Pas-de-Calais

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Pas-de-Calais

Pas-Calés
Arras-prefecture.jpg
Prefecture building of the Pas-de-Calais department, in Arras
Pas-de-CalaisFlag.gif
Flag
Pas de Calais Arms.svg
Coat of arms
Pas-de-Calais-Position.svg
Location of Pas-de-Calais in France
Coordinates: 50°57′N1°51′E / 50.950°N 1.850°E / 50.950; 1.850 Coordinates: 50°57′N1°51′E / 50.950°N 1.850°E / 50.950; 1.850
Country France
Region Hauts-de-France
Prefecture Arras
Subprefectures Béthune, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Calais, Lens, Montreuil, Saint-Omer
Government
   President of the General Council Jean-Claude Leroy
Area
1
  Total6,671 km2 (2,576 sq mi)
Population
(2016)
  Total1,470,725
  Rank 8th
  Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 62
Arrondissements 7
Cantons 39
Communes 890
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation:  [pɑ d(ə) kalɛ] , "strait of Calais"; Picard : Pas-Calés) is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders.

Strait A naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water

A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel of water that lies between two land masses. Some straits are not navigable, for example because they are too shallow, or because of an unnavigable reef or archipelago.

Calais Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Calais is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, which is only 34 km (21 mi) wide here, and is the closest French town to England. The White Cliffs of Dover can easily be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, and since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail.

Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect of the Indo-European language family spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium. Administratively, this area is divided between the French Hauts-de-France region and the Belgian Wallonia along the border between both countries due to its traditional core being the districts of Tournai and Mons.

Contents

History

Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne-sur-Mer to Cologne created a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century.

Belgae

The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Julius Caesar in his account of his wars in Gaul. Some peoples in Britain were also called Belgae and O'Rahilly equated them with the Fir Bolg in Ireland. The Belgae gave their name to the Roman province of Gallia Belgica and, much later, to the modern country of Belgium; today "Belgae" is also Latin for "Belgians".

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Germanic peoples A group of northern European tribes in Roman times

The Germanic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by Roman-era authors as distinct from neighbouring Celtic peoples, and identified in modern scholarship as speakers, at least for the most part, of early Germanic languages.

Saxon colonization into the region from the fifth to the eighth centuries likely extended the linguistic border somewhat south and west so that by the ninth century most inhabitants north of the line between Béthune and Berck spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke Picard, a variety of Romance dialects.

Saxons confederation of Germanic tribes on the North German Plain

The Saxons were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. Earlier, in the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic inhabitants of what is now England, and also as a word something like the later "Viking", as a term for raiders. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons were associated with the coast of what later became Normandy. Though sometimes described as also fighting inland, coming in conflict with the Franks and Thuringians, no clear homeland can be defined. There is possibly a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but it is disputed. According to this proposal, the Saxons' earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia. This general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles.

Béthune Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Béthune is a city in northern France, sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department.

Berck Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Berck, sometimes referred to as Berck-sur-Mer, is a commune in the northern French department of Pas-de-Calais. It lies within the Marquenterre regional park, an ornithological nature reserve.

This linguistic border is still evident today in the toponyms and patronyms of the region. Beginning in the ninth century, the linguistic border began a steady move to north and the east, and by the end of the 15th century Romance dialects had completely displaced those of Dutch.

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Pas-de-Calais is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Calaisis, formerly English, Boulonnais, Ponthieu and Artois, this last formerly part of the Spanish Netherlands.

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were roughly equivalent to the historic counties of England. They came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, laws, taxation systems, courts, etc., and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, and to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today.

Boulonnais (land area)

The Boulonnais is a coastal area of northern France, around Calais and Boulogne-sur-Mer. It has a curved belt of chalk downs which run into the sea at both ends, and geologically is the east end of the Weald-Artois Anticline.

Some of the costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, eight kilometres from Arras, commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge assault during the Battle of Arras (1917) and is Canada's most important memorial in Europe to its fallen soldiers. [1]

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Canadian National Vimy Memorial memorial located in Pas-de-Calais, in France

The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is a war memorial site in France dedicated to the memory of Canadian Expeditionary Force members killed during the First World War. It also serves as the place of commemoration for Canadian soldiers of the First World War killed or presumed dead in France who have no known grave. The monument is the centrepiece of a 100-hectare (250-acre) preserved battlefield park that encompasses a portion of the ground over which the Canadian Corps made their assault during the initial Battle of Vimy Ridge offensive of the Battle of Arras.

Arras Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Arras is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The historic centre of the Artois region, with a Baroque town square, Arras is located in Northern France at the confluence of the Scarpe river and the Crinchon River.

Pas-de-Calais was also the target of Operation Fortitude during World War II, which was an Allied plan to deceive the Germans that the invasion of Europe at D-Day was to occur here, rather than in Normandy. [2]

Geography

Cities > 10,000 inhabitants Pas de Calais.png
Cities > 10,000 inhabitants
View of the English coast, from Pas-de-Calais France manche vue dover.JPG
View of the English coast, from Pas-de-Calais

Pas-de-Calais is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Nord and Somme, the English Channel, and the North Sea. It shares a nominal border with the English county of Kent halfway through the Channel Tunnel.

Its principal towns are, on the coast, Calais, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples, and in Artois, Lens, Liévin, Arras, and Saint-Omer.

The principal rivers are the following:

Economy

The economy of the department was long dependent on mining, primarily the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in 1849. [3] However, since World War II, the economy has become more diversified.

Demographics

The inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens.

Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, and yet it has no large cities. Calais has only about 80,000 inhabitants, followed closely by Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens and Liévin. The remaining population is primarily concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.2 million. The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite heavily populated, with many villages and small towns.

Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I, its population rebounded quickly after both world wars. However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population.

Politics

In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.05%. [4]

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [5] Party
Pas-de-Calais's 1st constituency Bruno Duvergé MoDem
Pas-de-Calais's 2nd constituency Jacqueline Maquet La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 3rd constituency José Évrard National Rally
Pas-de-Calais's 4th constituency Daniel Fasquelle The Republicans
Pas-de-Calais's 5th constituency Jean-Pierre Pont La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 6th constituency Brigitte Bourguignon La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 7th constituency Pierre-Henri Dumont The Republicans
Pas-de-Calais's 8th constituency Benoît Potterie La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 9th constituency Marguerite Deprez-Audebert MoDem
Pas-de-Calais's 10th constituency Ludovic Pajot National Rally
Pas-de-Calais's 11th constituency Marine Le Pen National Rally
Pas-de-Calais's 12th constituency Bruno Bilde National Rally

Education

The Universite d'Artois' campus in Lens sits in the ancient headquarters of Compagnie des mines. Lens Grands Bureaux de la Compagnie des mines.jpg
The Université d'Artois' campus in Lens sits in the ancient headquarters of Compagnie des mines.

There are currently two public universities in the department. Although it is one of the most populous departments of France, Pas-de-Calais did not contain a university until 1991 when the French government created two universities: ULCO (Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale) [6] on the western part of the department, and Université d'Artois [7] on the eastern part.

Tourism

See also

Related Research Articles

Nord (French department) Department of France

Nord is a department in the far north of France. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders.

Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region of France

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation: [nɔʁ pɑ d kalɛ], is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel, the North Sea, Belgium and Picardy. The majority of the region was once part of the historical Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants.

Picardy Region of France

Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region of Hauts-de-France. It is located in the northern part of France.

Boulogne-sur-Mer Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, and the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, and the 60th-largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.

Lens, Pas-de-Calais Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Lens is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is one of the main towns of Hauts-de-France along with Lille, Valenciennes, Amiens, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Arras and Douai. The inhabitants are called Lensois.

Liévin Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Liévin is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. The inhabitants are called Liévinois.

Carency Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Carency is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Givenchy-en-Gohelle Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Givenchy-en-Gohelle is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France. It is located 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) north of the Canadian National Vimy Memorial dedicated to the Battle of Vimy Ridge and the missing First World War Canadian soldiers with no known grave; the Memorial is also the site of two Canadian cemeteries. The village was destroyed during World War I but was rebuilt after the war.

The following is a list of the 39 cantons of the Pas-de-Calais department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

The 7 arrondissements of the Pas-de-Calais department are:

  1. Arrondissement of Arras, with 358 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 263,144 in 2013. The estimated population in 2016 was 248,929.
  2. Arrondissement of Béthune, with 104 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 285,789 in 2013.
  3. Arrondissement of Boulogne-sur-Mer, with 74 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 161,821 in 2013.
  4. Arrondissement of Calais, with 52 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 118,248 in 2013.
  5. Arrondissement of Lens, with 50 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 358,694 in 2013.
  6. Arrondissement of Montreuil, with 164 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 112,709 in 2013.
  7. Arrondissement of Saint-Omer, with 89 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 164,800 in 2013.
County of Artois countship

The County of Artois was an historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659.

TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais

TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais was the regional rail network serving Nord-Pas-de-Calais région, France. In 2017 it was merged into the new TER Hauts-de-France.

Rely, Pas-de-Calais Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Rely is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Université dété de Boulogne-sur-Mer

The Université d'été de Boulogne-sur-Mer is a summer university at Boulogne-sur-Mer, Pas de Calais, France.

Audinghen Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Audinghen is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Condette Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Condette is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Hulluch Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Hulluch is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Preures Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Preures is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

References

  1. "Canadian National Vimy Memorial, France". The Great War UK. The Great War UK. 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2017. The ridge runs in a direction from Givenchy-en-Gohelle in the north-west to Farbus in the south-east.
  2. Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-509514-6.
  3. "Discovery of Coal". Ville de Lens. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. Le Monde
  5. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
  6. "Décret no 91-1161 du 7 novembre 1991 portant création et organisation provisoire de l'université du Littoral". legifrance.gouv.fr.
  7. "Décret no 91-1160 du 7 novembre 1991 portant création et organisation provisoire de l'université d'Artois". legifrance.gouv.fr.