Paul Hirsch (politician)

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Paul Hirsch (17 November 1868 – 1 August 1940) was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party who served as Prime Minister of Prussia from 1918 to 1920.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Social Democratic Party of Germany political party in Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany, or SPD, is a social-democratic political party in Germany.


Hirsch was born in Prenzlau, Brandenburg. He attended the Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin and went on to study medicine, social sciences and economics at the Frederick William University. From 1892 he worked as a professional writer and journalist. He joined the Social Democratic Party and in 1899 was elected municipal councillor in the then independent town of Charlottenburg. From 1908 he was one of the first Social Democratic members of the Prussian House of Representatives and served as head of the SPD parliamentary group.

Prenzlau Place in Brandenburg, Germany

Prenzlau is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, the administrative seat of Uckermark District. It is also the centre of the historic Uckermark region.

Province of Brandenburg province of Prussia, Germany

The Province of Brandenburg was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1945. Brandenburg was established in 1815 from the Kingdom of Prussia's core territory, comprised the bulk of the historic Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Lower Lusatia region, and became part of the German Empire in 1871. From 1918, Brandenburg was a province of the Free State of Prussia until it was dissolved in 1945 after World War II, and replaced with reduced territory as the State of Brandenburg in East Germany, which was later dissolved in 1952. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, Brandenburg was re-established as a federal state of Germany, becoming one of the new states.

Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster independent school in Berlin, Germany

The Evangelisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, located in suburban Schmargendorf, Berlin, is an independent school with a humanistic profile, known as one of the most prestigious schools in Germany. Founded by the Evangelical Church in West Berlin in 1949 as the Evangelisches Gymnasium, it continues the traditions of the ancient Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster, the oldest Gymnasium in Berlin, which for hundreds of years was situated in former monastery buildings in the city's Mitte district, closed by the East Germans in 1958. In 1963 the Evangelisches Gymnasium of West Berlin adopted its traditions and added "zum Grauen Kloster" to its name.

During the German Revolution of 1918–19, Hirsch together with the USPD politician Heinrich Ströbel became chairman of the provisional government of the Free State of Prussia (Rat der Volksbeauftragten) and also served as Interior Minister. On 4 January 1919 he dismissed the USPD chief of police Emil Eichhorn, which sparked the Spartacist uprising.

German Revolution of 1918–19 Revolution in 1918–1919 in Germany

The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the adoption in August 1919 of the Weimar Constitution.

Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany political party

The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic. The organization was established in 1917 as the result of a split of left wing members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The organization attempted to chart a centrist course between electorally oriented revisionism on the one hand and bolshevism on the other. The organization was terminated in 1931 through merger with the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD).

Heinrich Ströbel was a German journalist.

Hirsch supported the Greater Berlin Act of 1920. He resigned from his post after the Kapp Putsch, but remained a member of the Prussian Landtag until the Preußenschlag coup in 1932. He served as a borough councillor in Charlottenburg and from 1925 as mayor in Dortmund. Forced to retire after the Nazi Machtergreifung in 1933, Hirsch moved back to Berlin where he died in poverty in 1940.

The Greater Berlin Act, in full the Law Regarding the Creation of the New Municipality of Berlin, was a law passed by the Prussian government in 1920 that greatly expanded the size of the German capital of Berlin.

Kapp Putsch 1920 attempted coup in the Weimar Republic

The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp–Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish an autocratic government in its place. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr (military) and nationalist and monarchist factions.

Landtag of Prussia parliament

The Landtag of Prussia was the representative assembly of the Kingdom of Prussia implemented in 1849, a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper House of Lords (Herrenhaus) and the lower House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus). After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 the Landtag diet continued as the parliament of the Free State of Prussia between 1921 and 1933.

He was mentioned by name as one of the Jewish politicians who undermined the Weimar Republic in the 1940 Nazi propaganda film Der Ewige Jude produced by Fritz Hippler.

Weimar Republic Germany state in the years 1918/1919–1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

<i>The Eternal Jew</i> (1940 film) 1940 film by Fritz Hippler; antisemitic Nazi propaganda, presented as a documentary; consists of feature and documentary footage combined with materials filmed shortly after the Nazi occupation of Poland

The Eternal Jew is a 1940 anti-jewish German Nazi propaganda film, presented as a documentary. The film's initial German title is Der ewige Jude, the German term for the character of the "Wandering Jew" in medieval folklore. At the insistence of Nazi Germany's Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, the film was directed by Fritz Hippler. With a screenplay credited to Eberhard Taubert, the film consists of feature and documentary footage combined with materials filmed shortly after the start of the Nazi occupation of Poland. At this time, Poland's Jewish population was about three million, roughly ten percent of the country's total population. The narration is conducted by actor Harry Giese.

Fritz Hippler German film director

Fritz Hippler was a German filmmaker who ran the film department in the Propaganda Ministry of Nazi Germany, under Joseph Goebbels. He is best known as the director of the propaganda film Der Ewige Jude .

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    Preceded by
    Friedrich Ebert
    Prime Minister of Prussia
    Succeeded by
    Otto Braun