Paul Bérenger

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Paul Raymond Bérenger

Paul Berenger.png
4th Prime Minister of Mauritius
In office
30 September 2003 5 July 2005
President Anerood Jugnauth
Deputy Pravind Jugnauth
Preceded by Sir Anerood Jugnauth
Succeeded by Navin Ramgoolam
Leader of the Opposition
In office
17 December 2014 20 December 2016
President Kailash Purryag
Ameenah Gurib
Prime Minister Sir Anerood Jugnauth
Preceded by Pravind Jugnauth
Succeeded by Xavier-Luc Duval
In office
1 October 2013 15 September 2014
President Kailash Purryag
Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam
Preceded by Alan Ganoo
Succeeded by Pravind Jugnauth
In office
27 September 2007 23 January 2013
President Sir Anerood Jugnauth
Kailash Purryag
Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam
Preceded by Nando Bodha
Succeeded by Alan Ganoo
In office
5 July 2005 5 July 2006
President Sir Anerood Jugnauth
Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam
Preceded by Navin Ramgoolam
Succeeded by Nando Bodha
In office
5 July 1997 11 September 2000
President Cassam Uteem
Prime Minister Sir Anerood Jugnauth
Preceded by Navin Ramgoolam
Succeeded byVon Mally
In office
21 August 1983 30 August 1987
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor General Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
Veerasamy Ringadoo
Prime Minister Sir Anerood Jugnauth
Preceded byGaetan Duval
Succeeded byPrem Nababsingh
Deputy Prime Minister of Mauritius
In office
20 December 1995 10 July 1997
President Cassam Uteem
Karl Offmann
Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam
Anerood Jugnauth
In office
20 September 2000 30 September 2003
Preceded by Kailash Purryag
Succeeded by Pravind Jugnauth
Leader of the MMM
Assumed office
19 October 2013
Preceded by Alan Ganoo
Member of Parliament
for
Rose Hill & Stanley
Assumed office
15 September 1991
Personal details
Born (1945-03-26) 26 March 1945 (age 74)
Curepipe, British Mauritius
Political party Mauritian Militant Movement
Residence River Walk Community, Vacoas-Phoenix (Personal)
Alma mater Bangor University

Paul Raymond Bérenger GCSK, MP (born 26 March 1945) is a Mauritian politician who was Prime Minister of Mauritius from 2003 to 2005. He has been Leader of the Opposition on several occasions — from 1983 to 1987, 1997 to 2000, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2013, October 2013 to 15 September 2014, and again since December 2014. Following his party's defeat in the 2014 general elections, he became Leader of the Opposition for the sixth time, making him the longest ever to serve in this constitutional position. [1] He was also Deputy Prime Minister from 1995 to 1997 and again from 2000 to 2003, and he was a cabinet minister in the government of Anerood Jugnauth in 1982 and 1991. Bérenger, a Christian of Franco-Mauritian descent, has been the only non-Hindu Prime Minister of Mauritius, or, more particularly, the only Prime Minister who has not belonged to the Jugnauth or Ramgoolam families.

Contents

Early life and education

Bérenger was born to parents of French origin who were established in Mauritius in ancient generations.He completed his secondary schooling at the College du St Esprit in Quatres Bornes and did his higher studies in UK and France, and in 1969 went to UK to study French, and graduated from the Bangor University with a BA Hons in philosophy and French. [2] He later worked as a Trade Unionist from 1970 to 1982 before winning that year's general elections. [3]

Political career

Bérenger founded the Mauritian Militant Movement in 1969 along with Dev Veerasawmy and the Jeerubarkhan brothers. This party has always received more than 40% of direct votes in general elections.

1976 elections

The general elections of 1976 turned out to be a three-way contest between Prime Minister Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam's Mauritian Labour Party, the Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate (PMSD), and the MMM.

Rather than Bérenger, the MMM nominated its President, Anerood Jugnauth, as its candidate for Prime Minister of Mauritius. Bérenger proposed to hold the office of Minister of Finance in the Cabinet.

The election resulted in a hung-parliament, with 34 of the 70 seats in the National Assembly going to the MMM, 28 seats to the Labour Party, and 8 seats to the PMSD. Ramgoolam remained in office, however, by forging a coalition with the PMSD for a bare majority. Jugnauth was appointed Leader of the Opposition.

1982 Elections

Concerned about possible communal campaigning in the general elections of 1982, Bérenger made an alliance with the Mauritian Socialist Party (PSM) and its leader, Harish Boodhoo. He thought that Bodhoo would have a better chance than himself of attracting the vote of the Hindu majority. He still proposed Anerood Jugnauth as Prime Minister and Boodhoo as Deputy Prime Minister.

In 1982, the MMM won all 60 directly elected seats in the National Assembly (except for two seats allocated to Rodrigues Island, which the mainland parties typically do not contest). As proposed, Jugnauth became Prime Minister with Boodhoo his deputy and Bérenger as Minister of Finance.

1983 Elections

In early 1983, Bérenger proposed a constitutional amendment removing the executive powers of the Prime Minister and entrusting them to the Cabinet collectively. In this he was supported by Boodhoo, but Jugnauth strongly objected. Bérenger then sought a parliamentary motion of no confidence to have Jugnauth replaced as Prime Minister by Prem Nababsingh. Before the National Assembly could vote on the matter, however, Jugnauth dissolved Parliament without any notice and called a general election.

The MMM split, with Jugnauth and his supporters forming a new political party, the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), which included the PSM. The MSM fought the election as part of a broader alliance with the Labour Party and the PSDM. The results gave 41 seats to the MSM-led alliance and 19 to the MMM. Bérenger was appointed Leader of the Opposition.

Elections 1987 through 1995

Jugnauth and the MSM, in various electoral coalitions, handily won the 1987 election and the 1991 election. Bérenger and the MMM opposed Jugnauth in the former but entered into an alliance with him in the latter, and Bérenger was subsequently appointed Minister of External Affairs.

In 1993, Jugnauth dismissed Berenger and all Members of the MMM from the government and formed a new majority with the other parties. Bérenger then made an alliance with Navin Ramgoolam then new leader of the Mauritian Labour Party, proposing Ramgoolam as Prime Minister and Bérenger as his Deputy. This alliance won the 1995 elections with a 60-nil sweep of mainland Mauritian constituencies. Ramgoolam became Prime Minister with Bérenger as his Deputy. In 1997, however, Ramgoolam dismissed Bérenger and formed a new government without the MMM.

2000 Elections

In 1999, the national opinion polls showed that Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam's Labour Party was the favorite to win the elections due in 2000. In an hour-long meeting organized by Bodhoo, Berenger made up his quarrel with Jugnauth and agreed to an electoral alliance and a power-sharing deal, should they win the election. The MSM and the MMM would each contest 30 of the 60 mainland seats. If successful, Jugnauth would serve as Prime Minister for three years; he would then resign, assume the (largely, but not entirely, ceremonial) office of President of Mauritius and make way for Bérenger to succeed him as Prime Minister, with Jugnauth's son Pravind Jugnauth as his Deputy.

The MSM/MMM alliance won 54 of the 60 seats. Jugnauth became Prime Minister again, appointing a 25-member Cabinet with Bérenger as Deputy Prime Minister.

The power-sharing agreement was briefly in doubt when, in 2001, Bérenger faced a charge of aiding and abetting a murder suspect to escape arrest. Swaleha Joomun, a widow, was suing the deputy premier for facilitating the escape of Bissessur who was wanted in connection with a triple murder which occurred on 26 October 1996 in Port Louis. Joomun's husband was a victim of the murder. [4] [5] Bérenger defended himself by saying that the reason he had helped Bissessur was because the latter wanted to reveal what he knew on the escadron de la mort (death squad). A second private prosecution was lodged against Bérenger by Raju Mohit (a member of the Movement Republicain) but in both cases, the Director of Public Prosecutions of Mauritius gave a Nolle Prosequi. [6]

In 2003, Bérenger duly succeeded Jugnauth, who assumed the Presidency, as agreed.

Prime Minister

In 2003, Berenger took office as Prime Minister following the resignation of then Prime Minister Jugnauth after serving as his deputy for three years. He led the MSM/MMM coalition government for a period of one year and nine months before his alliance lost the elections to the Labour Party in 2005.

Paul Berenger remained Deputy Prime Minister of Mauritius for three years and following the agreement, Anerood Jugnauth resigned in September 2003 after serving for three years.

Leader of the Opposition

Berenger subsequently tried to run on his own but lost the 2005 elections to Ramgoolam's Labour Party

Paul Berenger has been the leader of the opposition since 2007 after the MMM lost the general elections in 2005 to the Alliance Sociale coalition led by Dr Navin Ramgoolam. The MMM also lost the subsequent elections in 2010.

In January 2013, Berenger announced that he had tonsil cancer in a press conference - he let the population know of his plans for treatment in France and that Alan Ganoo was to lead the MMM during his absence. Overall he appeared in good spirits and was confident of a return to mainstream politics. Different sources relayed by the lexpress.mu website also announced the entry into politics of his son, Emmanuel Bérenger. [7] [8] Following his successful treatment for cancer, he returned to his position as Leader of the Opposition on 1 October 2013.

After his party ended its alliance with the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), Berenger negotiated an alliance with the Labour Party on a power sharing deal whereby each party would nominate 30 candidates and, if successful in the election, would provide an equal number of Cabinet Ministers. Navin Ramgoolam would remain Prime Minister until a new constitution could be adopted to enhance the powers of the President, before resigning to make place for Bérenger to succeed him. This alliance lost the December 2014 elections, however, and Sir Aneerood Jugnauth, who had come out of retirement to lead L'alliance Lepep (Alliance of the People) was sworn in Prime Minister again, at the age of 84. In October 2019 Berenger went into the general elections with MMM not contracting any alliance with anyone. The MSM of Pravind Jugnauth won an overwhelming victory, although short of a three-quarter majority. Dr. Arvind Boolell of the labour party was appointed as leader of the opposition, as Navin Ramgoolam lost in his constituency. MMM managed to elect only nine MPs. The elections results are being challenged in a court of law as it is believed that they were rigged and they were everything but free and fair.

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Mauritian Militant Movement

The Mouvement Militant Mauricien (MMM) is a left-wing socialist political party in Mauritius. The party was formed by a group of students in the late 1960s. The MMM advocates what it sees as a "fairer" society, without discrimination on the basis of social class, race, community, caste, religion, gender or sexual orientation.

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The Labour Party is a centre-left social-democratic political party in Mauritius. It is one of four main Mauritian political parties along, with the Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM) and the Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate (PMSD). As a member of the Labour Party-MMM alliance, it elected four Members of Parliament in the general election of 2014. The party is led by Navin Ramgoolam.

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2000 Mauritian general election

The 2000 Mauritian general elections took place on 11 September 2000 for the National Assembly of Mauritius with the votes counted on 12 September 2000.

2010 Mauritian general election election

A general election was held in Mauritius on 5 May 2010. The coalition comprising Mauritius Labour Party under Navin Ramgoolam, the Militant Socialist Movement under Pravind Jugnauth and the Mauritian Social Democrat Party under Xavier Luc Duval, won a majority with 41 seats in the parliament. The Mauritian Militant Movement-led coalition under Paul Berenger finished second with 18 seats. The Mauritian Solidarity Front won one seat and the Rodrigues Movement won the two remaining seats. The elections were the ninth to be held since independence from the United Kingdom in 1968.

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1991 Mauritian general election

General elections were held in Mauritius on 15 September 1991. Three main parties gained seats in this election: the Militant Socialist Movement, Mauritian Militant Movement and the Labour Party. The MSM formed an alliance with the MMM and the Labour party formed an alliance with the Mauritian Social Democrat Party (PMSD). On 17 September 1991, results showed that MSM-MMM won 57 seats out of 60 elected seats. This gave 95% of seats to MSM-MMM leader Anerood Jugnauth and 5% to Labour Party-PMSD leader Navin Ramgoolam.

1995 Mauritian general election

General elections were held in Mauritius on 20 November 1995. The result was a landslide victory for the Labour Party-Mauritian Militant Movement alliance led by Navin Ramgoolam, which won all 60 constituency seats on Mauritius. Along with 1982, it was one of two elections in which a party won every seat. The Militant Socialist Movement (MSM) led by Anerood Jugnauth lost power after 13 years, with Jugnauth resigning two days after the results were announced. Navin Ramgoolam became Prime Minister and appointed Paul Berenger as Deputy Prime Minister.

The Militant Socialist Movement/Mauritian Militant Movement (MSM/MMM) is coalition party that formed the government of the Republic of Mauritius from September 2000 to July 2005. The coalition has been reformed in April 2012 after an electoral agreement between the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM) and Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM) was made with Sir Anerood Jugnauth as leader. The agreements remain the same, 30 seats for the MMM and 30 seats for the MSM. It has also been conveyed that SAJ would be prime minister for 3 years and Paul Berenger would take over for the rest of the parliamentary term if the coalition wins the next general elections. It has also been agreed that Pravind Jugnauth who is leader of the MSM will not be in the Front Bench of the coalition in an eventual government of the MSM/MMM. This is because he has been provisionally charged with using office for gratification by the Independent Commission Against Corruption. He will therefore seat as a back-bencher until he is dismissed from all accusations.

Alliance de LAvenir

The L'Alliance de L'avenir was a political alliance in Mauritius which was formed in 2010 in respect for the next parliamentary elections which were held on 5 May 2010. It is an alliance of the Labour Party, Mouvement Socialiste Militant and Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate. It was formed by the prime minister Dr. Navin Ramgoolam and is led by three other people, namely Rashid Beebeejaun, Xavier-Luc Duval and Pravind Jugnauth.

1983 Mauritian general election

General elections were held in Mauritius on 21 August 1983. The result was a victory for an alliance of the Militant Socialist Movement, the Labour Party and the Mauritian Social Democrat Party, which between them won 46 seats. The Militant Socialist Movement (MSM) won 32 seats, whilst the Labour Party secured 9 seats and PMSD five. This alliance allowed Jugnauth to continue as Prime Minister while bringing Seewoosagur Ramgoolam and Gaetan Duval back into the government after their severe defeat in the 1982 elections. Shortly after, Ramgoolam was appointed as Governor General, Duval became Deputy Prime Minister and Satcam Boolell became Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Nandcoomar Bodha MP is the former Minister of Tourism & Leisure of Mauritius. He has been holding the office since 11 May 2010 to 26 July 2011, He held the same office from 2000 to 2003 in the MSM/MMM coalition government. When Pravind Jugnauth was sworn as Deputy Prime Minister, he took the office of Minister of Agriculture in 2003 up to 2005.He was appointed 8th position in the Cabinet of Navin Ramgoolam.

Leela Devi Dookhun Luchoomun MP is the former Minister of Social Security of Mauritius serving in the cabinet of Navin Ramgoolam having been appointed on 11 May 2010 by President Anerood Jugnauth. She is Member of Parliament representing Constituency No 8, Moka & Quartier Militaire. She is a former Minister of Arts & Culture serving in the cabinet of Paul Berenger for a short period of 6 months.

2014 Mauritian general election

General elections were held in Mauritius on 10 December 2014 and resulted in a landslide victory for the Alliance Lepep coalition, which secured 47 of the elected seats under the leadership of Sir Anerood Jugnauth, while the PTR–MMM alliance under Navin Ramgoolam only got 13 seats.

References

  1. http://news.islandcrisis.net/2014/09/pravin-jugnauth-appointed-leader-of-opposition/
  2. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,909384-2,00.html
  3. http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/AssemblySite/template.MAXIMIZE/menuitem.6ee93699ee0e4d9c6179c38ea0208a0c/?javax.portlet.tpst=b00fa9180f29b8e9f534909e65c521ca_ws_MX&javax.portlet.prp_b00fa9180f29b8e9f534909e65c521ca_viewID=berenger&javax.portlet.begCacheTok=token&javax.portlet.endCacheTok=token
  4. http://www.panapress.com/Deputy-Premier-Accused-of-Assisting-Murder-Suspect--13-463877-17-lang2-index.html
  5. http://www.lematinal.com/politique/12513-Navin-Ramgoolam-Berenger-diffuse-de-fausses-informations.html
  6. http://www.lexpress.mu/article/b%C3%A9renger-contre-attaquera-mohit
  7. http://en.indian-ocean-times.com/Mauritius-Paul-Berenger-may-possibly-resign-in-September-of-the-National-Assembly_a1317.html
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)