Paul Augustus Findley
|Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives |
from Illinois's 20th district
January 3, 1961 –January 3, 1983
|Preceded by||Edna O. Simpson|
|Succeeded by||Dick Durbin|
|Born||June 23, 1921|
Jacksonville, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||August 9, 2019 98) (aged|
Jacksonville, Illinois, U.S.
Lucille Marie (nee' Gemme)
(m. 1946;died 2011)
|Alma mater||Illinois College|
Paul Augustus Findley (June 23, 1921 – August 9, 2019)was an American writer and politician. He served as United States Representative from Illinois, representing its 20th District. A Republican, he was first elected in 1960. Findley lost his seat in 1982 to current United States Senator Dick Durbin. He was a cofounder of the Council for the National Interest, a Washington, D.C. advocacy group and was a vocal critic of American policy towards Israel. He has also been praised for his support for the Palestinians and his anti-war activism.
Findley was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, the son of Florence Mary (Nichols) and Joseph S. Findley.He attended the Jacksonville public schools. He received his bachelor's degree from Illinois College, which is currently home to The Paul Findley Congressional Office Museum. The collection contains manuscripts and artifacts related to the life and political career of Paul Findley. It is one of the few congressional office museums in the United States. Findley served in the United States Navy during World War II and was commissioned a lieutenant (junior grade).
Findley served 11 terms in Congress, but lost to Dick Durbin, in his bid for reelection in 1982.He was known in Congress as an advocate for the farmers of his district and as a strong proponent of the Palestinians and of opening up communication with the Palestine Liberation Organization since they were the strongest and most organized representatives of Palestinian people at the time. Findley famously helped Springfield, Illinois teenager Frank Mitchell get appointed as the first African-American page in the U.S. House of Representatives since Reconstruction in 1965 after consulting with then-House GOP leader Gerald Ford to get more African-American people involved in the Republican Party. Ford used one of his page appointments to name Mitchell. Mitchell and Findley remained friends until Findley's death in 2019. Findley was later quoted as saying it was one of his proudest accomplishments.
According to The New York Times , in 1982 Findley narrowly lost his bid for re-election for a number of reasons: "a competent opponent, redistricting, the economic recession, and pro-Israel groups support to his challenger," which allowed Findley's challenger to match him in spending. [ American Israel Public Affairs Committee ] president called him 'a dangerous enemy of Israel.'" Findley confirmed that his 1982 campaign raised "almost exactly the same sum" as that of his opponent. Following his defeat, he served on the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development (BIFAD) from 1983 to 1994.During the campaign, "a former AIPAC
In 1989 Findley, with former representative Pete McCloskey (R-CA), formed the Council for the National Interest.It is a 501 (c)4 non-profit, non-partisan organization in the United States that works for "Middle East policies that serve the American national interest." Its first executive director was ten-term congressman John B. Anderson (R-Il) who ran as an Independent candidate in the 1980 U.S. presidential election.
A year after the September 11 attacks in 2001, Findley published an article saying that this attack would never have occurred were it not for the United States' uncritical support of Israel.Findley claimed that the 2003 invasion of Iraq was launched primarily to benefit Israel, at the behest of the Israel lobby in the United States.
Findley was a frequent critic of U.S. foreign policy regarding Israel. Findley was the author of They Dare to Speak Out: People and Institutions Confront Israel's Lobby in which he stated that the pro-Israel lobby, notably AIPAC, has undue influence over the United States Congress. He referred to the lobby as "the 700-pound gorilla in Washington".
A review of the book in The Washington Post stated: "Stripped of all the maudlin martyrdom, former congressman Paul Findley's message is straightforward and valid: Israeli influence in the United States, including in the inner sanctums of government, is very strong."The New York Times review by Adam Clymer described the book as "an angry, one-sided book that seems often to be little more than a stringing together of stray incidents ... [it] does not really accept the idea that people of any political point of view are entitled to organize, support their friends and try to defeat the people they think are their enemies". The review describes the book as "the typical reaction of a Congressman who is offended at being challenged seriously for his seat, especially if the upstart should go so far as to beat him."
Findley listed the Israeli lobby as one of the factors contributing to his defeat in 1982, alongside the national recession of 1982 and the change of his district's boundaries after the 1980 census. "In seeking gains for Israel, they rigorously stifled dissent and intimidated the entire Congress. They still do. They defeat legislators who criticize Israel. Senators Adlai Stevenson III and Charles H. Percy, and Representatives Pete McCloskey, Cynthia McKinney, Earl F. Hilliard, and myself were defeated at the polls by candidates heavily financed by pro-Israel forces. McKinney alone was able to regain her seat in Congress."
On the publication of Mearsheimer and Walt's 2006 working paper, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy , he wrote: "You can't imagine how pleased I was [...] I think I can pose as a foremost expert on the lobby for Israel, because I was the target the last three years I was in Congress."
Findley supported the efforts of the Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) to improve the image of Muslims in America.In a conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Findley said that "the cancer of anti-Muslim and anti-Islamic sentiments was spreading in American society and requires corrective measures to stamp out this malaise." In May 2006 Findley led a CAIR delegation to the United Arab Emirates (UAE), resulting in a UAE proposal to build a property in the United States to serve as an endowment for CAIR. This proposal amounted to tens of millions of dollars in UAE donations. He was a board member of If Americans Knew and the Streit Council.
Findley endorsed the proposal for the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA), one of only six persons who served in the United States Congress ever to do so.
The Anti-Defamation League has criticized the Council for the National Interest, of which Findley was a founder, as an "anti-Israel organization" that "disseminates demonizing propaganda about Israel to academics, politicians, and other audiences."The Anti-Defamation League alleges that as a member of the Council for the National Interest that they have disseminated cartoons with anti-Semitic based themes by Khalil Bendib. Additionally, the Anti-Defamation League has quoted Paul Findley from an article in 2003 as blaming U.S. support of Israel for the September 11 Attacks: "Nine-eleven would not have occurred if the U.S. government had refused to help Israel humiliate and destroy Palestinian society." Paul Findley continued in the same article stating that "America suffered 9/11 and its aftermath and may soon be at war with Iraq, mainly because U.S. policy in the Middle East is made in Israel, not in Washington."
Findley died on August 9, 2019, at Passavant Area Hospital in Jacksonville, Illinois, at the age of 98. He is survived by his son and daughter, four grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.
The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group. It is headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., with regional offices nationwide. Through civil rights actions, media relations, civic engagement, and education, CAIR promotes social, legal and political activism among Muslims in America.The government of the United Arab Emirates has designated CAIR as a terrorist organization.
The American Israel Public Affairs Committee is a lobbying group that advocates pro-Israel policies to the Congress and Executive Branch of the United States. The current president of AIPAC is Betsy Berns Korn.
The Council for the National Interest ("CNI") is a 501(c)(4) non-profit, non-partisan advocacy group in the United States. It is aligned with The Council for the National Interest Foundation ("CNIF"), an independent 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. CNI was founded in 1989 by former Congressmen Paul Findley (R-Ill.) and Pete McCloskey (R-Calif.). Its first executive director was ten-term congressman John B. Anderson (R-Ill.), who ran as an Independent candidate in the 1980 presidential election.
If Americans Knew is a nonprofit organization that focuses on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the foreign policy of the United States regarding the Middle East, offering analysis of American media coverage of these issues. The group's website declares its aim is to provide "what every American needs to know about Israel/Palestine." The site is generally critical of U.S. financial and military support of Israel. It has accused The New York Times and other mainstream news organizations of being biased against Palestinians.
Paul Norton "Pete" McCloskey Jr. is an American politician who represented San Mateo County, California as a Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1967 to 1983. He ran on an anti-war platform for the Republican nomination for President in 1972 but was defeated by incumbent President Richard Nixon. In April 2007, McCloskey switched his affiliation to the Democratic Party.
The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy is a book by John Mearsheimer, Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, and Stephen Walt, Professor of International Relations at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, published in late August 2007. It was a New York Times Best Seller.
The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs magazine, published eight times per year, focuses on "news and analysis from and about the Middle East and U.S. policy in that region". The New York Times has characterized it as "critical of United States policies in the Middle East". In 2005, USA Today called it "a non-partisan publication that has been critical of Bush's policies". Representatives of pro-Israel organizations have criticized the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs as being aligned with the Arab lobby and as "anti-Israel".
Keith Maurice Ellison is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 30th Attorney General of Minnesota. A member of the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), Ellison was the U.S. Representative for Minnesota's 5th congressional district from 2007 to 2019. He also served as the titular Deputy Chair of the Democratic National Committee from 2017 to 2018. In Congress, Ellison was a vice-chair of the Congressional Progressive Caucus and a Chief Deputy Whip. He also sat on the House Committee on Financial Services. Ellison was the first Muslim to be elected to Congress and the first African American representative from Minnesota.
The Arab lobby in the United States is a collection of formal and informal groups and professional lobbyists paid directly by Arab governments or Arab citizens in the United States that lobby the public and government of the United States on behalf of Arab interests and/or on behalf of Arab American rights in the United States.
The Israel lobby is the diverse coalition of those who, as individuals and/or as groups, seek to influence the foreign policy of the United States in support of Israel or the policies of the government of Israel. The lobby consists of secular, Christian, and Jewish-American individuals and groups. The largest pro-Israel lobbying group is Christians United for Israel; the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) is a leading organization within the lobby, speaking on behalf of a coalition of American Jewish groups.
The term Jewish lobby is used to describe organized lobbying attributed to Jews on domestic and foreign policy decisions, as political participants of representative government, conducted predominantly in the Jewish diaspora in a number of Western countries. When used to allege disproportionately favorable Jewish influence, it can be perceived as pejorative or as constituting antisemitism.
They Dare to Speak Out: People and Institutions Confront Israel's Lobby is a bestselling book that was written in 1985, had a second edition published in 1989 and a third in 2003 by former US Representative Paul Findley.
Rashida Harbi Tlaib is an American politician and lawyer serving as the U.S. Representative for Michigan's 13th congressional district since 2019. The district includes the western half of Detroit, along with several of its western suburbs and much of the Downriver area. A member of the Democratic Party, Tlaib represented the 6th and 12th districts of the Michigan House of Representatives before her election to Congress.
The anti-Israel lobby is a term used by some who criticize those groups and individuals that oppose Israeli policies or United States foreign policy which they consider to be too favorable towards Israel. Those opposed to such policies state that they seek a more "even-handed" U.S. approach to the conflict in the Middle East.
Opposition in the United States to the Israeli occupation is organized by a number of organizations, many of them members of the US Campaign for Palestinian Rights. These organizations include peace and anti-war, human rights and Arab- and Muslim-Americans groups. Their tactics include education, protest, civil disobedience and lobbying.
Muslim Mafia: Inside the Secret Underworld That's Conspiring to Islamize America is a 2009 book by U.S. State Department-trained Arabic linguist and former U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations special agent Paul David Gaubatz, and investigative journalist and Hoover Institute fellow Paul Sperry. According to the Charlotte Observer, it "portrays the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) as a subversive organization allied with international terrorists."
The International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network (IJAN) is a network of anti-Zionist Jews pledged to "Oppose Zionism and the State of Israel".
Criticism of the Israeli government, often referred to simply as criticism of Israel, is an ongoing subject of journalistic and scholarly commentary and research within the scope of international relations theory, expressed in terms of political science. Within the scope of global aspirations for a community of nations, Israel has faced international criticism since its declaration of independence in 1948 relating to a variety of topics, both historical and contemporary.
Alison Weir is an American activist and writer known for her interest in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. She is the founder and executive director of the nonprofit organization If Americans Knew (IAK) and president of the Council for the National Interest (CNI). She is known for critical views toward Israel.
The Israel Anti-Boycott Act is a proposed bill that is designed to permit U.S. states to freely enact laws that would require contractors to sign a pledge saying that they would not boycott any goods from Israel, or their contracts would be terminated. The bill would also amend the Export Administration Act of 1979. Although the Israel Anti-Boycott Act, consisting of House and Senate bills, H.R. 1697 and S.720, died in the previous, 115th session of Congress, it is a recurrent issue in American foreign policy and will continue to be taken up in the legislature. Israel was the United States 18th and 24th largest import and export partner in 2017, respectively. Beyond exports and imports U.S. foreign direct investment was $26.7 billion in 2017. It has 58 cosponsors in the Senate, and 292 cosponsors in the House . It has been drafted by Senators Ben Cardin (D-Maryland) and Rob Portman (R-Ohio) and introduced to the United States Congress in 2018. Some of its cosponsors include Senator Marco Rubio (R-Florida), Senator Susan Collins (R-Maine), Senator Charles Schumer, and Senator Cory Booker.
|U.S. House of Representatives|
Edna O. Simpson
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from Illinois's 20th congressional district
Richard J. Durbin
|87th||Senate: P. Douglas • E. Dirksen||House: L. Arends • N. Mason • T. O'Brien • B. Chiperfield • B. Dawson • M. Price • P. Mack II • S. Yates • M. Church • J. Kluczynski • B. Springer • B. O'Hara • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • R. Libonati • E. Derwinski • E. Hoffman • B. Murphy • R. Pucinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • E. Finnegan|
|88th||Senate: P. Douglas • E. Dirksen||House: L. Arends • T. O'Brien • B. Dawson • M. Price • J. Kluczynski • B. Springer • B. O'Hara • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • R. Libonati • E. Derwinski • E. Hoffman • B. Murphy • R. Pucinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • E. Finnegan • B. McClory • B. McLoskey • D. Rumsfeld • C. Thompson-Reid|
|89th||Senate: P. Douglas • E. Dirksen||House: L. Arends • B. Dawson • M. Price • J. Kluczynski • B. Springer • B. O'Hara • S. Yates • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • B. Murphy • R. Pucinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • D. Rumsfeld • C. Thompson-Reid • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • D. Ronan • G. Schisler|
|90th||Senate: E. Dirksen • C. Percy||House: L. Arends • B. Dawson • M. Price • J. Kluczynski • B. Springer • B. O'Hara • S. Yates • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • B. Murphy • R. Pucinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • D. Rumsfeld • C. Thompson-Reid • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • D. Ronan • T. Railsback|
|91st||Senate: E. Dirksen • C. Percy • R. Smith • A. Stevenson III||House: L. Arends • B. Dawson • M. Price • J. Kluczynski • B. Springer • S. Yates • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • B. Murphy • R. Pucinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • D. Rumsfeld • C. Thompson-Reid • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • D. Ronan • T. Railsback • A. Mikva • P. Crane • G. Collins|
|92nd||Senate: C. Percy • A. Stevenson III||House: L. Arends • M. Price • J. Kluczynski • B. Springer • S. Yates • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • R. Pucinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • C. Thompson-Reid • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • T. Railsback • A. Mikva • P. Crane • G. Collins • R. Metcalfe • M. Murphy • C. Carlson|
|93rd||Senate: C. Percy • A. Stevenson III||House: L. Arends • M. Price • J. Kluczynski • S. Yates • K. Gray • H. Collier • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • T. Railsback • P. Crane • R. Metcalfe • M. Murphy • B. Hanrahan • E. Madigan • G. O'Brien • S. Young • C. Collins|
|94th||Senate: C. Percy • A. Stevenson III||House: M. Price • J. Kluczynski • S. Yates • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • T. Railsback • P. Crane • R. Metcalfe • M. Murphy • A. Mikva • E. Madigan • G. O'Brien • C. Collins • T. Hall • H. Hyde • M. Russo • P. Simon • J. Fary|
|95th||Senate: C. Percy • A. Stevenson III||House: M. Price • S. Yates • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • D. Rostenkowski • G. Shipley • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • T. Railsback • P. Crane • R. Metcalfe • M. Murphy • A. Mikva • E. Madigan • G. O'Brien • C. Collins • H. Hyde • M. Russo • P. Simon • J. Fary • T. Corcoran|
|96th||Senate: C. Percy • A. Stevenson III||House: M. Price • S. Yates • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • D. Rostenkowski • J. Anderson • P. Findley • B. McClory • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • T. Railsback • P. Crane • M. Murphy • A. Mikva • E. Madigan • G. O'Brien • C. Collins • H. Hyde • M. Russo • P. Simon • J. Fary • T. Corcoran • D. Crane • B. Stewart • J. Porter|
|97th||Senate: C. Percy • A. Dixon||House: M. Price • S. Yates • B. Michel • E. Derwinski • D. Rostenkowski • P. Findley • B. McClory • F. Annunzio • J. Erlenborn • T. Railsback • P. Crane • E. Madigan • G. O'Brien • C. Collins • H. Hyde • M. Russo • P. Simon • J. Fary • T. Corcoran • D. Crane • J. Porter • L. Morley-Martin • G. Savage • H. Washington|