This article does not cite any sources . (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Paul Hirsch (17 November 1868 – 1 August 1940) was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party who served as Prime Minister of Prussia from 1918 to 1920.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany, or SPD, is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Hirsch was born in Prenzlau, Brandenburg. He attended the Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin and went on to study medicine, social sciences and economics at the Frederick William University. From 1892 he worked as a professional writer and journalist. He joined the Social Democratic Party and in 1899 was elected municipal councillor in the then independent town of Charlottenburg. From 1908 he was one of the first Social Democratic members of the Prussian House of Representatives and served as head of the SPD parliamentary group.
Prenzlau is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, the administrative seat of Uckermark District. It is also the centre of the historic Uckermark region.
The Province of Brandenburg was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945. Brandenburg was established in 1815 from the Kingdom of Prussia's core territory, comprised the bulk of the historic Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Lower Lusatia region, and became part of the German Empire in 1871. From 1918, Brandenburg was a province of the Free State of Prussia until it was dissolved in 1945 after World War II, and replaced with reduced territory as the State of Brandenburg in East Germany, which was later dissolved in 1952. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, Brandenburg was re-established as a federal state of Germany, becoming one of the new states.
The Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, located in suburban Schmargendorf, Berlin, is an independent school with a humanistic profile, known as one of the most prestigious schools in Germany. Founded by the Evangelical Church in West Berlin in 1949 as the Evangelisches Gymnasium, it continues the traditions of the ancient Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, the oldest Gymnasium in Berlin, which for hundreds of years was situated in former monastery buildings in the city's Mitte district, closed by the East Germans in 1958. In 1963 the Evangelisches Gymnasium of West Berlin adopted its traditions and added "zum Grauen Kloster" to its name.
During the German Revolution of 1918–19, Hirsch together with the USPD politician Heinrich Ströbel became chairman of the provisional government of the Free State of Prussia (Rat der Volksbeauftragten) and also served as Interior Minister. On 4 January 1919 he dismissed the USPD chief of police Emil Eichhorn, which sparked the Spartacist uprising.
The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the adoption in August 1919 of the Weimar Constitution.
The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. The organization was established in 1917 as the result of a split of left wing members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The organization attempted to chart a centrist course between electorally oriented revisionism on the one hand and bolshevism on the other. The organization was terminated in 1931 through merger with the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD).
Heinrich Ströbel was a German journalist.
Hirsch supported the Greater Berlin Act of 1920. He resigned from his post after the Kapp Putsch, but remained a member of the Prussian Landtag until the Preußenschlag coup in 1932. He served as a borough councillor in Charlottenburg and from 1925 as mayor in Dortmund. Forced to retire after the Nazi Machtergreifung in 1933, Hirsch moved back to Berlin where he died in poverty in 1940.
The Greater Berlin Act, in full the Law Regarding the Creation of the New Municipality of Berlin, was a law passed by the Prussian government in 1920 that greatly expanded the size of the German capital of Berlin.
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp–Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish an autocratic government in its place. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and nationalist and monarchist factions.
The Landtag of Prussia was the representative assembly of the Kingdom of Prussia implemented in 1849, a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper House of Lords (Herrenhaus) and the lower House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus). After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 the Landtag diet continued as the parliament of the Free State of Prussia between 1921 and 1933.
He was mentioned by name as one of the Jewish politicians who undermined the Weimar Republic in the 1940 Nazi propaganda film Der Ewige Jude produced by Fritz Hippler.
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.
The Eternal Jew is a 1940 anti-jewish German Nazi propaganda film, presented as a documentary. The film's initial German title is Der ewige Jude, the German term for the character of the "Wandering Jew" in medieval folklore. At the insistence of Nazi Germany's Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, the film was directed by Fritz Hippler. With a screenplay credited to Eberhard Taubert, the film consists of feature and documentary footage combined with materials filmed shortly after the start of the Nazi occupation of Poland. At this time, Poland's Jewish population was about three million, roughly ten percent of the country's total population. The narration is conducted by actor Harry Giese.
Fritz Hippler was a German filmmaker who ran the film department in the Propaganda Ministry of Nazi Germany, under Joseph Goebbels. He is best known as the director of the propaganda film Der Ewige Jude .
Otto Braun was a German Social Democratic politician who served as Prime Minister of Prussia for most of the time from 1920 to 1932. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, Braun went into exile in Switzerland.
Gustav Noske was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). He served as the first Minister of Defence (Reichswehrminister) of the Weimar Republic between 1919 and 1920. Noske has been a controversial figure because although he was a member of the socialist movement, he used army and paramilitary forces to bloodily suppress the socialist/communist uprisings of 1919.
The Free State of Brunswick was a state of the German Reich in the time of the Weimar Republic. It was formed after the abolition of the Duchy of Brunswick in the course of the German Revolution of 1918–19. Its capital was Braunschweig (Brunswick).
Max Fechner was a German politician who served as Minister of Justice of East Germany from 1949 to 1953
Adolf Hofer was a Prussian Junker and a Social democratic politician.
Emil Barth was a German Social Democratic party worker who became a key figure in the German Revolution of 1918.
Wilhelm Moritz Egon Freiherr von Gayl was a German jurist and politician of the German National People's Party (DNVP).
Adolf Köster was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and diplomat. He served as Foreign Minister of Germany (1920) and Interior Minister of Germany (1921–1922).
Rudolf Wissell was a German politician in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). During the Weimar Republic, he held office as the Minister for Economic Affairs and Minister for Labour.
Georg Gradnauer was a German newspaper editor and politician for the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), and the first elected Minister-President of Saxony following the abolition of the Kingdom of Saxony.
Georg Ledebour was a German socialist journalist and politician.
Paul Franken was a German Socialist politician.
Kurt Rosenfeld was a German lawyer and politician (SPD). He was a member of the national parliament ("Reichstag") between 1920 and 1932.
Emma Döll was a German politician (SPD/USPD/KPD).
Hermann Fleissner was a German Social Democratic politician.
Minna Reichert was a German peace activist and female politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Communist Party of Germany. In 1920/21 she sat as a member of the Prussian assembly - effectively the precursor body of the Prussian regional legislature ("Landtag").
Philipp Fries was a German politician. He sat as a member of the national parliament ("Reichstag") between 1920 and 1924.
Georg Wendt was a German politician and member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Socialist Unity Party (SED).
Fritz Thurm was a German Social democrat politician and resistance fighter in Nazi Germany.
| Prime Minister of Prussia |
| Succeeded by|