Paul Davidovich

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Baron Paul Davidovich or Pavle Davidović (Serbian Cyrillic : Павле Давидовић) (1737, Buda 18 February 1814, Komárom) became a general of the Austrian Empire and a Knight of the Military Order of Maria Theresa. He played a major role in the 1796 Italian campaign during the French Revolutionary Wars, leading corps-sized commands in the fighting against the French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte. He led troops during the Napoleonic Wars and was Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian infantry regiment.

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin.

Buda Western Historical Part of Budapest

Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises a third of Budapest’s total territory and is in fact mostly wooded. Landmarks include Buda Castle, the Citadella, and President of Hungary's residence Sándor Palace.

Komárno Town in Slovakia

Komárno is a town in Slovakia at the confluence of the Danube and the Váh rivers. Komárno was formed from part of a historical town in Hungary situated on both banks of the Danube. Following World War I and the Treaty of Trianon, the border of the newly created Czechoslovakia cut the historical, unified town in half, creating two new towns. The smaller part, based on the former suburb of Újszőny, is in present-day Hungary as Komárom. Komárno and Komárom are connected by the Elisabeth Bridge, which used to be a border crossing between Slovakia and Hungary until border checks were lifted due to the Schengen Area rules.

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Early career

Born in Buda (Ofen) (in modern-day Budapest, Hungary) in 1737, Davidovich came from a Serb family which had immigrated to the Austrian Empire from the Ottoman Empire at the time of Emperor Leopold I. [1] In 1757, Davidovich joined the Austrian army's Ferdinand Karl Infantry Regiment #2. He served during the Seven Years' War and rose in rank to Captain. In 1771, he received promotion to Major in d'Alton Infantry Regiment #19. He performed heroically under fire at Bystrzyca Kłodzka (Habelschwerdt) in January 1779 during the War of the Bavarian Succession. This action earned him the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa. He was rewarded with the noble rank of Freiherr in 1780. The following year, he became Oberst-Leutnant of the Esterhazy Infantry Regiment #34. He earned promotion to Oberst (colonel) of the Peterwardeiner Grenz infantry regiment in 1783. [2]

Budapest Capital of Hungary

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, and forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33% of the population of Hungary.

Austrian Empire monarchy in Central Europe between 1804 and 1867

The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

During the Austro-Turkish War, Davidovich talked the Turkish governor of Šabac into surrendering in 1788. He assisted Maximilian Baillet de Latour in stamping out the 1789 Belgian revolt and was elevated to the rank of General-Major in 1790. [1] [2]

Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791)

Austro-Turkish War, was fought in 1788–91 between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, concurrently with the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792). It is sometimes referred to as the Habsburg–Ottoman War or the Austro-Ottoman War.

Šabac City in Šumadija and Western Serbia, Serbia

Šabac is a city and the administrative centre of the Mačva district in western Serbia. The traditional centre of the fertile Mačva region, Šabac is located on the right banks of the river Sava. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has population of 53,919, while its administrative area comprises 118,347 inhabitants.

French Revolutionary Wars

In 1793 during the War of the First Coalition, he distinguished himself in the battles of Neerwinden and Wattignies. [3] He participated in the Flanders campaign in 1794 under Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He served under Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser in the successful Siege of Mannheim which capitulated on 22 November 1795. He was promoted to Feldmarschal-Leutnant in March 1796. [2]

War of the First Coalition 1790s war to contain Revolutionary France

The War of the First Coalition is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic. Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.

Battle of Neerwinden (1793) 1793 battle between the French and the First Coalition

The Battle of Neerwinden saw a Republican French army led by Charles François Dumouriez attack a Coalition army commanded by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. The Coalition army of the Habsburg Monarchy together with a small contingent of allied Dutch Republic troops repulsed all French assaults after bitter fighting and Dumouriez conceded defeat, withdrawing from the field. The French position in the Austrian Netherlands swiftly collapsed, ending the threat to the Dutch Republic and allowing Austria to regain control of her lost province. The War of the First Coalition engagement was fought at Neerwinden, located 57 kilometres (35 mi) east of Brussels in present-day Belgium.

Battle of Wattignies battle

The Battle of Wattignies saw a Republican French army commanded by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan attack a Coalition army directed by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After two days of combat Jourdan's troops compelled the Habsburg covering force led by François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt to withdraw. The War of the First Coalition victory allowed the French to raise the Siege of Maubeuge. At a time when failed generals were often executed or imprisoned, Jourdan had to endure interference from Lazare Carnot from the Committee of Public Safety. The village, renamed Wattignies-la-Victoire in honor of the important success, is located 9 kilometres (6 mi) southeast of Maubeuge.

During the spring of 1796, Napoleon's French army overran the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont and the Duchy of Milan, and began the Siege of Mantua. In July, Davidovich transferred to the Italian theater and was placed under Wurmser's command. During the first relief of Mantua, he commanded the Left-Center (III) Column, which included the brigades of Anton Mittrowsky, Anton Lipthay, and Leberecht Spiegel. The force numbered 8,274 infantry, 1,618 cavalry, and 40 cannon. [4] He fought at the Battle of Castiglione on 5 August.

Napoleon 19th century French military leader and politician

Napoleon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader of Italian descent who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Duchy of Milan Former duchy in Italy (1395–1447; 1450–1535)

The Duchy of Milan was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat. During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy to the west, Venice to the east, the Swiss Confederacy to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.

Anton Ferdinand Count Mittrowsky von Mittrowitz und Nemyšl, or Anton Mittrovsky, served in the Austrian army for many years. He was promoted to general officer in the spring of 1796, just in time to lead a brigade against Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796-1797 Italian Campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars. He played a pivotal role in the Battle of Arcole, nearly defeating Bonaparte. He fought in Italy again in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars and became the Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian infantry regiment from 1806 until his death three years later.

In the second relief of Mantua, Wurmser and his chief-of-staff Franz von Lauer planned to transfer major elements of the army from the upper Adige valley to Bassano del Grappa via the Brenta valley. They assigned Davidovich to hold the Adige valley with 13,500 soldiers in the brigades of the Prince of Reuss, Josef Vukassovich, and Johann Sporck. Lauer believed that the French army would remain passive during the operation. [5] Defying expectations, Bonaparte attacked Davidovich with 30,000 men. In the Battle of Rovereto on 4 September, the French swamped the Austrian defenses, inflicted 3,000 casualties, [6] captured Trento, and pushed Davidovich north beyond Lavis. Bonaparte soon won the Battle of Bassano and drove Wurmser and 12,000 men within the fortress of Mantua.

Franz von Lauer austrian general

Franz von Lauer began his service in the Habsburg Austrian army as an engineer officer and advanced to high rank during his career. After serving in the Seven Years' War he earned promotion to oberst (colonel) over the next two decades. He fought against Ottoman Turkey at Belgrade and became a general officer for his distinguished effort as a siege specialist. He directed sieges against Fort-Louis and Mannheim while fighting the armies of the First French Republic during the War of the First Coalition. Named chief of staff of the army fighting against Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy in 1796, he fought at Bassano and Mantua. In 1800 he was appointed deputy commander of the main army in southern Germany. His efforts ended in a military disaster at Hohenlinden in December 1800. He was made the scapegoat and soon dismissed from the service.

Adige river in Northern Italy

The Adige is the second longest river in Italy after the Po, rising in the Alps in the province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, flowing 410 kilometres (250 mi) through most of North-East Italy to the Adriatic Sea.

Bassano del Grappa Comune in Veneto, Italy

Bassano del Grappa is a city and comune, in the Vicenza province, in the region of Veneto, in northern Italy. It bounds the communes of Cassola, Marostica, Solagna, Pove del Grappa, Romano d'Ezzelino, Campolongo sul Brenta, Conco, Rosà, Cartigliano and Nove. Some neighbourhoods of these communes have become in practice a part of the urban area of Bassano, so that the population of the whole conurbation totals around 70,000 people.

For the third relief of Mantua, Emperor Francis II appointed József Alvinczi commander of a newly formed army. Alvinczi planned to advance on Mantua from the east with 28,000 soldiers while Davidovich and 19,500 troops moved from the Adige valley in the north. Davidovich's Tyrol Corps comprised the brigades of Sporck, Vukassovich, Johann Laudon, and Joseph Ocskay, plus a small reserve. After a bloody clash at Cembra on 2 November, he recaptured Trento. He routed Claude Vaubois' outnumbered French division at the Battle of Calliano on 7 November. Despite being urged by Alvinczi to attack again, he proved very slow to follow up his success. One reason was the 3,500 casualties suffered at Cembra and Calliano. [7] Other difficulties included a false report that placed André Masséna's division in his front, heavy snow in the mountains, and the fact that messages took two days to arrive from Alvinczi. [8] He routed Vaubois again at Rivoli Veronese on 17 November, but this victory came two days too late. After the French defeated Alvinczi on 15–17 November at the Battle of Arcole, Bonaparte turned on Davidovich in great strength. The French beat him in a second clash at Rivoli on 22 November. With Davidovich's corps in flight northward, Alvinczi was forced to abandon the campaign.

Napoleonic Wars

In 1804, he became the proprietor of Davidovich Infantry Regiment #34, a Hungarian unit, and held this position until his death. When the War of the Third Coalition broke out, he commanded part of Archduke Charles' army in Italy. During the Battle of Caldiero on 29–31 October 1805, he led the nine infantry battalions, eight cavalry squadrons, and 26 artillery pieces of the left wing. [9] After the war, he served as deputy (Adlatus) to the commanding general in Slavonia. He inspected fortresses in Serbia and received promotion to Feldzeugmeister in 1807. [2] In his last active command, he led a division of Hungarian insurrection militia at the Battle of Raab on 14 June 1809 during the War of the Fifth Coalition. [10] He died on 18 February 1814 at Komárno when he was governor of that fortress.

Notes

  1. 1 2 Boycott-Brown , Davidovich
  2. 1 2 3 4 Kudrna & Smith, Davidovich.
  3. German Wikipedia Pavle Davidović [ unreliable source? ]
  4. Fiebeger 1911 , p.  13 [ failed verification ]
  5. Boycott-Brown 2001 , p. 416
  6. Smith 1998, p. 122.
  7. Boycott-Brown 2001 , pp. 452–453
  8. Boycott-Brown 2001 , p. 455
  9. Smith 1998, p. 210.
  10. Bowden & Tarbox 1980 , p. 122

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References

Further reading

Military offices
Preceded by
Pál Kray (vacant 17991804)
Proprietor (Inhaber) of Infantry Regiment #34
1804–1814
Succeeded by
Prince Friedrich-Ludwig of Wied-Runkel