0
(105.8)
40.4
(104.7)
38.5
(101.3)
35.4
(95.7)
33.0
(91.4)
49.6
(121.3)
Average high °C (°F)18.4
(65.1)
20.6
(69.1)
24.2
(75.6)
27.7
(81.9)
31.1
(88.0)
32.9
(91.2)
30.5
(86.9)
29.2
(84.6)
27.8
(82.0)
25.9
(78.6)
22.5
(72.5)
19.2
(66.6)
25.8
(78.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)9.9
(49.8)
11.9
(53.4)
15.2
(59.4)
18.8
(65.8)
22.4
(72.3)
24.9
(76.8)
23.5
(74.3)
22.4
(72.3)
20.9
(69.6)
17.8
(64.0)
13.8
(56.8)
10.7
(51.3)
17.7
(63.9)
Average low °C (°F)1.5
(34.7)
3.2
(37.8)
6.2
(43.2)
9.8
(49.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.9
(62.4)
16.5
(61.7)
15.7
(60.3)
14.0
(57.2)
9.8
(49.6)
5.1
(41.2)
2.1
(35.8)
9.5
(49.1)
Record low °C (°F)−15.0
(5.0)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−16.0
(3.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.0
(35.6)
1.4
(34.5)
4.0
(39.2)
3.6
(38.5)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−8.0
(17.6)
−10.2
(13.6)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)7.8
(0.31)
5.6
(0.22)
2.0
(0.08)
8.2
(0.32)
15.6
(0.61)
56.7
(2.23)
120.5
(4.74)
117.3
(4.62)
106.9
(4.21)
24.9
(0.98)
8.4
(0.33)
5.6
(0.22)
479.5
(18.88)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.71.40.61.42.87.012.813.09.43.81.81.757.4
Average snowy days0.460.200.0700000000.110.401.24
Average relative humidity (%)57545046445363656761616157
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1882142122952762332722492202092321922,792
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [4] [5] [6]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days) [7]

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "División municipal. Chihuahua". www.cuentame.inegi.org.mx.
  2. 1 2 Aldana, Alejandro (February 2008). "Parral: El Ganador de la 10 maravillas gastronomicas de Mexico". Guía México Desconocido. 372: 60–69.
  3. "Cierra Ifetel el canal 3 de Parral", El Diario de Parral 4 April 2014
  4. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  5. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981-2000" (PDF) (in Spanish). Comision Nacional Del Agua. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2016. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  6. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Parral 1922-2003" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  7. "Normales climatológicas para Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013.

Coordinates: 26°56′N105°40′W / 26.933°N 105.667°W / 26.933; -105.667