Paul Scofield

Last updated

Paul Scofield

Paul Scofield Allan Warren.jpg
Scofield in 1975
Born
David Paul Scofield

(1922-01-21)21 January 1922
Died19 March 2008(2008-03-19) (aged 86)
Resting placeSt Mary's Churchyard, Balcombe
OccupationActor
Years active1940–2006 [1]
Spouse
Joy Parker
(m. 1943)
Children2

David Paul Scofield CH CBE (21 January 1922 – 19 March 2008) was an English actor. During a six-decade career, Scofield achieved the US Triple Crown of Acting, winning an Academy Award, Emmy, and Tony for his work. He won the three awards in a seven-year span, the fastest of any performer to accomplish the feat.

Contents

Scofield received Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play at the 1962 Tony Awards for portraying Sir Thomas More in the Broadway production of A Man for All Seasons . Four years later, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor when he reprised the role in the 1966 film adaptation, making him one of nine to receive a Tony and Academy Award for the same role. His Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie was achieved for the 1969 television film Male of the Species.

Preferring the stage to the screen and putting his family before his career, Scofield nonetheless established a reputation as one of the greatest Shakespearean performers. Among other accolades, his performance as Mark Van Doren in Quiz Show (1994) earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor and he won Best Actor in a Supporting Role at the BAFTA Awards for portraying Thomas Danforth in The Crucible (1996). Scofield declined the honour of a knighthood, but was appointed CBE in 1956 and became a Companion of Honour in 2001.

Early life

Paul Scofield was born on 21 January 1922 in Edgbaston, [2] Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, the son of Mary and Edward Harry Scofield. [3] When Scofield was a few weeks old, his family moved to Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, where his father served as the headmaster at the Hurstpierpoint Church of England School. [4] Scofield told his biographer, Garry O'Connor, that his upbringing was divided. His father was an Anglican and his mother a Roman Catholic. Baptised into his mother's faith, Scofield said, "some days we were little Protestants and, on others, we were all devout little Catholics." [5] He added, "A lack of direction in spiritual matters is still with me." [6]

Scofield recalls, "I was a dunce at school. But at the age of twelve I went to Varndean School at Brighton where I discovered Shakespeare. They did one of his plays every year, and I lived just for that." [7] [8]

In 1939, Scofield left school at the age of seventeen and began training at the Croydon Repertory Theatre. Shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War, Scofield arrived for a physical examination and was ruled unfit for service in the British Army. He later recalled, "They found I had crossed toes. I was unable to wear boots. I was deeply ashamed." [9]

Career

Scofield began his stage career in 1940 with a debut performance in American playwright Eugene O'Neill's Desire Under the Elms at the Westminster Theatre, and was soon being compared to Laurence Olivier. He played at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. From there he went to the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford, where he starred in Walter Nugent Monck's 1947 revival of Pericles, Prince of Tyre . [10]

In 1948, Scofield appeared as Hamlet at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford alongside a then unknown Claire Bloom as Ophelia. Scofield's performance was so highly praised that it caused him to be dubbed, "The Hamlet of his generation." [11] He was also Bassanio in The Merchant of Venice with Bloom as an Attendee.

J.C. Trewin commented, "He is simply a timeless Hamlet... None could forget Scofield's pathos, the face folded in grief, at, 'When you are desirous to be blessed, I'll blessing beg of you.' We have known many correct, almost formal Hamlet's, aloof from Elsinore. Scofield was ever a prisoner within its bounds: the world had many confines, wards, and dungeons, Denmark being one of the worst." [12]

John Harrison later recalled of Scofield's Hamlet, "'Get thee to a nunnery,' so often delivered with rage or scorn, he says so gently. You have visions of quiet and prayer. A future for Ophelia." [13]

In her later book, Leaving a Doll's House: A Memoir , Claire Bloom recalls that during the production she had a very serious crush on Scofield. As Scofield was happily married and the father of a son, Bloom hoped only "to be flirted with and taken some notice of." But Scofield never so much as glanced at Bloom or any of the other pretty actresses in the cast. [13]

Unusually, the production had two Hamlets: Scofield and Robert Helpmann took turns playing the title role. Bloom later recalled, "I could never make up my mind which of my two Hamlets I found the more devastating: the openly homosexual, charismatic Helpmann, or the charming, shy young man from Sussex." [14]

When asked about Bloom decades later, Scofield recalled, "Sixteen years old I think – so very young and necessarily inexperienced, she looked lovely, she acted with a daunting assurance which belied entirely her inexperience of almost timid reticence. She was a very good Ophelia." [13]

Scofield's versatility at the height of his career is exemplified by his starring roles in theatrical productions as diverse as the musical Expresso Bongo (1958) and Peter Brook's celebrated production of King Lear (1962).

In his memoir Threads of Time, Peter Brook wrote about Scofield's versatility:

The door at the back of the set opened, and a small man entered. He was wearing a black suit, steel-rimmed glasses and holding a suitcase. For a moment we wondered who this stranger was and why he was wandering onto our stage. Then we realised that it was Paul, transformed. His tall body had shrunk; he had become insignificant. The new character now possessed him entirely. [15]

In a career devoted chiefly to the classical theatre, Scofield starred in many Shakespeare plays and played the title role in Ben Jonson's Volpone in Peter Hall's production for the Royal National Theatre (1977).

In a 1994 interview, Scofield explained, "One of the great strengths of the theatre is that it is ephemeral. It does exist only in what you remember and you can't check up on it afterwards and think, 'That's not as good as I remember.' If any performance I've ever given stays in someone's mind that's so much more exciting than being able to put it on the video and play it again. It's not that I don't want to take risks - the opposite is true, in fact. But the more you know about acting, the more you're aware of the pitfalls and the more nerve-racking it becomes. When I was young, I wasn't nervous at all. Even doing Hamlet, I just had a go." [16]

Highlights of Scofield's career in modern theatre include the roles of Sir Thomas More in Robert Bolt's A Man for All Seasons (1960); Charles Dyer in Dyer's play Staircase , staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1966; Laurie in John Osborne's A Hotel in Amsterdam (1968); and Antonio Salieri in the original stage production of Peter Shaffer's Amadeus (1979).

He was subsequently the voice of the Dragon in another play by Robert Bolt, a children's drama The Thwarting of Baron Bolligrew. Expresso Bongo, Staircase and Amadeus were filmed with other actors, but Scofield starred in the screen versions of A Man for All Seasons (1966) and King Lear (1971).

Other major screen roles include the art-obsessed Wehrmacht Colonel von Waldheim in The Train (1964), Strether in a 1977 TV adaptation of Henry James's novel The Ambassadors , Tobias in Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance (1973), Professor Moroi in the film of János Nyíri's If Winter Comes (1980), for BBC Television; poet Mark Van Doren in Robert Redford's film Quiz Show (1994), and Deputy Governor Thomas Danforth in Nicholas Hytner's film adaptation (1996) of Arthur Miller's The Crucible .

Scofield was cast in the lead role of Sir Randolph Nettleby in the 1985 film The Shooting Party , but was forced to withdraw due to an injury he suffered on set. According to the DVD extras documentary for the film, Scofield and the other male lead actors were to come into shot on a horse-drawn shooting brake driven by the renowned film horse-master George Mossman as the first shot of the first day of filming. As they turned the first corner, the plank that Mossman was standing on broke in two and he was hurled forward and down, falling between the sets of wheels and taking the reins with him. He was struck by a horse's hoof and concussed. The horses shied and broke into a gallop.

Actor Rupert Frazer admitted that he was the first to jump off, landing safely, but bruised. Out of control, the horses turned to the right when confronted by a stone wall, causing the shooting brake to roll completely, catapulting the actors into a pile of scaffolding that had been stacked next to the wall. Robert Hardy stood up and realised to his amazement that he was unhurt. He looked across to see Edward Fox stand up, "turn completely green and collapse in a heap", having broken five ribs and his shoulder blade. He noticed that Scofield was lying very still on the ground "and I saw that his shin-bone was sticking out through his trousers". As the film takes place in October during the partridge-shooting season, the filmmakers had to make a choice whether to delay filming for a year or re-cast. The Shooting Party schedule was ultimately changed to allow James Mason to take over the part of Sir Randolph Nettleby six weeks later. [17] Scofield's broken leg also deprived him of the part of O'Brien in Nineteen Eighty-Four, in which he was replaced by Richard Burton. [18]

Helen Mirren, who appeared with Scofield in the 1989 film When the Whales Came , said, "He aspires to the soul rather than the character. He has no sense of personal ambition. He's one of our great, great actors. We're lucky to have him." [19] Scofield also portrayed the Ghost in Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 film adaptation of Hamlet alongside Mel Gibson in the title role. Gibson, who had grown up idolising Scofield, compared the experience of performing Shakespeare alongside him to being, "thrown into the ring with Mike Tyson". [20]

Scofield was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 1956 New Year Honours. [21] He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for A Man for All Seasons and was nominated as Best Supporting Actor for Quiz Show. Theatrical accolades include a 1962 Tony Award for A Man for All Seasons.

Honours and awards

In 1969, Scofield became the sixth performer to win the Triple Crown of Acting, winning an Emmy Award for Outstanding Single Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role for Male of the Species. He accomplished this in only seven years (1962–1969), which is still a record.

He was also one of only nine actors to win both the Tony and the Oscar for the same role on stage and film, for A Man for All Seasons.

Scofield declined the honour of a knighthood on three occasions, [22] [23] but was appointed CBE in 1956 and became a Companion of Honour in 2001. [24] In 2002 he was awarded the honorary degree of D. Litt by the University of Oxford. [25]

When asked the reason for his decision to decline the knighthood, Scofield responded, "I have every respect for people who are offered [a knighthood] and accept it gratefully. It is just not an aspect of life that I would want." [26] Gary O'Connor described being knighted as, "The kind of honour from which [Scofield] instinctively recoiled. Never the actor before the part he plays." [27]

In 2004, a poll of actors of the Royal Shakespeare Company, including Ian McKellen, Donald Sinden, Janet Suzman, Ian Richardson, Antony Sher and Corin Redgrave, acclaimed Scofield's Lear as the greatest Shakespearean performance ever. [28] Scofield appeared in many radio dramas for BBC Radio 4, including in later years plays by Peter Tinniswood: On the Train to Chemnitz (2001) and Anton in Eastbourne (2002). The latter was Tinniswood's last work and was written especially for Scofield, an admirer of Anton Chekhov. He was awarded the 2002 Sam Wanamaker Prize.

Personal life

Paul and Joy Scofield's gravestone in St Mary's churchyard, Balcombe, West Sussex Paul Scofield's gravestone.JPG
Paul and Joy Scofield's gravestone in St Mary's churchyard, Balcombe, West Sussex

Paul Scofield married actress Joy Mary Parker on 15 May 1943. [2] They had met while he played Hamlet to her Ophelia. [29] Scofield later said "Joy and I simply decided to be married. We were both of age and were determined. Any doubts from our families were overruled, and they were the usual ones – too young, etc. We had a week out at the end of The Moon Is Down tour, married during that week, and went straight into the Whitehall Theatre." [30]

Paul and Joy Scofield had two children: Martin (born 1945) who became a senior lecturer in English and American literature at the University of Kent [22] and Sarah (born 1951). When asked by Garry O'Connor how he wished to be remembered, Scofield responded "If you have a family, that is how to be remembered." [31] Filmmaker Michael Winner once described the Scofields as "one of the few very happily married couples I've ever met." [32]

Death

Scofield died from leukaemia [33] on 19 March 2008 at the age of 86 at the Royal Sussex County Hospital [2] in Brighton, East Sussex, England. His memorial service was held at Westminster Abbey on the first anniversary of his death. [2] His wife Joy died four years later on 7 November 2012, aged 90.

Filmography

YearTitleRoleNotes
1955 That Lady King Philip II of Spain BAFTA Award for Best Newcomer
1958 Carve Her Name with Pride Tony Fraser
1964 The Train Col. von Waldheim
1966 A Man for All Seasons Sir Thomas More
1968 Tell Me Lies
1969 The Red Tent The Main Judge (uncredited)
1970 Bartleby The Accountant
Nijinsky: Unfinished ProjectSergei Diaghilev
1971 King Lear King Lear Bodil Award for Best Actor
1973 Scorpio Zharkov
A Delicate Balance Tobias
1983Ill Fares the LandVoice
1984 Summer Lightning Old Robert Clarke
1985 1919 Alexander Scherbatov
1989 When the Whales Came Zachariah "The Birdman" Woodcock
Henry V Charles VI of France
1990 Hamlet The Ghost
1992 Utz Doctor Vaclav Orlik
LondonNarrator
1994 Quiz Show Mark Van Doren
1996 The Crucible Judge Thomas Danforth
1997Robinson in SpaceNarrator
1999 Animal Farm Boxer Voice
Rashi: A Light After the Dark AgesVoice

(For a slightly different, more exhaustive list, see this note. [35] )

Television

YearTitleRoleNotes
1965The State Funeral of Sir Winston Churchill (ITV)Narrator
1969Male of the Species Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
1980If Winter ComesProfessor Moroi
The Curse of King Tut's Tomb
1981 The Potting Shed James Callifer
1984Arena: The Life and Times of Don Luis BuñuelNarrator
1985 Anna Karenina Karenin
1987Mister Corbett's GhostMr. Corbett
1988 The Attic: The Hiding of Anne Frank Otto Frank
1994 Genesis: The Creation and the Flood Voice
Martin Chuzzlewit Old Martin Chuzzlewit / Anthony ChuzzlewitNominated – British Academy Television Award for Best Actor
1999The Disabled Century

(for a different and more exhaustive list, see this note. [36] )

Discography

Paul Scofield led the cast in several dramas issued by Caedmon Records:

Also:

(For a more exhaustive list, see this note: [37] )

Related Research Articles

<i>Hamlet</i> Tragedy by William Shakespeare

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1601. It is Shakespeare's longest play, with 29,551 words. Set in Denmark, the play depicts Prince Hamlet and his attempts to exact revenge against his uncle, Claudius, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother.

<i>Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead</i> 1966 play by Tom Stoppard

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead is an absurdist, existential tragicomedy by Tom Stoppard, first staged at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1966. The play expands upon the exploits of two minor characters from Shakespeare's Hamlet, the courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and the main setting is Denmark.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Laurence Olivier</span> English actor and director (1907–1989)

Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, was one of a trio of male actors who dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He also worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career he had considerable success in television roles.

<i>King Lear</i> 1606 play by William Shakespeare

King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare. It is based on the mythological Leir of Britain. King Lear, in preparation for his old age, divides his power and land between two of his daughters. He becomes destitute and insane and a proscribed crux of political machinations. The first known performance of any version of Shakespeare's play was on Saint Stephen's Day in 1606. The three extant publications from which modern editors derive their texts are the 1608 quarto (Q1) and the 1619 quarto and the 1623 First Folio. The quarto versions differ significantly from the folio version.

<i>Hamlet</i> (1948 film) 1948 film by Laurence Olivier

Hamlet is a 1948 British film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play of the same name, adapted and directed by and starring Laurence Olivier. Hamlet was Olivier's second film as director and the second of the three Shakespeare films that he directed. Hamlet was the first British film to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. It is the first sound film of the play in English.

<i>Hamlet</i> (1990 film) 1990 film by Franco Zeffirelli

Hamlet is a 1990 drama film based on the Shakespearean tragedy of the same name, directed by Franco Zeffirelli and starring Mel Gibson as the eponymous character. The film also features Glenn Close, Alan Bates, Paul Scofield, Ian Holm, Helena Bonham Carter, Stephen Dillane, and Nathaniel Parker. An international co-production between the United States, the United Kingdom, and Italy, the film was the first produced by Icon Productions, a company co-founded by Gibson.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Derek Jacobi</span> English actor (born 1938)

Sir Derek George Jacobi is an English actor. Jacobi is known for his work at the Royal National Theatre and for his film and television roles. He's received numerous accolades including a BAFTA Award, two Olivier Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and a Tony Award. He was given a knighthood for his services to theatre by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Donald Wolfit</span> English actor-manager

Sir Donald Wolfit, KBE was an English actor-manager, known for his touring wartime productions of Shakespeare. He was especially renowned for his portrayal of King Lear.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Peter Brook</span> English theatre and film director (1925–2022)

Peter Stephen Paul Brook was an English theatre and film director. He worked first in England, from 1945 at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, from 1947 at the Royal Opera House, and from 1962 for the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). With them, he directed the first English-language production in 1964 of Marat/Sade by Peter Weiss, which was transferred to Broadway in 1965 and won the Tony Award for Best Play, and Brook was named Best Director. He also directed films such as an iconic version of Lord of the Flies in 1963.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Claire Bloom</span> British actress (b. 1931)

Patricia Claire Bloom is an English actress. She is known for leading roles in plays such as A Streetcar Named Desire,A Doll's House, and Long Day's Journey into Night, and has starred in nearly sixty films.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oliver Ford Davies</span> English actor

Oliver Robert Ford Davies is an English actor and writer, best known for his extensive theatre work, and to a broader audience for his role as Sio Bibble in Star Wars Episodes I to III. He is also known for his role as Maester Cressen in HBO series Game of Thrones.

<i>Hamlet</i> (1964 film) 1964 film by Grigori Kozintsev

Hamlet is a 1964 film adaptation in Russian of William Shakespeare's play of the same title, based on a translation by Boris Pasternak. It was directed by Grigori Kozintsev and Iosif Shapiro, and stars Innokenty Smoktunovsky as Prince Hamlet.

John McEnery was an English actor and writer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Irene Worth</span> American actress

Irene Worth, CBE was an American stage and screen actress who became one of the leading stars of the British and American theatre. She pronounced her given name with three syllables: "I-REE-nee".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince Hamlet</span> Character in Hamlet

Prince Hamlet is the title character and protagonist of William Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet (1599–1601). He is the Prince of Denmark, nephew to the usurping Claudius, and son of King Hamlet, the previous King of Denmark. At the beginning of the play, he is conflicted whether, and how, to avenge the murder of his father, and struggles with his own sanity along the way. By the end of the tragedy, Hamlet has caused the deaths of Polonius, Laertes, Claudius, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two acquaintances of his from childhood. He is also indirectly involved in the deaths of his love Ophelia (drowning) and of his mother Gertrude.

<i>Hamlet</i> in performance

Hamlet by William Shakespeare has been performed many times since the beginning of the 17th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ian McDiarmid</span> Scottish actor and stage director (born 1944)

Ian McDiarmid is a Scottish actor and director of stage and screen, best known for portraying the Sith Lord Darth Sidious in the Star Wars multimedia franchise. Making his stage debut in Hamlet in 1972, McDiarmid joined the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1974, and has since starred in a number of Shakespeare's plays. He has received an Olivier Award for Best Actor and a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his stage performances.

The Ian Charleson Awards are theatrical awards that reward the best classical stage performances in Britain by actors under age 30. The awards are named in memory of the renowned British actor Ian Charleson, and are run by the Sunday Times newspaper and the National Theatre. The awards were established in 1990 after Charleson's death, and have been awarded annually since then. Sunday Times theatre critic John Peter (1938–2020) initiated the creation of the awards, particularly in memory of Charleson's extraordinary Hamlet, which he had performed shortly before his death. Recipients receive a cash prize, as do runners-up and third-place winners.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ophelia</span> Character in Shakespeares drama Hamlet

Ophelia is a character in William Shakespeare's drama Hamlet (1599–1601). She is a young noblewoman of Denmark, the daughter of Polonius, sister of Laertes and potential wife of Prince Hamlet, who, due to Hamlet's actions, ends up in a state of madness that ultimately leads to her drowning.

Garry O'Connor is an English playwright, biographer and novelist.

References

  1. Ian McKellen says Scofield's last public performance was on 19 April 2004, http://www.mckellen.com/writings/tribute/080330ps.htm. Scofield recorded his last radio play, "Swan Song" in 2006. He is credited with an appearance on BBC's "Poetry Please" program on 27 January 2008, but it is not clear if the recording was made from a live performance or whether material from the BBC archives was used. http://www.scofieldsperformances.com/
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Scofield, (David) Paul (1922–2008)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/100133.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. "Full text of "The Player A Profile Of An Art"". Simon And Schuster. 1961. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  4. Interview. Ross, Lillian and Helen. The Player: A Profile of An Art. New York, NY 1966. ISBN   978-0-87910-020-9
  5. O'Connor (2002), pp. 19–20.
  6. O'Connor (2002), p. 21.
  7. Garry O'Connor, Paul Scofield: An Actor for All Seasons, p. 11.
  8. Paul Scofield biography. Access date: 16 November 2007.
  9. O'Connor (2002), p. 25.
  10. Film Reference biography. Access date: 16 November 2007.
  11. Garry O'Connor, Paul Scofield: An Actor for All Seasons, Applause Books (2002), p. 70.
  12. Garry O'Connor, Paul Scofield: An Actor for All Seasons, Applause Books (2002), p. 72.
  13. 1 2 3 Garry O'Connor, Paul Scofield: An Actor for All Seasons, Applause Books (2002), p. 76.
  14. Leaving A Doll's House, p. 43.
  15. Peter Brook, Threads of Time. A Memoir. Counterpoint, 1999.
  16. Garry O'Connor, Paul Scofield: An Actor for All Seasons, Applause Books (2002), p. 69.
  17. "Obituary: Paul Scofield". BBC News. 20 March 2008.
  18. "In Conversation with Michael Radford", Sky Arts 18 October 2013
  19. O'Connor (2002), p. 300.
  20. "Paul Scofield's career highlights" . The Daily Telegraph. London. 20 March 2008. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  21. "No. 40669". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1955. p. 12.
  22. 1 2 O'Connor, Garry. Paul Scofield: An Actor for All Seasons. Applause Theatre Book Publishers. February 2002. ISBN   1-55783-499-7.
  23. Paul Scofield biography. Barnes & Noble. Access date: 16 November 2007.
  24. "No. 56070". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 2000. p. 4.
  25. "Oxford University Gazette Encaenia 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  26. O'Connor (2002), p. 320.
  27. O'Connor (2002), p. 106.
  28. Scofield's Lear voted the greatest Shakespeare performance. Telegraph.co.uk. 22 August 2004.
  29. O'Connor (2002), p. 38.
  30. O'Connor (2002), p. 39.
  31. O'Connor (2002), p. 150.
  32. O'Connor (2002), p. 250.
  33. "Oscar-winning actor Scofield dies". BBC News Online . 20 March 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2008.
  34. "5th Moscow International Film Festival (1967)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  35. "Scofield". Scofieldsperformances.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  36. "Television". Scofieldsperformances.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  37. "Paul Scofield Audio Performances (radio drama, Audio Books, Spoken Word), 1940s–1950s". Scofieldsperformances.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011.