Patricia Crone

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Patricia Crone
Patricia-Crone 2013 Courtesy-of-Leiden-University.jpg
Born(1945-03-28)March 28, 1945
DiedJuly 11, 2015(2015-07-11) (aged 70)
Academic background
Academic work
Main interests Islamic studies; Quranic (Islamic) studies; scriptural exegesis; scholarship on Islamic origins
Notable works Hagarism (with M.A. Cook); Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam

Patricia Crone (March 28, 1945 July 11, 2015) was a Danish-American Orientalist, and historian specializing in early Islamic history. [1] Crone was a member of the Revisionist school of Islamic studies and questioned the historicity of the Islamic traditions about the beginnings of Islam. [2]

Contents

Early life, family and education

Crone was born in Kyndeløse Sydmark (south of Kyndeløse) 23 km northwest of Roskilde in Roskilde County, Denmark, on March 28, 1945. [3]

After taking the forprøve (preliminary exam) at University of Copenhagen, she went to Paris to learn French, and then to London where she determined to get into a university to become fluent in English. In 1974, she earned her PhD at the University of London, where she was a senior research fellow at the Warburg Institute until 1977.[ citation needed ] She was accepted as an occasional student at King's College London and followed a course in medieval European history, especially church-state relations.

Career

In 1977, Crone became a University Lecturer in Islamic history and a fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Crone became Assistant University Lecturer in Islamic studies and fellow of Gonville and Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge in 1990 and held several positions at Cambridge. [4] She served as University Lecturer in Islamic studies from 1992 to 1994, and as Reader in Islamic history from 1994-97.

In 1997, she was appointed to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, where she was named as Andrew W. Mellon Professor. [5] From 2002 until her death in 2015, she was a member of the Editorial Board of the journal Social Evolution & History . [6]

Personal life and demise

She died on July 11, 2015, aged 70, from cancer. [7]

Research

The major theme of Patricia Crone's scholarly life was the fundamental questioning of the historicity of Islamic sources which concern the beginnings of Islam. Her two best-known works concentrate on this topic: Hagarism and Meccan Trade. Three decades after Hagarism, Fred Donner called Crone's work a "milestone" in the field of Orientalist study of Islam. [8]

In their book Hagarism (1977), Crone and her associate Michael Cook, both then working at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, provided a new analysis of early Islamic history. They fundamentally questioned the historicity of the Islamic traditions about the beginnings of Islam. They tried to produce a picture of Islam's beginnings only from non-Arabic sources. By studying the only surviving contemporary accounts of the rise of Islam, which were written in Armenian, Greek, Aramaic, and Syriac by actual witnesses, they reconstructed a story of Islam's beginnings that differs from the story told by Islamic traditions. Crone and Cook claimed to be able to explain exactly how Islam came into being by the fusion of various Near Eastern civilizations under Arabic leadership. [9] Later, Crone refrained from this attempt of a detailed reconstruction of Islam's beginnings. [10] Yet she continued to maintain the basic results of her work:

In Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam (1987), Crone argued that the importance of the pre-Islamic Meccan trade had been grossly exaggerated. Furthermore, she found that Mecca was never part of any of the major ancient trade routes. She also suggested that while Muhammad never traveled much beyond the Hijaz, internal evidence in the Qur'an, such as its description of his opponents as "olive growers", might indicate that the events surrounding Muhammed took place nearer the Mediterranean than in Mecca. [11] (Was judged a "devastating critique of a commonplace of current historiographical accounts of the rise of Islam" in THE JOURNAL OF ASIAN STUDIES review by Frederick S. Paxton.) [12]

Though she began as a scholar of broader military and economic history of the Near and Middle East, Crone's later career focused mainly on "the Qur’an and the cultural and religious traditions of Iraq, Iran, and the formerly Iranian part of Central Asia". [13]

Bibliography

Coauthor

Sole author

Articles

Related Research Articles

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Muhammad Founder of Islam

Muhammad was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is believed to be the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Mecca Holiest city in Islam and the capital of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia

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Hegira Flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina

Hegira is a medieval Latin transliteration of the Arabic word meaning "departure" or "migration," among other definitions. Alternative transliterations of the word include Hijra or Hijrah. The word is commonly used to refer to the journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in the year 622. The Hijrah is also identified as the epoch of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri calendar, set to 16 July 622 in the Julian calendar or 19 July 622 in the Gregorian calendar.

Ḥanīf, meaning “renunciate”, refers to one who, according to Islamic belief, maintained the pure monotheism of the patriarch Abraham. More specifically, in Islamic thought, renunciates were the people who, during the pre-Islamic period or Jahiliyyah, were seen to have renounced idolatry and retained some or all of the tenets of the religion of Abraham, which was submission to God in its purest form. The word is found twelve times in the Quran and Islamic tradition tells of a number of individuals who were ḥunafā’. According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a ḥanīf and a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham.

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W. Montgomery Watt Scottish historian and Orientalist (1909–2006)

William Montgomery Watt was a Scottish Orientalist, historian, academic and Anglican priest. From 1964 to 1979, he was Professor of Arabic and Islamic studies at the University of Edinburgh.

<i>Hagarism</i> 1977 book by Patricia Crone and Michael Cook

Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World is a 1977 book about the early history of Islam by the historians Patricia Crone and Michael Cook. Drawing on archaeological evidence and contemporary documents in Arabic, Armenian, Coptic, Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Latin and Syriac, Crone and Cook depict an early Islam very different from the traditionally-accepted version derived from Muslim historical accounts.

Banū Makhzūm was one of the wealthy clans of the Quraysh. They are regarded as being among the three most powerful and influential tribes in Mecca before the advent of Islam, the other two being the Banu Hashim and the Banu Umayya Members of this clan can still be found in present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Michael Cook (historian)

Michael Allan Cook FBA is a British historian and scholar of Islamic history. Cook is the general editor of The New Cambridge History of Islam.

<i>Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam</i>

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References

  1. "Library of Congress Authorities". Library of Congress . Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  2. Stille, Alexander (2002-03-02). "Scholars Are Quietly Offering New Theories of the Koran". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  3. Obituary, nytimes.com; accessed July 23, 2015.
  4. "INSTITUTE APPOINTS NEW FACULTY MEMBERS". Archived from the original on December 8, 2004. Retrieved June 20, 2012.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link); "Dr. Crone, who is presently at Cambridge University, will be in residence at the Institute as of the beginning of the fall term in September 1997".
  5. "Faculty and Emeriti". Institute for Advanced Study. Archived from the original on March 4, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2007. Crone's work has challenged long-held explanations and provided new approaches for the social, economic, legal and religious patterns that transformed Late Antiquity.
  6. Social Evolution & History website; accessed July 17, 2015.
  7. Profile, Judith Herrin, opendemocracy.net; accessed July 17, 2015.
  8. Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 2 (December 2006), pp. 197-199
  9. Patricia Crone: Hagarism, 1977; pp. 106, 120 ff., and others
  10. Toby Lester: What is the Koran, in: The Atlantic, issue January 1999
  11. Patricia Crone: Hagarism, 1977; p. 24
  12. PAXTON, FREDERICK S. (August 1989). "Book Review of Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam". The Journal of Asian Studies. 48 (3): 575. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  13. "Patricia Crone", Institute for Advanced Study
  14. Custers, Martin H. (2016). Al-Ibāḍiyya: A Bibliography, Volume 3 (Second revised and enlarged ed.). Hildesheim-London-N.Y.: Olms Publishing. p. 186.