Pas-de-Calais

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Pas-de-Calais

Pas-Calés
Arras-prefecture.jpg
Prefecture building of the Pas-de-Calais department, in Arras
Pas-de-Calais proposed Flag.gif
Flag
Pas de Calais Arms.svg
Coat of arms
Pas-de-Calais-Position.svg
Location of Pas-de-Calais in France
Coordinates: 50°57′N1°51′E / 50.950°N 1.850°E / 50.950; 1.850 Coordinates: 50°57′N1°51′E / 50.950°N 1.850°E / 50.950; 1.850
Country France
Region Hauts-de-France
Prefecture Arras
Subprefectures Béthune, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Calais, Lens, Montreuil, Saint-Omer
Government
   President of the General Council Jean-Claude Leroy
Area
1
  Total6,671 km2 (2,576 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)
  Total1,470,725
  Rank 8th
  Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 62
Arrondissements 7
Cantons 39
Communes 890
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation:  [pa.də.ka.lɛ] , "strait of Calais"; Picard : Pas-Calés; Dutch : Nauw van Kales) is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders.

Contents

History

Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne-sur-Mer to Cologne created a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century.

Saxon colonization into the region from the fifth to the eighth centuries likely extended the linguistic border somewhat south and west so that by the ninth century most inhabitants north of the line between Béthune and Berck spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke Picard, a variety of Romance dialects.

This linguistic border is still evident today in the toponyms and patronyms of the region. Beginning in the ninth century, the linguistic border began a steady move to north and the east, and by the end of the 15th century Romance dialects had completely displaced those of Dutch.

Pas-de-Calais is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Calaisis, formerly English, Boulonnais, Ponthieu and Artois, this last formerly part of the Spanish Netherlands.

Some of the costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, eight kilometres from Arras, commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge assault during the Battle of Arras (1917) and is Canada's most important memorial in Europe to its fallen soldiers. [1]

Pas-de-Calais was also the target of Operation Fortitude during World War II, which was an Allied plan to deceive the Germans that the invasion of Europe at D-Day was to occur here, rather than in Normandy. [2]

Geography

Cities > 10,000 inhabitants Pas de Calais.png
Cities > 10,000 inhabitants
View of the English coast, from Pas-de-Calais France manche vue dover.JPG
View of the English coast, from Pas-de-Calais

Pas-de-Calais is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Nord and Somme, the English Channel, and the North Sea. It shares a nominal border with the English county of Kent halfway through the Channel Tunnel.

Its principal towns are, on the coast, Calais, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples, and in Artois, Lens, Liévin, Arras, and Saint-Omer.

The principal rivers are the following:

Economy

The economy of the department was long dependent on mining, primarily the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in 1849. [3] However, since World War II, the economy has become more diversified.

Demographics

The inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens.

Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, and yet it has no large cities. Calais has only about 80,000 inhabitants, followed closely by Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens and Liévin. The remaining population is primarily concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.2 million. The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite heavily populated, with many villages and small towns.

Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I, its population rebounded quickly after both world wars. However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population.

Population development since 1801:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801534,416    
1821626,571+0.80%
1831655,215+0.45%
1841685,021+0.45%
1851692,994+0.12%
1861724,338+0.44%
1872761,158+0.45%
1881819,022+0.82%
1891874,364+0.66%
1901955,391+0.89%
19111,068,155+1.12%
1921989,967−0.76%
19311,205,191+1.99%
19361,179,467−0.43%
19461,168,545−0.09%
19541,276,833+1.11%
19621,366,282+0.85%
19681,397,159+0.37%
19751,402,295+0.05%
19821,412,413+0.10%
19901,433,203+0.18%
19991,441,568+0.06%
20061,453,387+0.12%
20111,462,807+0.13%
20161,470,725+0.11%
source: [4]

Politics

In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.05%. [5]

Current National Assembly Representatives

ConstituencyMember [6] Party
Pas-de-Calais's 1st constituency Bruno Duvergé MoDem
Pas-de-Calais's 2nd constituency Jacqueline Maquet La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 3rd constituency José Évrard National Rally
Pas-de-Calais's 4th constituency Daniel Fasquelle The Republicans
Pas-de-Calais's 5th constituency Jean-Pierre Pont La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 6th constituency Brigitte Bourguignon La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 7th constituency Pierre-Henri Dumont The Republicans
Pas-de-Calais's 8th constituency Benoît Potterie La République En Marche!
Pas-de-Calais's 9th constituency Marguerite Deprez-Audebert MoDem
Pas-de-Calais's 10th constituency Ludovic Pajot National Rally
Pas-de-Calais's 11th constituency Marine Le Pen National Rally
Pas-de-Calais's 12th constituency Bruno Bilde National Rally

Education

The Universite d'Artois' campus in Lens sits in the ancient headquarters of Compagnie des mines. Lens Grands Bureaux de la Compagnie des mines.jpg
The Université d'Artois' campus in Lens sits in the ancient headquarters of Compagnie des mines.

There are currently two public universities in the department. Although it is one of the most populous departments of France, Pas-de-Calais did not contain a university until 1991 when the French government created two universities: ULCO (Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale) [7] on the western part of the department, and Université d'Artois [8] on the eastern part.

Tourism

See also

Related Research Articles

Nord (French department) Department of France

Nord is a department in the Hauts-de-France region of France bordering Belgium. It was created from the western halves of the historical counties of Flanders and Hainaut, and the Bishopric of Cambrai. The modern coat of arms was inherited from the County of Flanders.

Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region of France

Nord-Pas-de-Calais is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants.

Picardy Region of France

Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region of Hauts-de-France. It is located in the northern part of France.

Arras Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Arras is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The historic centre of the Artois region, with a Baroque town square, Arras is located in Northern France at the confluence of the Scarpe river and the Crinchon River.

Boulogne-sur-Mer Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called just Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, and the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, and the 163rd-largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.

Lens, Pas-de-Calais Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Lens is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is one of the main towns of Hauts-de-France along with Lille, Valenciennes, Amiens, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Arras and Douai. The inhabitants are called Lensois.

Liévin Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Liévin is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. The inhabitants are called Liévinois.

Carency Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Carency is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Wikimedia list article

The following is a list of the 890 communes of the Pas-de-Calais department of France.

The following is a list of the 39 cantons of the Pas-de-Calais department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

The 7 arrondissements of the Pas-de-Calais department are:

  1. Arrondissement of Arras, with 357 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 248,929 in 2016.
  2. Arrondissement of Béthune, with 104 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 293,991 in 2016.
  3. Arrondissement of Boulogne-sur-Mer, with 74 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 159,748 in 2016.
  4. Arrondissement of Calais, with 52 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 158,492 in 2016.
  5. Arrondissement of Lens, with 50 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 367,839 in 2016.
  6. Arrondissement of Montreuil, with 164 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 112,118 in 2016.
  7. Arrondissement of Saint-Omer, with 89 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 129,608 in 2016.
Arrondissement of Lens Arrondissement in Hauts-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Lens is an arrondissement of northern France in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region. It has 50 communes. Its population is 293,991 (2016), and its area is 351.5 km2 (135.7 sq mi).

County of Artois countship

The County of Artois was a historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659.

Arrondissement of Arras Arrondissement in Hauts-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Arras is an arrondissement of France in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region. It has 357 communes. Its population is 293,991 (2016), and its area is 2,245.3 km2 (866.9 sq mi).

Bully-les-Mines Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Bully-les-Mines is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais département in northern France. It forms part of the Lens-Liévin urban area, which encompasses 36 French communes and 250,000 inhabitants. For many years it was a major coal mining center.

Rely, Pas-de-Calais Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Rely is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Hulluch Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Hulluch is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Preures Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Preures is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

Wailly-Beaucamp Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Wailly-Beaucamp is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.

References

  1. "Canadian National Vimy Memorial, France". The Great War UK. The Great War UK. 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2017. The ridge runs in a direction from Givenchy-en-Gohelle in the north-west to Farbus in the south-east.
  2. Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-509514-6.
  3. "Discovery of Coal". Ville de Lens. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. Site sur la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France
  5. Le Monde
  6. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
  7. "Décret no 91-1161 du 7 novembre 1991 portant création et organisation provisoire de l'université du Littoral". legifrance.gouv.fr.
  8. "Décret no 91-1160 du 7 novembre 1991 portant création et organisation provisoire de l'université d'Artois". legifrance.gouv.fr.