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In Eastern Christianity, a passion bearer (Russian :страстотéрпец, tr. strastoterpets,IPA: [strəstɐˈtʲɛrpʲɪts] ) is one of the various customary titles for saints used in commemoration at divine services when honouring their feast on the Church Calendar; it is not generally used in the Latin Church.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 260 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods. Roughly half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
The term can be defined as a person who faces his or her death in a Christ-like manner. Unlike martyrs, passion bearers are not explicitly killed for their faith, though they hold to that faith with piety and true love of God. Thus, although all martyrs are passion bearers, not all passion bearers are martyrs.
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a religious belief or cause as demanded by an external party. In the martyrdom narrative of the remembering community, this refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of an actor by an alleged oppressor. Accordingly, the status of the 'martyr' can be considered a posthumous title as a reward for those who are considered worthy of the concept of martyrdom by the living, regardless of any attempts by the deceased to control how they will be remembered in advance. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause.
Notable passion bearers include the brothers Boris and Gleb, Alexander Schmorell (member of the White Rose resistance movement), and the entire Imperial Family of Russia, executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
Boris and Gleb, Christian names Roman and David, respectively, were the first saints canonized in Kievan Rus' after the Christianization of the country. Their feast day is observed on July 24.
Alexander Schmorell was one of five Munich University students who formed a resistance group known as White Rose which was active against Germany's Nazi regime from June 1942 to February 1943. In 2012, he was glorified as a saint and passion bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.
The canonization of the Romanovs was the elevation to sainthood of the last Imperial Family of Russia – Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra, and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei – by the Russian Orthodox Church. The family was killed by the Bolsheviks on 17 July 1918 at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg; the site of their execution is now beneath the altar of the Church on Blood. They are variously designated as new martyrs by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and as passion bearers by the church inside Russia.
A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the context and denomination. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Oriental Orthodox, and Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation; official ecclesiastical recognition, and consequently veneration, is given to some saints through the process of canonization in the Catholic Church or glorification in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
September 4 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - September 6
April 22 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - April 24
May 9 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 11
July 16 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - July 18
July 23 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - July 25
July 26 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - July 28
July 29 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - July 31
August 2 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - August 4
August 19 – Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar – August 21
Aloise (Alexei) Yegorovich Trupp, was the Head Footman in the household of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. Trupp was born in Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire. He was killed with the Romanov family at Ekaterinburg following the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Confessor of the Faith is a title given by the Christian Church to a type of saint.
December 19 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - December 21
March 17 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - March 19
The Diocese of Birobidzhan and Kuldur is a diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, the centralized religious organization headed by Moscow Patriarchate. The diocese operates churches within the borders of the Jewish Autonomous Region which borders with the Republic of China on the south, Amur Oblast on the west and Khabarovsk Krai on the northeast.
New Martyrs and Confessors of Russian Church is group of saints of Russian orthodox church martyred or persecuted for Christ after the October Revolution of 1917.
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