**Paul Epstein** (July 24, 1871 – August 11, 1939) was a German mathematician. He was known for his contributions to number theory, in particular the Epstein zeta function.

Epstein was born and brought up in Frankfurt, where his father was a professor. He received his PhD in 1895 from the University of Strasbourg. From 1895 to 1918 he was a Privatdozent at the University in Strasbourg, which at that time was part of the German Empire. At the end of World War I the city of Strasbourg reverted to France, and Epstein, being German, had to return to Frankfurt.

Epstein was appointed to a non-tenured post at the university and he lectured in Frankfurt from 1919. Later he was appointed professor at Frankfurt. However, after the Nazis came to power in Germany he lost his university position. Because of his age he was unable to find a new position abroad, and finally committed suicide by barbital overdose at Dornbusch, fearing Gestapo torture because he was a Jew.

**Hans Erich Pfitzner** was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist. His best known work is the post-Romantic opera *Palestrina* (1917), loosely based on the life of the sixteenth-century composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.

**Elwin Bruno Christoffel** was a German mathematician and physicist. He introduced fundamental concepts of differential geometry, opening the way for the development of tensor calculus, which would later provide the mathematical basis for general relativity.

**Karl Hermann von Struve** was a Baltic German astronomer. In Russian, his name is sometimes given as *German Ottovich Struve* or *German Ottonovich Struve*.

**Carl Ludwig Siegel** was a German mathematician specialising in analytic number theory. He is known for, amongst other things, his contributions to the Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem in Diophantine approximation, Siegel's method, Siegel's lemma and the Siegel mass formula for quadratic forms. He was named as one of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century.

**Helmut Walcha** was a blind German organist, harpsichordist and composer who specialized in the works of the Dutch and German baroque masters and is known for his recordings of the complete organ works of Johann Sebastian Bach.

**Paul Heinrich Ritter von Groth** was a German mineralogist. His most important contribution to science was his systematic classification of minerals based on their chemical compositions and crystal structures.

**Friedrich Kluge** was a German philologist and educator. He is known for the Kluge etymological dictionary of the German language, which was first published in 1883.

**Eduard Ott-Heinrich Keller** was a German mathematician who worked in the fields of geometry, topology and algebraic geometry. He formulated the celebrated problem which is now called the Jacobian conjecture in 1939.

**Wilhelm Süss** was a German mathematician. He was founder and first director of the Mathematical Research Institute of Oberwolfach.

**Paul Fagius** was a Renaissance scholar of Biblical Hebrew and Protestant reformer.

**Paul Sophus Epstein** was a Russian-American mathematical physicist. He was known for his contributions to the development of quantum mechanics, part of a group that included Lorentz, Einstein, Minkowski, Thomson, Rutherford, Sommerfeld, Röntgen, von Laue, Bohr, de Broglie, Ehrenfest and Schwarzschild.

**Pierre-Ernest Weiss** was a French physicist who specialized in magnetism. He developed the domain theory of ferromagnetism in 1907. Weiss domains and the Weiss magneton are named after him. Weiss also developed the molecular or mean field theory, which is often called Weiss-mean-field theory, that lead to the discovery of the Curie–Weiss law. Alongside Auguste Picard, Pierre Weiss is considered one of the first discoverers of the magnetocaloric effect in 1917.

**David Bernard Alper Epstein** FRS is a mathematician known for his work in hyperbolic geometry, 3-manifolds, and group theory, amongst other fields. He co-founded the University of Warwick mathematics department with Christopher Zeeman and is founding editor of the journal *Experimental Mathematics*.

**Fritz T. Epstein** was a scholar and expert on the Soviet Union, born in Sarreguemines, Alsace-Lorraine, then part of the German Empire, in 1898. He emigrated to the United States in the mid-1930s, and after an illustrious career, died in 1979. He was married to a Bertelsmann, by whom he had two children.

**Karl August Reinhardt** was a German mathematician whose research concerned geometry, including polygons and tessellations. He solved one of the parts of Hilbert's eighteenth problem, and is the namesake of the Reinhardt polygons.

**Richard Ernst Wilhelm Otto** was a German physician and bacteriologist, who served as director of the Paul Ehrlich Institute until 1948.

**Paul Henri Milloux** was a French mathematician, specializing in holomorphic functions and meromorphic functions in complex analysis.

**Albrecht Julius Theodor Bethe** was a German physiologist. He was the father of physicist Hans Bethe (1906–2005).

**Ludwig Levy** was a German Jewish architect of the Historicist school. He designed a number of synagogues, amongst which was the huge Neue Synagoge in Strasbourg, as well as official buildings such as the ministries of Alsace-Lorraine on the Kaiserplatz in that same town.

**Larry G. Epstein** is a Canadian economist who is currently Professor of Economics at Boston University. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Economics Association and Econometric Society. He was also Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada before moving to the United States.

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