|Administrative region||Western Greece|
|• Mayor||Kostas Peletidis (KKE) (since 2014)|
|• Municipality||334.9 km2 (129.3 sq mi)|
|• Municipal unit||125.4 km2 (48.4 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|• Municipality density||640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|• Municipal unit||170,896|
|• Municipal unit density||1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Vehicle registration||ΑΧ, AZ|
Patras (Greek : Πάτρα, romanized: Pátra [ˈpatra] ; Katharevousa and Ancient Greek : Πάτραι; Latin : Patrae ) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, 215 km (134 mi) west of Athens. The city is built at the foot of Mount Panachaikon, overlooking the Gulf of Patras.
As of the 2011 census, the city of Patras has a population of 167,446 and the municipal unit has 170,896 inhabitants; the municipality has 213,984 inhabitants.The population of its functional urban area was 217,555 in 2011. The core settlement has a history spanning four millennia. In the Roman period, it had become a cosmopolitan center of the eastern Mediterranean whilst, according to the Christian tradition, it was also the place of Saint Andrew's martyrdom.
Dubbed as Greece's 'Gate to the West', Patras is a commercial hub, while its busy port is a nodal point for trade and communication with Italy and the rest of Western Europe. The city has two public universities and one technological institute, hosting a large student population and rendering Patras an important scientific centre [ citation needed ] with a field of excellence in technological education. The Rio-Antirio Bridge connects Patras' easternmost suburb of Rio to the town of Antirrio, connecting the Peloponnese peninsula with mainland Greece.
Every year, in February, the city hosts one of Europe's largest carnivals. Notable features of the Patras Carnival include its mammoth satirical floats and balls and parades, enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of visitors in a Mediterranean climate. Patras is also famous for supporting an indigenous cultural scene active mainly in the performing arts and modern urban literature. It was European Capital of Culture in 2006.
Patras is 215 km (134 mi) west of Athens by road, 94 km (58 mi) northeast of Pyrgos, 7 km (4.3 mi) south of Rio, 134 km (83 miles) west of Corinth, 77 km (48 miles) northwest of Kalavryta and 144 km (89 mi) northwest of Tripoli.
A central feature of the urban geography of Patras is its division into upper and lower sections. This is the result of an interplay between natural geography and human settlement patterns; the lower section of the city (Kato Poli), which includes the 19th-century urban core and the port, is adjacent to the sea and stretches between the estuaries of the rivers of Glafkos and Haradros. It is built on what was originally a bed of river soils and dried-up swamps. The older upper section (Ano Poli) covers the area of the pre-modern settlement, around the Fortress, on what is the last elevation of Mount Panachaikon (1,926 m (6,319 ft)) before the Gulf of Patras.
The largest river in the area is the Glafkos, flowing to the south of Patras. Glafkos springs in Mount Panachaikon and its water is, since 1925, collected in a small mountainous reservoir-dam near the village of Souli and subsequently pumped in order to provide energy for the country's first hydroelectric plant.Other smaller streams are Charadros , Meilichos , Kallinaos, Panagitsa and the mountain torrent Diakoniaris.
Patras has a Mediterranean climate. It features the typical mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers, with spring and autumn being pleasant transitional seasons. Autumn in Patras, however, is wetter than spring.
|Climate data for Patras (1955–1997)|
|Average high °C (°F)||14.5|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||6.1|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||89.1|
|Average rainy days||12.0||10.6||9.9||8.4||5.3||2.2||1.0||1.0||3.6||7.8||11.0||13.2||86|
|Source: Hellenic National Meteorological Service|
Of great importance for the biological diversity of the area and the preservation of its climate is the swamp of Agyia, a small and coastal aquatic ecosystem of only 30 ha (74 acres), north of the city centre. The main features of this wetland are its apparent survival difficulty, being at the heart of a densely populated urban centre that features a relatively arid climate and its admittedly high level of biodiversity, with over 90 species of birds being observed until the early 1990s, according to a study by the Patras Bureau of the Hellenic Ornithological Society.
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The first traces of settlement in Patras date to as early as the third millennium BC, in the area of modern Aroi. Patras flourished for the first time in the Post-Helladic or Mycenean period (1580–1100 BC). Ancient Patras was formed by the unification of three Mycenaean villages in modern Aroi, namely ancient Aroe, Antheia (from mythological Antheia) and Mesatis. Mythology has it that after the Dorian invasion, a group of Achaeans from Laconia led by the eponymous Patreus established a colony. In antiquity Patras remained a farming city. It was in Roman times that it became an important port.
After 280 BC and prior to the Roman occupation of Greece, Patras played a significant role in the foundation of the second "Achaean League" (Achaiki Sympoliteia), along with the cities of Dyme, Tritaea and Pharai. Later on, and following the Roman occupation of Greece in 146 BC, Patras played a key role, and Augustus refounded the city as a Roman colony in the area. In addition, Patras has been a Christian centre since the early days of Christianity, and it is the city where Saint Andrew was crucified.
In the Byzantine era Patras continued to be an important port as well as an industrial centre. [ citation needed ] One of the most scholarly philosophers and theologians of the time, Arethas of Caesarea was born at Patrae, at around 860. By the 9th century, there are strong signs the city was prosperous: the widow Danielis from Patras had accumulated immense wealth in land ownership, [ citation needed ] the carpet and textile industry, and offered critical support in the ascent of Basil I the Macedonian to the Byzantine throne.
In 1205 the city was captured by William of Champlitte and Villehardouin, and became a part of the principality of Achaea. It became the seat of the Barony of Patras, and its Latin archbishop primate of the principality. In 1408, Patras became Venetian, until it was recaptured in 1430 by the Despotate of Morea and its despot Constantine Palaiologos, who thus succeeded in recovering for the Byzantine Empire the whole of the Morea, apart from Venetian possessions. The administration of Patras was given to George Sphrantzes, while Constantine was immediately contested by the Ottoman Empire and later, in 1449, became emperor of the Byzantine empire.
Patras remained a part of the Despotate of Morea until 1458, when it was conquered by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmet II. Under the Ottomans, it was known as "Baliabadra", from the Greek : Παλαιά Πάτρα ('Old Patras'), as opposed to Νέα Πάτρα ('new Patra'), the town of Ypati in Central Greece. Though Mehmet granted the city special privileges and tax reductions, it never became a major centre of commerce. Venice and Genoa attacked and captured it several times in the 15th and 16th centuries, but never re-established their rule effectively, except for a period of Venetian rule in 1687–1715 after the Morean War.
In 1772 a naval battle took place off the city between the Russians and Ottomans.
Patras was one of the first cities in which the Greek Revolution began in 1821; [ citation needed ] After the war, most of the city and its buildings were completely destroyed. The new city was planned under the supervision of Stamatis Voulgaris following orders by Ioannis Kapodistrias.the Ottoman garrison, confined to the citadel, held out until 1828. Finally the city was surrendered on 7 October 1828 to the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese, under the command of General Maison.
Patras developed quickly into the second-largest urban centre in late-19th-century Greece.The city benefited from its role as the main export port for the agricultural produce of the Peloponnese.
In the early 20th century, Patras developed fast and became the first Greek city to introduce public streetlights and electrified tramways.The war effort necessitated by the First World War hampered the city's development and also created uncontrollable urban sprawl after the influx of displaced persons from Asia Minor after the 1922 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. In the Second World War the city was a major target of Italian air raids. In the Axis occupation period, a German military command was established and German and Italian troops stationed in the city. After the liberation in 1944, the city recovered, but in later years was increasingly overshadowed by the urban pole of Athens. Since 2014, mayor of the city is Kostas Peletidis.
The city is divided into the upper and the lower section, connected with roads and broad stairs. The upper section (Ano Poli) is the older and the more picturesque; however, the lower section (Kato Poli) is laid out according to the 1858 city plan, featuring a variety of squares. The most notable of these are the Psila Alonia and the Georgiou I Square. A number of notable neoclassical buildings are to be found, including the Apollon Theatre in Georgiou I Square, the City Hall, the headquarters of the Local Trade Association and the Court of Justice. A replica of Patras Lighthouse, the city's emblematic old lighthouse – which was at the dock of Ayios Nikolaos – rises at the end of Trion Navarchon street, near the temple of Saint Andreas.
In general, much of Patras' coastline is framed by roads and avenues running alongside; these include Dymaion Coast to the south and Iroon Polytechneiou Street to the north.
Patras and its region is home to various Ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine Monuments, including the Roman Odeon, the Fortress of Rio and the Fortress (castle) of Patras.More specifically, the main sights of the city are:
As a part of the 2006 European Capital of Culture programme, there was a project for the restoration of the city's architectural heritage. [ citation needed ]
Patras' center is characterised by a composition of architectural currents and trends. During the 19th century many neoclassical buildings were constructed in the city.[ citation needed ] Α representative example are the façades around the central square of the city (Georgiou I square). The neoclassical Apollo Theatre, a work of Ernst Ziller, is next to the modernist building of the Hall of Literature and Art (Μέγαρο Λόγου και Τέχνης).[ citation needed ]
Patra is a relatively newly built city, as its medieval buildings were completely destroyed in the Greek War of Independence. The oldest surviving buildings (apart from ancient monuments and the castle) are the church of Pantocrator in Ano Poli and a residential building (Tzini's house) at the corner of Agiou Nikolaou and Maisonos street, built in 1832. The area on the south of the castle, around the Roman Odeon
and the church of Pantokrator, in the Upper Town (Ano Poli),
is the most appealing of the city, because of its status as the only area where construction height is limited to two-storey buildings.
Historical buildings and mansions of the city, apart Tzini's house, include also the Prapopoulos building, Golfinopoulos mansion (Alhambra), Perivolaropoulos mansion, Palamas house, while among the demolished after WWII were Tsiklitiras mansion, Kanellopoulos house, Chaidopoulos building, Frangopoulos house, Green mansion and Mineyko mansion.
Nowadays, the municipal units of Rio, Paralia, Messatida and Vrachnaiika have functionally become a part of the wider urban complex of Patras. Apart from the city center, the main districts of Patras are:
Patras municipal unit:
Rio municipal unit:
Patras is the regional capital of Western Greece and the capital of the Achaea regional unit. Since 2011, the city is also the capital of the administrative division, which includes (along with Western Greece) the regions of Peloponnese and the Ionian Islands.
The current municipality of Patras was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of 5 municipalities that made up the Patras Urban Area. These former municipalities, which became municipal units, are: (in parenthesis their population, 2011)
The municipality has an area of 334.858 km2 (129 sq mi), the municipal unit 125.420 km2 (48 sq mi).
The following list presents demographic data on the municipality of Patras over the years 2012.
From 2011 on, can data also reflect the city's urban area population, as all the municipalities that made up the Patras Urban Area were joined to create the new larger Patras municipality, formed at the 2011 local government reform.
Heavy infrastructure works performed in the 2000s include the Peiros-Parapeiros dam (to provide water supply for Patras and surrounding towns)and a "small industries" park that will be constructed next to the Glaykos river and provide an easy connection with the new port.
The city is one of the main Greek internet and GRNET hubs and is connected with high speed lines to Athens as part of the backbone. A metropolitan optical network will be deployed in the city, with a total length of 48 km (30 mi).
Two major state hospitals operate in the city: the Agios Andreas Hospital is the oldest of the two; and General University Hospital of Patras. There also exists two smaller state hospitals, Karamandanio - a children's hospital, and the Center of Chest Diseases of Southwestern Greece. A large range of private hospitals and clinics operate in parallel.
Numerous art venuesand an ultra-modern archaeological museum were constructed for the needs of European Culture Capital designation. The cultural and educational facilities include the Municipal Library, the university libraries, many theatres, the municipal art gallery, the University of Patras's facilities, the Hellenic Open University and the Technical Institute of Patras. A number of research facilities are also established in the university campus area.
The economy of the city largely depends on its service sector. Its main economic activities include retailing, logistics, financial and public sector services. Patras suffered a severe problem of deindustrialization in the late 1980s and 1990s when a number of major productive units shut down in successive order. [ citation needed ] As a result, a considerable portion of the city's workforce and the city's economic planning in its entirety had to be re-evaluated and restructured by the authorities giving emphasis on the scientific research and technology sector.[ citation needed ] The University of Patras contributed by working towards this goal, using its service and technology sectors.
The area still retains some of its traditional winemaking and foodstuff industries as well as a small agricultural sector. [ citation needed ] Major businesses in Patras include:
Most Greek banks have their regional headquarters for Western Greece in Patras.
In 2010, the new Infocenter of Patras was established, inside the neoclassical building of the former market "Agora Argyri", in Ayiou Andreou street. The building includes a conference hall, along with multi-purpose and exhibitional spaces.The regional unit of Achaea has about 4,800 hotels rooms and in 2006, 286,000 tourists, mainly from Greece, stayed in the area for a total of 634,000 days.
Patras still has a large manufacturing base for a variety of industries.
Titan Cement Company operates a large cement factory, with a private port, in Psathopyrgos, a suburb of Patras.
Patras hosts several timber manufacturing companies, and a wood distribution center of Shelman. The largest local company is Abex.The paper sector is also active including a paper factory belonging to Georgia-Pacific (Delica) and two important Greek companies, Elite and El-pack, headquartered in the city.
Patras has several packing and industrial equipment companies. The most important of them are the local Antzoulatos and the multinational Frigoglass, a subsidiary of Coca-Cola, headquartered in the suburbs of Patras. Ideal Bikes is the leading bike producer in Greece, with large export activities.
The once omnipresent textile industry of the city is now almost defunct after the shut-down of the huge factory of Peiraiki-Patraiki (Πειραϊκή-Πατραϊκή), followed by numerous smaller textile industries. This had an important impact on the city's economy and resulted in high levels of unemployment in the 1990s. [ citation needed ] The remains of the facilities still cover hundreds of acres in the south side of the city.
Patras companies also focus in dress production, the most important among them being DUR.[ citation needed ]
Some of the largest industries in the city belong to the soft drinks and drinks sector. There are factories from Coca-Cola HBC and Athenian Brewery established in area, along with the facilities of the largest local company in soft-drinks production, Loux (ΛΟΥΞ). The city is also home to many leading Greek wineries and distilleries, among them the venerable Achaia Clauss and Parparoussi located in Rio. In the food sector, Friesland Foods, through the local subsidiary NoyNoy, operates a new yogurt factory in the city's industrial area. Patras is also home to important fish-farming companies (Andromeda, Nireus). ECOFEED operates in the industrial zone of Patras, the largest fish-feeds factory in the Mediterranean. The city hosts the second-largest flour-mills in Greece, Kepenou-Mills.
Acciona has completed the largest wind park in Greece, on the Panachaiko mountain, overlooking the city of Patras.The Public Electric Company, operates a small hydroelectric plant on river Glafkos.
Intracom (Greece's largest multinational provider of telecommunications products) facilities in Patras house the offices of Telecommunications Software Development, Terminal Equipment Design, Development Programmes, and Support Services divisions. Expansion plans have recently been completed.INTRASOFT, another core company of INTRACOM holdings group, has recently (2018) began operations in Patras and it is expected to expand its activities in 2019. The Corallia Innovation Hub, Innohub hosts many companies focusing on Microelectronics. Among them one of the largest is the multinational software company Citrix Systems which operates a R&D centre with more than 100 computer scientists and engineers. Another company that maintains an R&D center in Patras is Dialog Semiconductor, a UK-based manufacturer of semiconductor-based system solutions. Another large Greek IT company, Unisystems announced recently (October 2018) the signing of a cooperation agreement with the Patras-based IT company Knowledge SA, that lays the foundation for the establishment of a Remote Development Center in Patras.
Patras Science Park is an incubator for many small but upcoming technology companies.CBL Patras, a global manufacturer of specialty chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients, is a startup from a professor of the University of Patras.
Vianex, owned by Pavlos Giannakopoulos, has its largest production facilities in the industrial area of the city.
Nobacco, a Greek electronic cigarette brand, works mainly with cooperation with the university of Patras.
There has been a significant development in the R&D sector, in the last few years, as a result of the many research institutes and the University impact in the area. The Computer Technology Institute and the Industrial Systems Instituteof Greece are headquartered in Patras. The city is also a host to the FORTH-ICE-HT (Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Chemical Processes) and the Institute of Biomedical Technology.
The cultural activity of Patras includes the Patras International Festival (with various artistic activities, mainly in the fields of theatre and music), the Patras Carnival and the Poetry Symposium.
The city hosts many museums, including the Patras Archaeological Museum the History and Ethnology Museum, the Folk Art Museum, the Press Museum and the Technology Museum, the latter in the campus of Patras University.
Other cultural institutes are: the Visual Arts Workshop, the icon painting school, the Carnival Float Workshop, the Municipal Library, the Municipal Gallery, along with many private art galleries. The architectural heritage of the city is dominated by neo-classicism, but also includes structures from other periods. Patras is also a pilot city of the Council of Europe and EU Intercultural cities programme.
The Patras Municipal and Regional Theatre was founded in June 1988, having as its main stage the city's landmark, the Apollon Theatre. Throughout its existence it has mounted critically acclaimed performances ranging from ancient dramaturgy and modern Greek, to international repertoire. The theatre cooperates with other theatrical groups, such as the Viomichaniki (Industrial) group and the Michani Technis (Art Machine).
The Roman Odeon hosts ancient dramas in the summer, while the Pantheon theater, the Art Factory, the Lithographeion and the Agora theatres provide additional venues. The International Festival of Patras takes place every summer, with a program consisting mostly of plays—both ancient drama and modern theatre—as well as various musical events.
Patras has also a very strong indie rock scene with critically acclaimed bands such as Raining Pleasure, Abbie Gale, Serpentine, Doch an Doris and others.
In addition, there are several conservatoires and music schools, including one devoted exclusively to Byzantine music, several orchestras and choirs. [ citation needed ] There are also a number of dance schools, and there are plans to set up a dance theatre within the context of the Patras Municipal and Regional Theatre. The latter hosts a full-time professional theatre group, while there are several amateur groups performing in the city. [ citation needed ]
The Patras Carnival (Patrino Karnavali) is the largest event of its kind in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe, with a heritage reaching back 160 years. The events begin in January and last until Clean Monday.
Patras was chosen by the European Commission to be the European Capital of Culture for the year 2006. The concept of the event revolved around the main theme of "Bridges" and "Dialogues", drawing benefit from the city's rich history and its position as a "Gate to the West", to underline the essence of the productive interaction of culture and civilisations in Europe. The EU Commission found Patras' plans very ambitious and also commented that a successful hosting of the title by a medium-sized city would make it possible to redefine the meaning of the term Cultural Capital.
The Selection Panel for 2006 noted in its final report:
The current cultural activity of the city includes the Patras International Festival (various artistic activities, mainly in the field of music), the Patras Carnival and the Poetry Symposium (organised each year for the 25 years by an ad hoc committee at the University of Patras).The Patras 2006 proposal focuses on two central ideas: "bridges" and "dialogues". Cultural managers from Patras and the general public will be involved in developing these ideas. Further, four poles/programmes of cultural attraction will be developed. The first, "A city for Europe", will relate to the architectural heritage, the industrial revolution and similar subjects. "The counterpart cities" programme will be developed in the fields of human and social sciences and in diverse artistic fields. "The three sea battles" will present a cultural programme focusing on peace and understanding. The last theme, "The many homelands", is directly linked to the etymology of the name of the city. This programme will among other things concentrate on art workshops, the transfer of know-how, way of life and entertainment.
In 2006 various cultural events were held in the context of the European Capital of Culture. Among the artists presenting their work in Patras were: Gary Burton, Maxim Shostakovich, Ian Anderson - with the Patras Municipal Orchestra, Jean Louis Trintignant, Roberto Benigni, Eros Ramazzotti and José Carreras.With the completion of the Capital of Culture programme, a part of the old Ladopoulos factory was renovated to host exhibitions, a small theatre (named the Art Factory), was built and a number of neoclassical buildings around the city were renovated as part of a plan to preserve the city's architectural heritage and link it to its cultural life. The new Archaeological museum was completed in 2009. Its globe-like roof and modern architectural design enhances the town's northern entrance, taking its place among the other city landmarks.
Patras has several sports facilities and important teams in almost all the major Greek leagues. Panachaiki Gymnastiki Enosi, Apollon Patras, E.A. Patras and NO Patras are historically the major sports clubs based in the city, specialising in football, basketball, volleyball and water polo. The city's national stadium, Pampeloponnisiako Stadium, was renovated and expanded in 2004.Since 2009, a new event, the Patras International Circuit Kart takes place every September, turning the city streets into a circuit.
The city has hosted several international sports events, such as the 1995 Basketball Under-19 World Cup (preliminaries), the 1995 Men's European Volleyball Championship (preliminaries), the 1997 Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships, the 2001 World Wrestling Championships, the EuroBasket 2003 Women, the 2003 International Children's Games, a group stage of the football tournament in the 2004 Olympic Games, the 2007 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, the 2008 World Deaf Football Championships and the 2019 Mediterranean Beach Games.
|Notable sport clubs based in Patras|
|Club||Sport||Current League||Venue||Location||Capacity||Established||Highest ranking|
|Panachaiki G.E.||Football||Super League 2||Kostas Davourlis Stadium||Agyia||11,321||1891||4th (1973)|
|Volleyball||Volleyball League||Panachaiki Indoor Arena||500||1928||8th (2016)|
|Apollon Patras||Basketball||Basket League||Apollon Patras Indoor Hall||Perivola||3,500||1926||6th (1986)|
|E.A. Patras||Volleyball||A2 Ethniki||EAP Indoor Hall||Agios Dionysios||2,200||1927||Champion (1938)|
|NO Patras||Water polo||A1 Ethniki||NOP Aquatic Centre||Akti Dymeon||3,000||1929||Champion (x 8)|
|Thyella||Football||Delta Ethniki||Fotis Aravantinos Stadium||Glafkos||3,000||1930||5th (B Ethniki)|
|Olympiada Patras|| Basketball |
| A2 League |
|Olympiada Indoor Hall||Taraboura||2,500||1961||8th (2002) |
|Promitheas Patras||Basketball||Basket League||Dimitris Tofalos Arena||Bozaitika||4,500||1985||2nd (2019)|
|Ormi Patras||Handball||A1 Women's||National Indoor Hall||Koukouli||1,000||2003||Champion (x 6)|
|NE Patras||Water polo||A2 Ethniki |
|Antonis Pepanos Aquatic Centre||Koukouli||4,000||2006||4th (2009) |
4th (x 3)
The city is the seat of the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Patras. As in the rest of the country, the largest denomination is the Orthodox Church, which represents the majority of the population. There is also a sizeable community of Roman Catholics and an Anglican church, part of the Church of England's Diocese in Europe.
The most significant church in the city is the Orthodox Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew, in the south west of the city center.The construction of the church began in 1908 under the supervision of the architect Anastasios Metaxas, followed by Georgios Nomikos. It was inaugurated in 1974. It is the largest church in Greece and the third-largest Byzantine-style church in the Balkans, after the Cathedral of Saint Sava in Belgrade and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia. It holds relics of Andrew the Apostle, which were returned to the city of Patras from St. Peter's Basilica, Rome in September, 1964, on the orders of Pope Paul VI. Other historical churches of the city are:
The first Jewish presence in the city was dated back to the Hellenistic era (see Romaniotes). After World War II, the community almost disappeared and the last synagogue closed in 1950.
There is a district of the city named Evreomnimata, where the old Jewish cemetery was located.
Local specialities include:
The city has a significant political history in modern Greece; famous politicians from Patras include the prime ministers Dimitrios Gounaris, the main leader of the anti-venizelist party in the 1910s, Stylianos Gonatas, a high-ranking officer, politician and one of the leaders of the "1922 Revolution", Andreas Michalakopoulos, a prominent liberal party cadre, foreign minister and prime minister, and Dimitrios Maximos, a distinguished economist, minister and finally prime minister in the civil war era. More recent figures include the Papandreou family, arguably the most influential in post World War II Greece, Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, the last democratically elected head of government before the establishment of the 1967 junta, and Costis Stephanopoulos, the former president of the Hellenic Republic.
The city has always been a sea-trade hub because of its strategic position. The port manages more than half of the foreign sea-passenger transportation in Greece,and has excellent car-ferry links with the Ionian islands and the major Adriatic ports of Italy. Additionally, a new port was built in the southern section of the city to accommodate the increased traffic and relieve the city centre from port operations. In 2011, this port went into operation. Ferries to Italy now dock there.
The port is connected by a number of daily routes to the Ionian islands Kerkyra, Kefallonia and Zakynthos, to the port of Igoumenitsa and to the Italian cities Ancona, Bari, Brindisi, Trieste and Venice.
A newly constructed, 20-kilometre (12 mi) ring road (the Bypass of Patras) was first opened in 2002 in order to alleviate heavy traffic throughout the city. A mini ring road (known as the "Mini bypass" of Patras) is now being constructed to alleviate heavy traffic-related problems in the city centre. Two large highways are under construction that will connect the seacoast and the new port with the Bypass of Patras. The first is over the small Diakoniaris river (from Eleftheriou Venizelou street until the Bypass'es exit in Eglykada), while the second consists of two roads, 4 km (2 mi) each, that will run in parallel with the Glafkos river. Another project will lead to an additional entrance to the downtown area by expanding Kanakari street.
The highway connection with Athens and Pyrgos is to be greatly upgraded.Patras will also be the central hub of the Ionia Odos highway, intended to bridge western Greece from Kalamata to Ioannina. The Rio-Antirio bridge is north of the city and links Peloponnese to mainland Greece, and was completed in August 2004.
Patras is bypassed by the Olympia Odos (A8) motorway, which is also part of the E55 route that crosses the Rio-Antirio Bridge, dominating the sealine across the Gulf of Corinth.
A rudimentary single, narrow gauge railway track crosses the city and connects it to Rio. In the past regional rail links were provided by the Hellenic Railways Organisation, connecting Patras to Athens and Piraeus as well as to Pyrgos and Kalamata. 400 m (1,312.34 ft) long. A new double standard gauge railway line to Korinth and further to Athens is under construction. The construction works are currently (2018) in progress close to the suburbs of Patras, but the remaining few Kilometres till the city centre and the new port are still under study because of various financial and technical problems.OSE announced the suspension of all the rail service in the Peloponnese in January 2011 so today (2018) the railway track is in use only by suburban trains that connect Patras with the adjacent villages of Rion and Agios Vasileios. The central passenger train station of Patras which is a small building constructed in 1954, lies to the west of the downtown area, between Othonos-Amalias Avenue and the north port. The main freight station of Aghios Andreas lies further to the south, next to the homonymous church and it is not in use any more. Finally, the old depot of Aghios Dionysios, consisting of about ten tracks, offers basic turntable and roundhouse facilities; it is about
Patras is served by buses. There are two transport lines to and from the University of Patras and some nearby lines to city suburbs like Saravali, Glafkos, and Paralia. All the urban bus lines are about 40, with three numbers.[ clarification needed ]
Commuter rail services have recently been established by Proastiakos, with one line currently connecting Patras, Rio, and Agios Vasileios.
Regional bus links are provided by the KTEL bus company and connect the city to most of Greece.
Patras was the first Greek city to introduce public electrified tramways in the past. Before the economic crisis, there were proposals for reestablishment of tram lines.
Seasonal civilian air transport is provided by the military Patras Araxos Airport, about 40 km (25 mi) from the city's centre.
Patras is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
Patras is twinned with:
Patras was selected as main motif for the €10 Greek Patras 2006 commemorative coin, minted in 2006. This coin was designed to commemorate an event signaling an enlightened course for Patras and serving as a reminder of the way in which culture can stimulate the economy and promote development, when Patras was appointed European Capital of Culture. On the obverse is the logo for Patras 2006 around the words "European Capital of Culture".
The city hosts consulates from the following countries:[ citation needed ]
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence started somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic and also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km (8,498 mi) in length, featuring many islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The country consists of nine traditional geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, and the Ionian Islands.
Thessaloniki, also known as Thessalonica, Saloniki or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of the geographic region of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace. It is also known in Greek as η Συμπρωτεύουσα, literally "the co-capital", a reference to its historical status as the Συμβασιλεύουσα or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, alongside Constantinople.
Argos is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is the largest city in Argolis and a major center for the area.
Piraeus, is a port city within the Athens urban area, in the Attica region of Greece. It is located 8 kilometres southwest of Athens’ city centre, along the east coast of the Saronic Gulf.
University of Patras is a public university in Patras, Greece. It is the third largest university in Greece with respect to the size of the student body, the staff, and the number of departments.
Aigio, also written as Aeghion, Aegion, Aegio, Egio, is a town and a former municipality in Achaea, West Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it is part of the municipality Aigialeia, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Aigio is the second largest city in Achaea after Patras. The municipal unit has an area of 151.101 km2. It has population of around 26,000 while the municipality has about 49,000 inhabitants. Aigio is a port town on the Gulf of Corinth, and takes its name from the ancient city of Aegium.
Peristeri is a suburban municipality in the northwestern part of the Athens agglomeration, Greece. With 139,981 inhabitants, it is the seventh-largest municipality of Greece by population.
Argostoli is a town and a former municipality on the island of Kefalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Kefalonia, of which it is a municipal unit. It has been the capital and administrative centre of Kefalonia since 1757, following a population shift down from the old capital of Agios Georgios to take advantage of the trading opportunities provided by the sheltered bay upon which Argostoli sits. Argostoli developed into one of the busiest ports in Greece, leading to prosperity and growth. The municipal unit has an area of 157.670 km2. The 2011 census recorded a population of 10,633 in the Argostoli municipal unit. Its largest towns are Argostóli, Razata (507), Dilináta (496) and Kompothekráta (449).
The Hellenic Railways Organisation or OSE is the Greek national railway company which owns, maintains and operates all railway infrastructure in Greece with the exception of Athens' rapid transit lines. Train services on these lines are run by TrainOSE S.A., a former OSE subsidiary. In addition, OSE owns and maintains the rolling stock used by TrainOSE and maintains preserved special rolling stock, withdrawn locomotives and railcars. OSE was founded in 1971, taking over from the Hellenic State Railways, which was founded in 1920.
Ilioupoli is a suburban municipality in the southeastern part of the Athens urban area, Greece. Its name is the modern form of the ancient name of Heliopolis in Egypt. Development of Ilioupoli started around 1924, when Greek refugees from Asia Minor settled there. Ilioupoli is twinned with Novi Sad (Serbia) and Larnaca (Cyprus).
Alexandroupoli or Alexandroupolis is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace. It has 57,812 inhabitants and is the largest city in Thrace and the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. It is an important port and commercial center of northeastern Greece.
The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, usually referred to simply as the University of Athens (UoA), is a public university in Athens, Greece.
Ernst Moritz Theodor Ziller (Greek: Ερνέστος Τσίλλερ, Ernestos Tsiller was a German born university teacher and architect who later became a Greek national. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, he was a major designer of royal and municipal buildings in Athens, Patras, and other Greek cities.
Araxos Airport is the airport of Patras, the third-largest city in Greece. It serves as a combined civilian and military airport and is located near its namesake, the village of Araxos, Achaea. It is also known as Agamemnon Airport and primarily is used as an active air base for the Hellenic Air Force, with some civilian services to European destinations during the summer months. The airport facilities were very limited until 2007, when the construction of a new 1,477 m2 arrivals building was completed. Today the airport terminal covers a total area of 2,300 m2.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Greece:
Rail transport in Greece has a history which began in 1869, with the completion of the then Athens & Piraeus Railway. From the 1880s to the 1920s the majority of the network was built, reaching its heyday in 1940. From the 1950s onward the railway system entered a period of decline culminating in the service cuts of 2011. Ever since the 1990s the network has been steadily modernized, but still remains smaller than its peak length. The operation of the Greek railway network is split between the Hellenic Railways Organisation (OSE), which owns and maintains the infrastructure and TrainOSE and other private companies that run the trains on the network. Greece is a member of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The UIC Country Code for Greece is 73.
After the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans and the following trends of Greek migration to the Diaspora, Greek architecture was concentrated mainly on the Greek Orthodox churches of the Diaspora. These churches, such as other intellectual centres built by Greeks, were used also as a meeting-place. The architectural style of these buildings was heavily influenced by the western European architecture.
The anti-austerity movement in Greece involves a series of demonstrations and general strikes that took place across the country. The events, which began on 5 May 2010, were provoked by plans to cut public spending and raise taxes as austerity measures in exchange for a €110 billion bail-out, aimed at solving the Greek government-debt crisis. Three people were killed on 5 May in one of the largest demonstrations in Greece since 1973.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Athens:
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