Paul Desmond

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Paul Desmond
Dave Brubeck and Paul Desmond 1962.jpg
Dave Brubeck and Paul Desmond, 1962
Background information
Birth namePaul Emil Breitenfeld
Born(1924-11-25)November 25, 1924
San Francisco, California, U.S.
DiedMay 30, 1977(1977-05-30) (aged 52)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Genres Cool jazz, West Coast jazz, mainstream jazz
Occupation(s)Musician, composer, arranger
Instrument(s) Alto saxophone, clarinet
Labels Columbia, RCA Victor, Horizon, CTI

Paul Desmond (born Paul Emil Breitenfeld; November 25, 1924 – May 30, 1977) was an American jazz alto saxophonist and composer and proponent of cool jazz. He was a member of the Dave Brubeck Quartet and composed that group's biggest hit, "Take Five".


In addition to his work with Brubeck, he led several groups and collaborated with Gerry Mulligan, Chet Baker, Jim Hall, and Ed Bickert. After years of chain smoking and poor health, Desmond succumbed to lung cancer in 1977 after a tour with Brubeck.

Early life

Desmond was born Paul Emil Breitenfeld in San Francisco, California, in 1924, the son of Shirley (née King) and Emil Aron Breitenfeld. [1] His grandfather Sigmund Breitenfeld, a medical doctor, was born in Austria in 1857; he and wife Hermine (née Lewy) emigrated to the US at the end of the 19th century. They had four children (including Emil, father of Paul Emil). Paul Desmond and members of his father's family "frequently speculated as to whether Sigmund or Hermine Breitenfeld had Jewish backgrounds", but they did not identify as Jewish, or observe Jewish traditions. [2] However, Fred Barton, songwriter/arranger and Desmond's cousin, found extensive genealogical proof that both the Breitenfeld and Löwy families were Bohemian Jews. The Breitenfeld family in Bohemia and Vienna featured musicians in every generation throughout the 1800s, 1900s, and to the present day. Desmond's mother, born Shirley King, was of an Irish Catholic family. [1]

Desmond's father Emil Breitenfeld was a pianist, organist, arranger, and composer who accompanied silent films in movie theaters and produced musical arrangements for printed publication and for live theatrical productions. During World War I, while training with the 17th New York Regiment in Plattsburgh, New York, he composed The Last Long Mile , one of the best-known soldiers' songs of that war. [3]

Desmond's mother Shirley was emotionally unstable throughout his upbringing, and appears to have suffered from obsessive–compulsive disorder and other mental illnesses. [1] Starting in 1933, Desmond spent nearly five years living with relatives in New Rochelle, New York due to his mother's mental health problems.

Desmond began to study the clarinet at the age of twelve, which he continued while at San Francisco Polytechnic High School. While in high school, Desmond wished to study the violin, but his father dissuaded him, saying that violin players were "a dime a dozen....with the violin, you'll starve." [1] Desmond developed a talent for writing during high school as well, becoming co-editor of his high school newspaper. In that capacity, he interviewed comedian Bob Hope for his school newspaper during one of Hope's visits to San Francisco. After high school, Desmond enrolled at San Francisco State College where he majored in English. At that time, he began playing the alto saxophone, after being influenced by the likes of Lester Young and Charlie Parker. In his first year of college, Desmond was drafted into the United States Army and joined the Army band while stationed in San Francisco. He spent three years in the military, but his unit was not called to combat. [4]

Following his military discharge, Paul Emil Breitenfeld legally changed his last name from Breitenfeld to Desmond in 1946. He told many stories over the years regarding how he chose the name Desmond, but his biographer Doug Ramsey offers an account from Desmond's friend Hal Strack that the two were listening to the Glenn Miller band singer Johnny Desmond in 1942, and Desmond told Strack "that's such a great name. It's so smooth and yet it's uncommon....If I ever decide I need another name, it's going to be Desmond." [1]

Desmond was married from 1947 to 1949 to Duane Reeves Lamon. [5] He never remarried. [1]


After World War II, Desmond started working in the San Francisco Bay Area, working as a backing musician. He worked occasionally for Dave Brubeck at the Geary Cellar in San Francisco. For several weeks, he led a small jazz combo at the Band Box in Redwood City that included Dave Brubeck. Desmond had a falling out with Brubeck when he resigned from the Band Box and prevented Brubeck from taking over the residency. [1] In 1950 Desmond joined the band of Jack Fina and toured with Fina for several months, but he returned to California after hearing Brubeck's trio on the radio and deciding that he should repair his relationship with Brubeck and attempt to join Brubeck's increasingly successful band.

At the time, Brubeck and his wife Iola had three small children, and Brubeck had instructed Iola not to let Desmond set foot in the family home. Desmond appeared at Brubeck's San Francisco apartment one day while Dave was in the back yard hanging diapers on a laundry line, and Iola, defying Brubeck's wishes, let Desmond in and took him to Dave. Desmond offered to perform arranging and administrative work for Brubeck's band, and to babysit Brubeck's children, and Brubeck finally relented and agreed to try working with Desmond again. [4]

Dave Brubeck Quartet

Some people called him the stork—'Cause he would stand on one leg and leaned on the piano. But that ... that was when he was playing great. What used to scare me is I'd look at him and it would just be whites in his eyes, wouldn't be any eyeballs.

Dave Brubeck
(PBS interview with Hedrick Smith) [6]

Desmond met Dave Brubeck in 1944 in the military. Brubeck was trying out for the 253rd Army band, to which Desmond belonged. After making the cut he—unlike Desmond—was sent overseas in 1944, to Europe. Desmond once told Marian McPartland of National Public Radio's Piano Jazz that he was taken aback by the chord changes which Brubeck introduced during that 1944 audition. After Desmond convinced Brubeck to hire him following his stint with Jack Fina, the two had a contract drafted (of which Brubeck was the sole signatory); the language forbade Brubeck from firing him, ensured Brubeck's status as group leader, and gave Desmond twenty percent of all profits generated from the quartet. [4] [7] That is how the Dave Brubeck Quartet had its start, a group that began in 1951 and ended in December 1967.

The quartet became especially popular with college-age audiences, often performing in college settings, including their ground-breaking 1953 album Jazz at Oberlin at Oberlin College and at the campuses of Ohio University and the University of Michigan. The success of the quartet led to a Time magazine piece on them in 1954, with the famous cover featuring Brubeck's face. [8]

After drummer Joe Dodge decided to leave the group, Joe Morello joined in late 1956 with Desmond's recommendation. Yet with different musical aspiration and taste, their relationship was full of tension. Desmond hoped for a "tinky-boom" background-type drummer while Morello wanted to be recognized and featured. During Morello's first performance with the group, he was featured by Brubeck and received an ovation from the audience for his solo. Desmond resented this, and threatened to leave the group. Brubeck managed to keep both Desmond and Morello in the group but with frictions between them for years. Desmond's grudge against Morello could also be heard during their performance. In their 'Take The ‘A’ Train' performance in Hanover, Germany in 1958, for example, Desmond's playing sounded lack-luster and uninterested. After Morello's complex rhythm, Desmond would play even quieter and even dropped for a few bars. In their later years they reconciled and became close friends. [9]

The Dave Brubeck Quartet played until 1967, when Brubeck switched his musical focus from performance to composition[ citation needed ] and dissolved the group[ disputed (for: Desmond wanted to leave) ]. During the 1970s Desmond joined Brubeck for several reunion tours, including "Two Generations of Brubeck". Accompanying them were Brubeck's sons Chris Brubeck, Dan Brubeck and Darius Brubeck. In 1976 Desmond played 25 shows in 25 nights with Brubeck, touring the United States by bus.

Other collaborations

Playing with Desmond and Mulligan was really mind-blowing because they were such heroes for me.

Perry Robinson [10]

Desmond worked several times during his career with baritone saxophonist and band leader Gerry Mulligan. They made two studio albums together (Gerry Mulligan - Paul Desmond Quartet (1957), and Two of a Mind (1962)). In June 1969 Desmond appeared at the New Orleans Jazz Festival with Gerry Mulligan, with favorable reactions from critics and audience members. [4] During Brubeck's Two Generations tours, Desmond and Mulligan shared the stage in 1974. Unlike Brubeck, Mulligan shared much in common with Desmond, such as similar interests and humor, and both men had no shortage of addictions in their lives. [10]

Desmond had a celebrated studio partnership with guitarist Jim Hall. Hall played on several albums recorded by Desmond between 1959 and 1963 for Warner Bros. and RCA Victor. After some time spent inactive, Desmond was asked to play the Half Note in New York City in 1971 by Hall. With his special brand of humor, Desmond said that he took the job only because he was nearby and could tumble out of bed to work. The two continued to play at the club to jam-packed audiences. Desmond also joined the Modern Jazz Quartet for a Christmas concert in 1971 at the New York Town Hall. [4]

Desmond was a guest artist on five tracks by Chet Baker recorded between 1975 and 1977. These were released on the albums She Was Too Good to Me, You Can't Go Home Again, and The Best Thing For You. Baker and Desmond also appeared together on two tracks included on Jim Hall's 1975 Concierto album.

Desmond met Canadian guitarist Ed Bickert through a recommendation by Jim Hall, and Desmond performed with Bickert at several clubs in the Toronto area during 1974–1975. Desmond featured Bickert on his 1975 studio album Pure Desmond, and the two played together at the 1976 Edmonton Jazz Festival. Live recordings of that concert and club dates with Bickert performed during 1974-1975 were released during and after Desmond's lifetime.

Personal life

In their private lives Dave Brubeck and his family were very close to Paul Desmond, though the two men possessed very different personalities. Darius Brubeck recalls thinking that Desmond was his uncle almost into adolescence. Desmond grew especially close to Dave's son Michael, to whom he left his saxophone upon his death. Desmond was also described as a womanizer who was unable to form (and was uninterested in maintaining) steady relationships with women, though he had no shortage of female companions throughout his life. [11] Desmond is reported to have quipped, upon seeing a former girlfriend on the street, "There she goes, not with a whim but a banker" (a semi-Spoonerism reference to T.S. Eliot's "This is the way the world ends / Not with a bang but a whimper"). In contrast, Brubeck was deeply religious and a stalwart family man. [7]

I have won several prizes as the world's slowest alto player, as well as a special award in 1961 for quietness.

Paul Desmond [12]

Desmond enjoyed reading works by the thinkers of his generation like Timothy Leary and Jack Kerouac, also dabbling in some LSD usage. He was known to have several addictions, including Dewar's Scotch whisky and Pall Mall cigarettes. In the 1940s and 1950s, Desmond frequently took amphetamines, and in the 1970s, he was known to use cocaine. [1] His chemical-dependency problems would sometimes drain him of his energy on the road. Clarinetist Perry Robinson recalls in his autobiography that Desmond would sometimes need a vitamin B12 shot just to go on playing during his later career. [10]

Pristine, perfect. One of the great livers of our time. Awash in Dewar's and full of health.

Paul Desmond [12]

Desmond died on May 30, 1977, not of his heavy alcohol habit but of lung cancer, the result of his longtime heavy smoking. Never without his humor, after he was diagnosed with cancer he expressed pleasure at the health of his liver. His last concert was with Brubeck in February 1977, in New York City. His fans were unaware of his rapidly declining health. Desmond specified in his will that all proceeds from "Take Five" would go to the Red Cross following his death. [13] Desmond reportedly owned a Baldwin grand piano, which he lent to Bradley Cunningham, owner of Bradley's piano bar in Greenwich Village, provided that Cunningham move the large piano back to Desmond's Upper West Side apartment to become part of Desmond's estate. After this long and expensive process, Desmond willed the piano to Cunningham, a characteristic and final prank. The Paul Desmond Papers are held at the Holt-Atherton Special Collections in the University of the Pacific Library.

Desmond was cremated and his ashes were scattered.


Desmond produced a light, melodic tone on the alto saxophone, trying to sound, he said, "like a dry martini." With a style that was similar to that of Lee Konitz, one of his influences, he quickly became one of the best-known saxophonists from the West Coast's cool school of jazz. Much of the success of the classic Brubeck quartet was due to the juxtaposition of his airy style over Brubeck's sometimes relatively heavy, polytonal piano work. [14]

Desmond's improvisation is praised for its logical structure and lyricism. [15] His gift for improvised counterpoint is perhaps most evident on his two albums with baritone saxophonist Gerry Mulligan (Mulligan-Desmond Quartet and Two of a Mind ). In his playing Desmond was also notable for his ability to produce extremely high notes, the altissimo register, on his saxophone.

Desmond played a Selmer Super Balanced Action model alto saxophone with an M. C. Gregory model 4A-18M hard rubber mouthpiece, both dating from circa 1951, with a moderately stiff Rico 3 ½ reed. [16]


With Dave Brubeck

1950 Dave Brubeck Octet Dave Brubeck Fantasy 3239
1951 Brubeck/Desmond Dave Brubeck QuartetFantasy 3229
1952Modern Complex Dialogues [live]Dave BrubeckAlto AL-711
1952 Jazz at Storyville Dave BrubeckFantasy 3240
1952 The Dave Brubeck Quartet Dave BrubeckFantasy 3230
1952 Jazz at the Blackhawk Dave BrubeckFantasy 3210
1953 Jazz at Oberlin Dave BrubeckFantasy 3245
1953The Jackson-Harris Herd/The Dave Brubeck Quartet: Live at the Blue Note, Chicago, March 1953Dave Brubeck Quartet, Chubby JacksonBill Harris HerdJazz Band (UK) EB-2140
1953 Brubeck & Desmond at Wilshire-Ebell Dave BrubeckFantasy 3249
1953 Jazz at the College of the Pacific Dave BrubeckFantasy 3223
1953 Jazz at the College of the Pacific, Volume 2 Dave BrubeckOJC 1076
1954Dave Brubeck at Storyville 1954Dave Brubeck Columbia CL-590
1954 Jazz Goes to College Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-566
1954 Brubeck Time Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-622
1954 Jazz: Red Hot and Cool [live]Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-699
1956, 1957Dave Brubeck Quartet Live in 1956–57 Featuring Paul DesmondDave BrubeckJazz Band (UK) EB-2102
1956Live From Basin StreetDave BrubeckJazz Band (UK) EB-402
1956 Dave Brubeck and Jay & Kai at Newport Dave Brubeck Quartet, J. J. JohnsonKai Winding QuintetColumbia CL-932
1956Dave Brubeck Featuring Paul Desmond: Live TogetherDave BrubeckJoker (Italy) SM-3804; Blue Vox (Switzerland) B/90174
1956 Jazz Impressions of the U.S.A. Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-984
1957Re-UnionDave Brubeck/Paul Desmond/Dave Van KriedtFantasy 3268
1957 Jazz Goes to Junior College Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1034
1957 Dave Digs Disney Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1059
1958The Dave Brubeck Quartet In EuropeDave BrubeckColumbia CL-1168
1958Newport 1958: Brubeck Plays EllingtonDave BrubeckColumbia CL-1249
1958Jazz Impressions of EurasiaDave BrubeckColumbia CL-1251
1958The Quartet [live]Dave BrubeckEuropa Jazz (Italy) EJ-1032; Denon (Japan) 33C38-7681
1959 Gone with the Wind Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1347/CS-8156
1959 Time Out [includes "Take Five"]Dave Brubeck QuartetColumbia CL-1397/CS-8192
1959, 1962St. Louis Blues [live]Dave BrubeckMoon (Italy) MLP-028
1959 Southern Scene Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1439/CS-8235
1960 Brubeck and Rushing Dave Brubeck w/ Jimmy Rushing Columbia CL-1553/CS-8353
1960 Bernstein Plays Brubeck Plays Bernstein Dave Brubeck w/ Leonard Bernstein, New York PhilharmonicColumbia CL-1466/CS-8257
1960 Tonight Only! Dave Brubeck w/ Carmen McRae Columbia CL-1609/CS-8409
1961 Time Further Out: Miro ReflectionsDave BrubeckColumbia CL-1690/CS-8490
1961, 1962 Countdown:Time in Outer Space Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1775/CS-8575
1961 Brandenburg Gate: Revisited Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1963/CS-8763
1961 Take Five Live Dave Brubeck w/ Carmen McRaeColumbia CL-2316/CS-9116
1962 Bossa Nova U.S.A. Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-1998/CS-8798
1962 Brubeck in Amsterdam Dave BrubeckColumbia CS-9897
1963 At Carnegie Hall Dave Brubeck QuartetColumbia C2L-26/C2S-826 [as double LP]; CL-2036/CS-8836 and CL-2037/CS-8837 [as single LPs]
1963 Time Changes Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2127/CS-8927
1964 Jazz Impressions of Japan Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2212/CS-9012
1964 Jazz Impressions of New York Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2275/CS-9075
1964In Concert 1964Dave BrubeckJazz Connoisseur (Israel) JC-003
1964 Dave Brubeck in Berlin Dave BrubeckCBS (Germany) 62578
1965The Canadian Concert of Dave BrubeckDave BrubeckCan-Am (Canada) 1500
1965 Angel Eyes Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2348/CS-9148
1965 My Favorite Things Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2437/CS-9237
1965 Time In Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2512/CS-9312
1966Dave Brubeck's Greatest Hits [compilation]Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2484/CS-9284
1966 Anything Goes! The Dave Brubeck Quartet Plays Cole Porter Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2602/CS-9402
1966 Jackpot! Recorded Live in Las VegasDave BrubeckColumbia CL-2712/CS-9512
1967 Bravo! Brubeck! [live]Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2695/CS-9495
1967 Buried Treasures: Recorded Live in Mexico CityDave BrubeckColumbia/Legacy CK-65777
1967Take Five LiveDave Brubeck JMY (Italy) 1001
1967 The Last Time We Saw Paris [live]Dave BrubeckColumbia CL-2872/CS-9672
1967Their Last Time Out: The Unreleased Live Concert, December 26, 1967Dave Brubeck QuartetColumbia/Legacy 886978156228
1971Summit SessionsDave BrubeckColumbia C-30522
1972 We're All Together Again for the First Time Dave Brubeck/Gerry Mulligan/Paul Desmond Atlantic SD-1641
1975 1975: The Duets Dave Brubeck/Paul Desmond Horizon/A&M SP-703
1976 25th Anniversary Reunion Dave Brubeck QuartetHorizon/A&M SP-714

As bandleader

1954Desmond (AKA Paul Desmond Quintet With The Bill Bates Singers)Paul Desmond w/ Dick Collins, Dave Van Kriedt Fantasy 3-21
1956 Desmond: Here I AM (AKA The Paul Desmond Quartet Featuring Don Elliott)Paul Desmond w/ Don Elliott Fantasy 3225
1959 First Place Again Paul Desmond Warner Bros. WS-1356
1962 Desmond Blue Paul Desmond w/ strings RCA Victor LSP-2438
1962Late Lament [reissue of Desmond Blue with different cover art, different track running order, plus three previously unreleased tracks from the same sessions]Paul DesmondRCA/Bluebird 5778-2-RB
1963 Take Ten Paul DesmondRCA Victor LSP-2569
1965 Glad to Be Unhappy Paul Desmond featuring Jim HallRCA Victor LSP-3407
1965 Bossa Antigua Paul Desmond featuring Jim HallRCA Victor LSP-3320
1966 Easy Living Paul Desmond featuring Jim HallRCA Victor LSP-3480
1969 Summertime Paul Desmond A&M/CTI SP-3015
1969 From the Hot Afternoon Paul DesmondA&M/CTI SP-3024
1970 Bridge over Troubled Water Paul DesmondA&M/CTI SP-3032
1974 Skylark Paul DesmondCTI 6039
1974 Pure Desmond Paul DesmondCTI 6059
1975 Live Paul Desmond QuartetHorizon/A&M SP-850
1976 Paul Desmond Paul Desmond w/ Ed Bickert Artists House AH-2
1989The Complete Recordings of the Paul Desmond Quartet With Jim Hall [posthumous box set] [17] Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall Mosaic MR6-120
1992 Like Someone in Love [recorded 1975]Paul Desmond Quartet Telarc 83319
2020 The Complete 1975 Toronto Recordings- 7 CD box [recorded 1975]Paul Desmond Quartet Mosaic MD7-269

With Gerry Mulligan

1954Gerry Mulligan/Paul Desmond [reissues]Paul Desmond Quintet/Quartet, Gerry Mulligan QuartetFantasy 3220
1957 Blues in Time (AKA Gerry Mulligan–Paul Desmond Quartet)Paul Desmond w/ Gerry Mulligan Verve MGV-8246
1962 Two of a Mind Paul Desmond w/ Gerry MulliganRCA Victor LPM-2624

With Chet Baker

1955Chet Baker Quartet Plus: The Newport Years, Vol. 1 [live] Chet Baker / Clifford Brown / Gerry Mulligan / Dave BrubeckPhilology (Italy) W-51
1974 She Was Too Good to Me Chet BakerCTI 6050
1975 Concierto Jim Hall / Chet BakerCTI 6060
1977 You Can't Go Home Again Chet BakerHorizon/A&M SP-726
1977 The Best Thing for You Chet BakerA&M 0832
1992Together: The Complete Studio RecordingsChet Baker / Paul DesmondEpic 472984 2


1951"How Long, Baby How Long, Pt. 1" // "How Long, Baby How Long, Pt. 2" [78rpm 10" disc]Jack Sheedy Sextet Coronet #109
1951"The Man I Love" // "Down In Honkytonk Town" [78rpm 10" disc]Jack Sheedy SextetCoronet #110
1971The Only Recorded Performance of Paul Desmond With The Modern Jazz Quartet [live]Paul Desmond w/ The Modern Jazz Quartet Finesse/Columbia FW-37487
1973 Giant Box Don Sebesky CTI 6031/32
1975 Concierto Jim HallCTI 6060
1977 Watermark Art Garfunkel Columbia JC-34975
1996Feeling BluecompilationCamden 74321 400552

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  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Doyle, Brian (2004). Spirited Men: Story, Soul, and Substance. Cowley Publications. pp. 73–74. ISBN   1-56101-258-0.
  5. Born 30 August 1927 in Los Angeles. Later married Willis Dean Kaye (died 1986); they had one child, Christopher (1956-2014). She died in 2013. "Duane Reeves LaMon"
  6. Smith, Hedrick (June 4, 2007). "Dave on Paul Desmond and the Quartet". PBS.
  7. 1 2 Lees, Gene (2001). Cats of Any Color: Jazz Black and White . Da Capo Press. pp.  55–57. ISBN   0-306-80950-8.
  8. Martin, Henry (2004). Essential Jazz: The First 100 Years. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 314. ISBN   0-534-63810-4.
  9. Tarik (2017-10-06). "Desmond Vs. Drums, or Adventures in Tinky-Boom". It's A Raggy Waltz. Retrieved 2022-08-03.
  10. 1 2 3 Robinson, Perry (2002). Perry Robinson: The Traveler. iUniverse. pp. 190–191. ISBN   0-595-21538-6.
  11. Gioia, Ted (1998). West Coast Jazz, Ch 4: "Dave Brubeck and Modern Jazz in San Francisco"; University of California Press, 1998 ISBN   0520217292
  12. 1 2 "Paul Desmond-isms". September 19, 2005. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
  13. Gioia, Ted (2012-09-27). The Jazz Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire. Oxford University Press. p. 419. ISBN   9780199937400. When Paul Desmond passed away in 1977, his will stipulated that royalties from this song and his other compositions go to the American Red Cross. Since then, the Red Cross has received more than $6 million from Desmond's bequest.
  14. Owens, Thomas (1995). Bebop: The Music and Its Players. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN   0-19-510651-2.
  15. "Paul Desmond was revered for the pure, gentle tone of his alto saxophone, and the elegant lyricism of his improvisations". 2017-11-24. Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  16. Ramsey, Doug (2005). Take Five: The Public and Private Lives of Paul Desmond. Seattle: Parkside Publications. pp. 102, 118, 216, 292. ISBN   0-9617266-7-9.
  17. Records, Mosaic (2021-05-04). "Paul Desmond - 1959-65 Quartet Recordings - Mosaic Records". Mosaic Records - Home for Jazz fans!. Retrieved 2021-07-21.