Pathanamthitta district

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Pathanamthitta district
Aranmula Palace.jpg
Gavi, Kerala.jpg
Aranmula mirror.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Thiruvalla town, Aranmula Kottaram , Aranmula kannadi , 33 Kilovolt Substation at Ranni-Perunad, Gavi, and Elephant Training Center, Konni.
Pathanamthitta district
Pathanamthitta district
Location in Kerala
Coordinates: 9°16′50″N76°52′11″E / 9.28068°N 76.86967°E / 9.28068; 76.86967 Coordinates: 9°16′50″N76°52′11″E / 9.28068°N 76.86967°E / 9.28068; 76.86967
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Kerala
Founded by K. K. Nair [1]
Headquarters Pathanamthitta
  Total2,642 km2 (1,020 sq mi)
  Density452/km2 (1,170/sq mi)
  Official Malayalam
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 code IN-KL
Vehicle registration KL-03 Pathanamthitta,
KL-26 Adoor,
KL-27 Thiruvalla,
KL-28 Mallapally,
KL-62 Ranni,
KL-83 Konni
HDI (2005)Increase2.svg 0.795 [2] ( High)

Pathanamthitta District (IPA:  [pɐt̪ːɐnɐn̪d̪iʈːɐ] ), is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala. The district headquarters is in the town of Pathanamthitta. There are four municipalities in Pathanamthitta: Adoor, Pandalam, Pathanamthitta and Thiruvalla.


According to the 2011 Census of India, the population was 1,197,412, making it the third least populous district in Kerala (out of 14), after Wayanad and Idukki. [3] Pathanamthitta has been declared the first polio-free district in India. [4] The district is 10.03% urbanised. [5] Pathanamthitta is one of the richest districts in India with just 1.17% poverty as of 2013, which places the district among top 5 districts in India with least poverty. [6]


The district's name is a combination of two Malayalam words, pathanam and thitta, which together mean 'array of houses on the river side'. [7] The district capital is located on the banks of the river Achankovil.


A map of the British Princely state of Travancore published in 1871 Travancore 1871.JPG
A map of the British Princely state of Travancore published in 1871

It is presumed that the regions that form the district were formerly under the rule of Pandalam, which had connections with the Pandya kingdom. [8] When Pandalam was added to the princely state of Travancore in 1820, the region came under Travancore administration. The Nedumpuram Palace near Thiruvalla belongs to Valluvanad Royal family, who were originally the rulers of Angadippuram in present-day Malappuram district.[ citation needed ]

The district was formed on 1 November 1982 as a reward to K. K. Nair, who was the then Pathanamthitta MLA, by K. Karunakaran. The formation was done by incorporating various portions of the erstwhile Kollam, Alappuzha and Idukki districts. While the taluks Pathanamthitta, Adoor, were taken from Kollam district, Ranni, Konni and Kozhencherry from Idukki district, Pandalam and Thiruvalla were taken from Alappuzha district. [7]

Cultural revival

Pathanamthitta being also a land of culture and learning could bring forth the literary talents of two centuries together in single volume named Desathuti: Pathanamthitta Kavithakal. Unnikrishnan Poozhikkad collected 184 poems of different poets of Pathanamthitta starting from 18th century. [9] [ page needed ].


Pathanamthitta is a landlocked district, located at 9°16′N76°47′E / 9.27°N 76.78°E / 9.27; 76.78 , spanning over an area of 2,637 square kilometres (1,018.15 sq mi). [10] The district is bordered by the districts Kottayam and Idukki districts in the north, Alappuzha district in the west, Kollam district in the south. To the east it borders the Tenkasi district of the Tamil Nadu state. Devar Mala is the highest point in Pathnamthitta District. [11]

The district can be divided into three natural geographical regions: the highland, the midland and the lowland. The highland stretches through the Western Ghats, where the hills are tall and covered with thick forests. Western Ghats maintains an average altitude of around 800 m. It descends to the smaller hills of midland in the centre and finally to the lowland. The lowland with its abundance of coconut trees, lies along the eastern borders of Alappuzha district. [12] (western part of Tiruvalla Taluk)


Pathanamthitta district has a reserve forest area of 1,385.27 square kilometres (534.86 sq mi). [13] This is approximately 50% of the total district area. The forest area can broadly be classified as evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous. The forest is the main source of raw materials for wood based industrial units. Timber is the most important produce.[ citation needed ]


Three important rivers flow through the district. These rivers originate from various mountains of the Western Ghats mountain range. The Pamba (176 km or 109 mi), which is the third longest river in Kerala, has its origin in Pulachimala. The Achankovil river (128 km or 80 mi) originates from Pasukida Mettu, and Manimala river (90 km or 56 mi) originates from the Thattamalai hills. A small portion of Kallada river also falls in the southern border of the district. Pamba, Achankovil and Manimala rivers together drain more than 70% of the total area of Pathanamthitta. [14] [15]


The district headquarters is at Pathanamthitta town. The district administration is headed by the District Collector. She is assisted by five Deputy Collectors holding charges of general matters, revenue recovery, land acquisition, land reforms and election. Under the three tier system of panchayat in rural areas, Pathanamthitta has one district panchayat, 9 block panchayat and 57 grama panchayats. Under the single tier system in urban areas, there are 4 municipalities in the district.

As per the Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008, Pathanamthitta has five Assembly constituencies, down from eight. However, the district was unified into a single Parliamentary constituency, thus contributing a seat to the Lok Sabha. The Pathanamthitta parliamentary constituency is formed by including all the five state legislative assembly constituencies of the district along with two other assembly constituencies in the neighbouring Kottayam district. [16] [17]

Pathanamthitta town is the administrative headquarters of the Pathanamthitta district. The district is divided into two revenue divisions- Thiruvalla and Adoor. [18]

Municipal towns

There are 4 municipal towns in the district. They are: [19]

Legislative representation

There is a Lok Sabha constituency in Pathanamthitta: Pathanamthitta.

There are five Kerala Legislative Assembly seats in Pathanamthitta district. [20]

Kerala Legislative Assembly Constituencies from Pathanamthitta district (5)
Sl no.ConstituencyMemberPartyAlliance
1 Thiruvalla Mathew T. Thomas JD(S)   LDF
2 Ranni Pramod Narayan KC(M)   LDF
3 Aranmula Veena George CPI(M)   LDF
4 Konni K. U. Jenish Kumar CPI(M)   LDF
5 Adoor Chittayam Gopakumar CPI   LDF


The district is divided into two revenue divisions which together incorporate six Taluks within them. [18]

Thiruvalla Mallappally Ranni [18]
Kozhencherry Adoor Konni [18]

Revenue villages

Pathanamthitta district is divided into 70 revenue villages for the ease and decentralisation of its revenue administration. [18] They are further incorporated into 6 taluks as eludicated below. [18]

Thiruvalla Taluk

Mallappally Taluk

Ranni Taluk

Kozhencherry Taluk

Adoor Taluk

Konni Taluk


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
source: [21]

According to the 2011 census Pathanamthitta district has a population of 1,197,412, [3] roughly equal to the nation of Timor-Leste [22] or the US state of Rhode Island. [23] This gives it a ranking of 399th in India (out of a total of 640). [3] The district has a population density of 453 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,170/sq mi). [3] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −3.12%. [3] Pathanamthitta has a sex ratio of 1129 females for every 1000 males, [3] and a literacy rate of 96.93%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 13.74% and 0.68% of the population respectively. [3]

Languages of Pathanamthitta district (2011) [24]

   Malayalam (99.13%)
  Others (0.87%)

Malayalam is the predominant language, spoken by 99.13% of the population. Small minorities of Tamil speakers live in urban areas. [24]

According to the Census of India 2001, the district had a population of 1,234,016 with a density of 467 persons per square kilometre. [25] This is the lowest density in the State after Idukki and Wayanad. [26] Schedule tribes and castes comprise 13% of the total population. The female to male ratio is 1094:1000, which is the highest among the districts in the State. [27]


Religions in Pathanamthitta district (2011) [28]
Other or not stated

Hinduism (57%) is followed by the majority of population of Pathanamthitta. Christians (Malankara Orthodox, Marthoma Church and Pentecostal) are majority (38%) form significant minority. [28]


Trivandrum International Airport (TRV) at Thiruvananthapuram (119 km or 74 mi) and Cochin International Airport at Kochi (137 km or 85 mi) are the nearest airports. Aranmula International Airport was planned at Aranmula, 18 km from Pathanamthitta town but was cancelled in 2018. The Pathanamthitta Sabarimala airport is being planned in Konni.



Sabarimala Sabarimala 2.jpg

With a number of fairs and festivals, Pathanamthitta district is known as the "headquarters of pilgrimage tourism." [29] The district receives an estimated 3 to 4 million pilgrims during the festival season of Sabarimala temple. [30] The temple is dedicated to the Hindu deity, Ayyappan. The district is a host to Asia's biggest and the world's second largest Christian convention, the Maramon Convention [31]

MaramonConvention 2009.JPG
Maramon Convention: Asia's biggest Christian gathering

It is an eight-day Christian gathering in the month of February, conducted by the Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church and dedicated to gospel preaching by renowned Christian missionaries from all over the world, and held at Maramon on the sand-bed of Pamba River. The three-day Christian gathering is held at Makkamkunnu, Pathanamthitta known as Makkamkunnu Convention by Malankara Orthodox Church. The Cherukolpuzha Hindu convention, Kadammanitta devi temple, the 10th century Kaviyoor mahadeva temple, Parthasarathi temple at Aranmula and anikkattilammakshethram [32] are some of the Hindu religious places of interest.

anikkattilammakshethram Anikkattilammakshjethram.jpg

The most important and famous Christian center is Parumala St Peters, St Paul's and St Gregorios Orthodox Church ( famous for the tomb of Saint Gregorios (Parumala Thirumeni). Millions of Pilgrims visit this church annually.

St. George Orthodox Church, Chandanapally or Chandanapally Valiyapalli is one of the biggest churches in South India, located at a village named Chandanapally, Pathanamthitta District.

St. George Orthodox Church, Chandanapally or Chandanapally Valiyapalli is one of the biggest churches in South India, located at a village named Chandanapally, Pathanamthitta District in Kerala state of India. Chandanappally Valiyapally.jpg
St. George Orthodox Church, Chandanapally or Chandanapally Valiyapalli is one of the biggest churches in South India, located at a village named Chandanapally, Pathanamthitta District in Kerala state of India.

St. George Orthodox Church, Mylapra or Mylapra Valiyapalli or Chakkittayil palli (ചക്കിട്ടേൽ പള്ളി) is one of the famous Georgian pilgrim centre which is very close to Pathanamthitta District headquarters.

St. George Orthodox Church, Mylapra Mylapra Valiyapalli.png
St. George Orthodox Church, Mylapra

Some of the other Christian places of interest are St. Mary's Orthodox church at Niranam, St. Thomas Ecumenical Church at Nilackal, the Mor Ignatius Dayro Manjinikkara of the Syriac Orthodox Church of India, St Stephen's Jacobite Church, Parumala Seminary and St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Thumpamon also known as Thumpamon Valiya Pally, headquarters of Thumapmon Diocese of Malankara Orthodox Church. The churches at Niranam and Nilackal (Chayal) are believed to be among the seven churches founded by St. Thomas the Apostle. [33] [34] The Muslim colourful Chandanakkudam festival of the Jama — Al Mosque at Pathanamthitta town attracts many visitors. Although these places are religious in nature, they attract people from all faiths.

Perunthenaruvi water falls Perunthenaruvi01.jpg
Perunthenaruvi water falls

The district is known for its reserve forest and wild life. Perunthenaruvi water falls, Kakki reservoir surrounded by forest and wild animals, dam sites at Moozhyar and Maniyar, elephant training centre at Konni, Charalkunnu hill station are ideal locations for nature enthusiasts. Trekking to the Sabari Hills during January to March is also organized by Pathanamthitta District Tourism Promotion Council (DTPC).

Pathanamthitta district has places known for its historical importance. Among them are, ancient Valiyakoickal Temple and Palace at Pandalam, monument of Velu Thampi Dalawa at Mannadi and the Muloor Smarakom (Muloor memorial). Pandalam was the capital of the ancient Travancore kingdom.

The district has other tourist attractions. Aranmula is a major attraction for its famous metal mirrors and snake boat race. The school of traditional arts attracts foreign visitors. Founded by French artist Louba Schild, the school teaches kathakali, classical dance, classical music as well as kalarippayattu. The palace at Aranmula Aranmula kottaram has a history of 200 years. [35]

The Cherukolpuzha Convention, in Pathanamthitta is an important religious convention of the Hindus. It is held at Cherukole on the sand banks of Pamba River, usually in February every year. It is organized by the Ayroor-Cherukolpuzha Hindumatha Maha Mandalam at Vidyadhiraja Nagar at Ayroor village. [36]

The Maramon Convention, one of the largest Christian convention in Asia, is held at Maramon, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India annually during the month of February on the vast sand-bed of the Pampa River next to the Kozhencherry Bridge. It is organised by Mar Thoma Evangelistic Association, the missionary wing of the Mar Thoma Church.

The Church of God (Full Gospel) in India, Kerala State, holds its annual convention in Tiruvalla town center. This is usually held in the month of January and is a large gathering of Pentecostal Christians.

Flora and fauna

The forests of the district have excellent wild life habitats. A variety of animals and birds can be found. Tigers, elephants, gaur, deer, monkeys and other wild animals are found in the forest. Giant squirrel, lion-tailed macaques, barking deer and bear can also be spotted in the reserve. Malabar grey hornbill and great Indian hornbill are found. Wide variety of other birds such as sunbirds, woodpeckers and kingfishers can also be seen.

The existence of the wildlife habitat is under threat from various areas. Pollution from fertilizer and industries and illegal sand mining are the major threats. Issues connected to Sabarimala pilgrimage such as clearing of forest land and large amount of waste discharged also threatens the habitat. [14] [37]


Aranmula Uthrattathi Boat Race Kerala boatrace.jpg
Aranmula Uthrattathi Boat Race

The Aranmula Boat Race is part of a festival celebrated during the month of September. Though the snake boat race is also performed at nearby places, the race held at Aranmula is unique because of the boats' shape and design. Maramadimatsaram (Ox Race) is another such seasonal sport. This is held as part of the largest annual cattle fair of Central Travancore region. The race is held in three categories. [38]

Notable people

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adoor</span> Municipality in Kerala, India

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Kulanada is a village in Pandalam, that is located in the district of Pathanamthitta bordering with Alappuzha district in Kerala state within India. Kulanada assumed its name from the combination of words "Kulam" and "Nada". Kulam meaning pond and Nada meaning the temple where the king of Pandalam worshiped.

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{{Infobox settlement | name = Kidangannoor | native_name = | native_name_lang = | other_name = | nickname = | settlement_type = village | image_skyline = | image_alt = | image_caption = | pushpin_map = India Kerala#India | pushpin_label_position = right | pushpin_map_alt = | pushpin_map_caption = Location in Kerala, India | coordinates = 9°17′45″N76°41′0″E | subdivision_type = Country | subdivision_name =  India | subdivision_type1 = State | subdivision_name1 = Kerala | subdivision_type2 = District | subdivision_name2 = Pathanamthitta | established_title = | established_date = | founder = | named_for = | government_type = | governing_body = | unit_pref = Metric | area_footnotes = | area_rank = | area_total_km2 = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = | population_total = 16364 | population_as_of = 2001 | population_rank = | population_density_km2 = auto | population_demonym = | population_footnotes = | demographics_type1 = Languages | demographics1_title1 = Official | demographics1_info1 = Malayalam, English | timezone1 = IST | utc_offset1 = +5:30 | postal_code_type = PIN | postal_code = 689514 | registration_plate = KL- | blank1_name_sec1 = Nearest city | blank1_info_sec1 = Thiruvalla, Kozhencherry, [[Panda lam] | website = | footnotes = }}

Pullad (പുല്ലാട്) is a town in Thiruvalla Taluk in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala. Pullad is a part of Koipuram village, "Special Grade below Municipality level" 12 km east from Thiruvalla SCS Junction and 3 km from Kumbanad along the TK Road.It Is Part Of Thiruvalla Sub-District.

Perunad (Ranni-Perunad) is a scenic hilly village in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala state, India.Nearest Railway Station Is Thiruvalla Located At A Distance Of 62 km. It's located on the banks of Pamba River and Kakkadu River.

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The Pathanamthitta district has four types of administrative hierarchies:


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