Pavia

Last updated
Pavia
Città di Pavia
Collage Pavia.jpg
Top left: Corso Strada Nuova (Pavia New Avenue), main shopping area in Pavia, Top right: Veduta laterale del Castello Visconteo (Pavia Visconti Castle), Bottom left: A view of the city's Cathedral from the Piazza della Vittoria (Vittoria Square), Bottom Upper right: Fiume Ticino, Bottom lower right: Ponte Coperto (Coperto Bridge) and Ticino River
Pavia-Stemma.png
Map of comune of Pavia (province of Pavia, region Lombardy, Italy).svg
Pavia within the Province of Pavia
Location of Pavia
Pavia
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Pavia
Location of Pavia in Lombardy
Italy Lombardy location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Pavia
Pavia (Lombardy)
Coordinates: 45°11′06″N09°09′15″E / 45.18500°N 9.15417°E / 45.18500; 9.15417 Coordinates: 45°11′06″N09°09′15″E / 45.18500°N 9.15417°E / 45.18500; 9.15417
Country Italy
Region Lombardy
Province Pavia (PV)
Frazioni Ca' della Terra, Cantone Tre Miglia, Cassinino, Cittadella, Fossarmato, Mirabello, Montebellino, Pantaleona, Prado, Scarpone, Villalunga
Government
  Mayor Fabrizio Fracassi (LN)
Area
[1]
  Total62 km2 (24 sq mi)
Elevation
77 m (253 ft)
Population
 (30 November 2016) [2]
  Total73,086
  Density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Pavesi
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
27100
Dialing code +39 0382
ISTAT code 018110
Patron saint Syrus of Pavia, Augustin

Pavia ( UK: /ˈpɑːviə/ , [3] US: /pəˈvə/ , [4] Italian:  [paˈviːa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), Lombard:  [pɐ'ʋi:ɐ]; Latin : Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, 35 kilometres (22 miles) south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,086. [5] The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774.

Contents

Pavia is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia, which is known for a variety of agricultural products, including wine, rice, cereals, and dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town. It is home to the ancient University of Pavia (founded in 1361), which together with the IUSS (Institute for Advanced Studies of Pavia), Ghislieri College, Borromeo College, Nuovo College, Santa Caterina College, and the Istituto per il Diritto allo Studio (EDiSU), belongs to the Pavia Study System. Pavia is the episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Pavia. The city possesses many artistic and cultural treasures, including several important churches and museums, such as the well-known Certosa di Pavia.

The Central Hospital of Pavia -- Policlinico San Matteo -- is one of the most important hospitals in Italy.

History

Early history

This painting by Josse Lieferinxe depicts an outbreak of the plague in 7th-century Pavia (then under the Lombard Kingdom). The Walters Art Museum. Josse Lieferinxe - Saint Sebastian Interceding for the Plague Stricken - Walters 371995.jpg
This painting by Josse Lieferinxe depicts an outbreak of the plague in 7th-century Pavia (then under the Lombard Kingdom). The Walters Art Museum.

Dating back to pre-Roman times, the town of Pavia was said by Pliny the Elder to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres. The Roman city, known as Ticinum, was a municipality and an important military site (a castrum) under the Roman Empire. It most likely began as a small military camp built by the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio in 218 BC to guard a wooden bridge he had built over the river Ticinum, on his way to search for Hannibal, who was rumoured to have managed to lead an army over the Alps and into Italy. The forces of Rome and Carthage ran into each other soon thereafter, and the Romans suffered the first of many crushing defeats at the hands of Hannibal, with the consul himself almost losing his life. The bridge was destroyed, but the fortified camp, which at the time was the most forward Roman military outpost in the Po Valley, somehow survived the long Second Punic War, and gradually evolved into a garrison town.

Its importance grew with the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum (Rimini) to the Po River (187 BC), which it crossed at Placentia (Piacenza) and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum (Milan) and the other to Ticinum, and thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).

It was at Pavia, in 476 AD that the reign of Romulus Augustulus (r. 475-476), the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire ended and Roman rule ceased in Italy. [7] Romulus Augustulus, while considered the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was actually a usurper of the imperial throne; his father Flavius Orestes dethroned the previous emperor, Julius Nepos, and raised the young Romulus Augustulus to the imperial throne at Ravenna in 475. [8] Though being the emperor, Romulus Augustulus was simply the mouthpiece for his father Orestes, who was the person who actually exercised power and governed Italy during Romulus Augustulus's short reign. [9] Ten months after Romulus Augustulus's reign began, Orestes's soldiers under the command of one of his officers named Odoacer, rebelled and killed Orestes in the city of Pavia in 476. [10] The rioting that took place as part of Odoacer's uprising against Orestes sparked fires that burnt much of Pavia to the point that Odoacer, as the new king of Italy, had to suspend the taxes for the city for five years so that it could finance its recovery. [11] Without his father, Romulus Augustulus was powerless. Instead of killing Romulus Augustulus, Odoacer pensioned him off at 6,000 solidi a year before declaring the end of the Western Roman Empire and himself king of the new Kingdom of Italy. [12]

Odoacer's reign as king of Italy did not last long, because in 488 the Ostrogothic peoples led by their king Theoderic invaded Italy and waged war against Odoacer. [13] After fighting for 5 years, Theoderic defeated Odoacer and on March 15, 493, assassinated Odoacer at a banquet meant to negotiate a peace between the two rulers. [14] With the establishment of the Ostrogoth kingdom based in northern Italy, Theoderic began his vast program of public building. Pavia was among several cities that Theodoric chose to restore and expand. [15] He began the construction of the vast palace complex that would eventually become the residence of Lombard monarchs several decades later. [16] Theoderic also commissioned the building of the Roman-styled amphitheatre and bath complex in Pavia; [17] in the 7th century these would be among the few still functioning bath complexes in Europe outside of the Eastern Roman Empire. [18] Near the end of Theoderic's reign the Christian philosopher Boethius was imprisoned in one of Pavia's churches from 522 to 525 before his execution for treason. [19] It was during Boethius's captivity in Pavia that he wrote his seminal work the Consolation of Philosophy. [20]

Pavia played an important role in the war between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Ostrogoths that began in 535. [21] After the Eastern Roman general Belisarius's victory over the Ostrogothic leader Wittigis in 540 and the loss of most of the Ostrogoth lands in Italy, Pavia was among the last centres of Ostrogothic resistance that continued the war and opposed Eastern Roman rule. [22] After the capitulation of the Ostrogothic leadership in 540 more than a thousand men remained garrisoned in Pavia and Verona dedicated to opposing Eastern Roman rule. [23] The resilience of Ostrogoth strongholds like Pavia against invading forces allowed pockets of Ostrogothic rule to limp along until finally being defeated in 561. [24]

Pavia and the peninsula of Italy didn't remain long under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire, for in 568, a new people invaded Italy. This new invading people in 568 were the Lombards (otherwise called the Longobards). [25] In their invasion of Italy in 568, the Lombards were led by their king Alboin (r. 560-572), who would become the first Lombard king of Italy. [26] Alboin captured much of northern Italy in 568 but his progress was halted in 569 by the fortified city of Pavia. [27] Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards written more than a hundred years after the Siege of Ticinum provides one of the few records of this period: “The city of Ticinum (Pavia) at this time held out bravely, withstanding a siege more than three years, while the army of the Langobards remained close at hand on the western side. Meanwhile, Alboin, after driving out the soldiers, took possession of everything as far as Tuscany except Rome and Ravenna and some other fortified places which were situated on the shore of the sea.” [28] The Siege of Ticinum finally ended with the Lombards capturing the city of Pavia in 572. [29] Pavia's strategic location and the Ostrogoth palaces located within it would make Pavia by the 620s the main capital of the Lombards’ Kingdom of Pavia [30] and the main residence for the Lombard rulers. [31]

Lombard capital

Under Lombard rule many monasteries, nunneries, and churches were built at Pavia by the devout Christian Lombard monarchs. Even though the first Lombard kings were Arian Christians, sources from the period such as Paul the Deacon have recorded that the Arian Lombards were very tolerant of their Catholic subjects’ faith and that up to the 690s Arian and Catholic cathedrals coexisted in Pavia. [32] Lombard kings, queens, and nobles would engage in building churches, monasteries, and nunneries as a method to demonstrate their piety and their wealth by extravagantly decorating these structures which in many cases would become the site of that person's tomb, as in the case of Grimoald (r. 662-671) who built San Ambrogio in Pavia and buried there after his death in 671. [33] Perctarit (r. 661-662, 672-688) and his son Cunicpert (r.679-700) built a nunnery and a church at Pavia during their reigns. [34] Lombard churches were sometimes named after those who commissioned their construction, such as San Maria Theodota in Pavia. [35] The monastery of San Michele alla Pusterla located at Pavia was the royal monastery of the Lombard kings. [36]

One of the most famous churches built by a Lombard king in Pavia is the church San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro. This famous church was commissioned by king Liutprand (r. 712-744) [37] and it would become the site of his tomb as well as two other famous Christian figures. [38] In building San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro the unit of measurement used by the builders was the length of Liutprand's royal foot. [39] The first important Christian figure interred at San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro was the previously mentioned philosopher Boethius, author of the Consolation of Philosophy, who is located in the cathedral's crypt. [40] The third and largest tomb of the three located in San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro contains the remains of St. Augustine of Hippo. [41] St. Augustine is the early 5th-century Christian writer from Roman North Africa whose works such as On Christian Doctrine revolutionized the way in which the Christian scripture is interpreted and understood. [42] On October 1, 1695, artisans working in San Pietro in Ciel d’Oro rediscovered St. Augustine's remains after lifting up some of the paving stones that compose the cathedral's floor. [43] Liutprand was a very devout Christian and like many of the Lombard kings was zealous about collecting relics of saints. [44] Liutprand paid a great deal to have the relics removed from Cagliari and brought to Pavia so that they would be out of the reach and safe from the Saracens on Sardinia where St. Augustine's remains had been resting. [45] Very little of Liutprand's original church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro consecrated by Pope Zacharias in 743 remains today. [46] Originally the roof of its apse was decorated with mosaics, making San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro the first instance of mosaics being used to decorate a Lombard church. [47] It is now a modern church with the only significant link to its antiquity being its round apse. [48] The Lombards built their churches in a very Romanesque style, with the best example of Lombard churches from the period of Lombardic rule being the Basilica of San Michele still intact at Pavia. [49]

As the kingdom's capital, Pavia in the late 7th century also became one of the central locations of the Lombards' efforts to mint their own coinage. [50] The bust of the Lombard king would have been etched on the coins as a symbolic gesture so that those who used the coins, mostly Lombard nobles, would understand that king had the ultimate power and control of wealth in the Kingdom of Pavia. [51]

The city of Pavia played a key role in the war between the Lombard Kingdom of Pavia and the Franks led by Charlemagne. In 773, Charlemagne king of the Franks declared war and invaded across the Alps into northern Italy defeating the Lombard army commanded by king Desiderius (r. 757-774). [52] Between the autumn of 773 and June of 774 [53] Charlemagne laid siege to Pavia first and then Verona, capturing the seat of Lombard power and quickly crushing any resistance from the northern Lombard fortified cities. [54] Pavia had been the official capital of the Lombards since the 620s, [55] but it was also the place upon where the Lombard Kingdom in Italy ended. Upon entering Pavia in triumph, Charlemagne crowned himself king of the lands of the former Kingdom of Pavia. [56] The Lombard kingdom and its northern territories from then onwards were a sub-kingdom of the Frankish Empire, while the Lombard southern duchy of Benevento persisted for several centuries longer with relative independence and autonomy. [57]

Medieval history

Coat of Arms of the county of Pavia under the Visconti Dynasty County of Pavia Visconti CoA.svg
Coat of Arms of the county of Pavia under the Visconti Dynasty

In 924, the Hungarians, led by the deposed Lombard king, Berengar I, sacked and destroyed the city. Pavia remained the capital of the Italian Kingdom and the centre of royal coronations until the diminution of imperial authority there in the 12th century. In 1004, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II bloodily suppressed a revolt of the citizens of Pavia, who disputed his recent coronation as King of Italy.

In the 12th century, Pavia acquired the status of a self-governing commune. In the political division between Guelphs and Ghibellines that characterized the Italian Middle Ages, Pavia was traditionally Ghibelline, a position that was as much supported by the rivalry with Milan as it was a mark of the defiance of the Emperor that led the Lombard League against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who was attempting to reassert long-dormant Imperial influence over Italy. The city also had a reputation as a place to have a "good time," as witness the Archpoet's famous comments of 1163. [58]

In the following centuries Pavia was an important and active town. Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV granted during his stay in Italy the Electorate of the Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolph's descendants. Pavia held out against the domination of Milan, finally yielding to the Visconti family, rulers of that city in 1359; under the Visconti Pavia became an intellectual and artistic centre, being the seat from 1361 of the University of Pavia founded around the nucleus of the old school of law, which attracted students from many countries.

Early modern

The Battle of Pavia (1525) marked a watershed in the city's fortunes, since by that time, the former schism between the supporters of the Pope and those of the Holy Roman Emperor had shifted to one between a French party (allied with the Pope) and a party supporting the Emperor and King of Spain Charles V. Thus during the Valois-Habsburg Italian Wars, Pavia was naturally on the Imperial (and Spanish) side. The defeat and capture of king Francis I of France during the battle ushered in a period of Spanish occupation which lasted until 1713 at the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession. Pavia was then ruled by the Austrians until 1796, when it was occupied by the French army under Napoleon. During this Austrian period the University was greatly supported by Maria Theresa of Austria and oversaw a culturally rich period due to the presence of leading scientists and humanists like Ugo Foscolo, Alessandro Volta, Lazzaro Spallanzani, and Camillo Golgi among others.

In 1815, it again came under Austrian administration until the Second War of Italian Independence (1859) and the unification of Italy one year later.

Government

Main sights

Pavia's most famous landmark is the Certosa , or Carthusian monastery, founded in 1396 and located eight kilometres (5.0 miles) north of the city.

Among other notable structures are:

Universities, colleges and other institutions

Pavia is a major Italian college town, with several institutes, universities and academies, including the ancient University of Pavia. Here is an incomplete list of the main institutions located in the city:

Transport

Pavia railway station, opened in 1862, forms part of the Milan–Genoa railway, and is also a terminus of four secondary railways, linking Pavia with Alessandria, Mantua, Vercelli and Stradella.

Pavia is also connected to Milan through the S13 line of the Milan suburban railway service with trains every 30 minutes. Pavia P. Garibaldi is a small railway station on the Pavia–Mantua railway.

Weather

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)7.1
(44.8)
9.4
(48.9)
14.3
(57.7)
18.2
(64.8)
22.8
(73.0)
27.8
(82.0)
30.3
(86.5)
29.4
(84.9)
24.3
(75.7)
18.5
(65.3)
12.1
(53.8)
7.3
(45.1)
18.5
(65.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
4.6
(40.3)
9.1
(48.4)
13.2
(55.8)
17.8
(64.0)
22.6
(72.7)
25
(77)
24.4
(75.9)
19.6
(67.3)
14.4
(57.9)
8.6
(47.5)
3.6
(38.5)
13.8
(56.9)
Average low °C (°F)−0.4
(31.3)
0.4
(32.7)
4
(39)
8
(46)
12.4
(54.3)
17
(63)
19.4
(66.9)
19.3
(66.7)
15.2
(59.4)
10.8
(51.4)
5.6
(42.1)
0.5
(32.9)
9.4
(48.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)58
(2.3)
56
(2.2)
64
(2.5)
87
(3.4)
89
(3.5)
71
(2.8)
54
(2.1)
71
(2.8)
90
(3.5)
104
(4.1)
124
(4.9)
67
(2.6)
935
(36.7)
Average precipitation days55587767678677
Average relative humidity (%)82756968656055596576828370
Mean daily sunshine hours 4.75.97.89.411.312.612.711.39.35.74.34.38.3
Source: [59]

International relations

Twin towns—Sister cities

Pavia is twinned with:

People

Collegio Borromeo Collegio Borromeo (Pavia).jpg
Collegio Borromeo
The University of Pavia's Aula Magna Aula magna-University-Pavia-Italy.jpg
The University of Pavia's Aula Magna

People born in Pavia include:

People who have lived in Pavia include:

Among the illustrious scholars who studied or taught at the University of Pavia, the following are at least worth remembering: playwright and librettist Carlo Goldoni (1707-1793), Gerolamo Cardano, mathematician Gerolamo Saccheri (1667-1733), Ugo Foscolo, Alessandro Volta the inventor of the battery, biologist and physiologist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799), anatomist Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832), physician Carlo Forlanini (1847-1918), the Nobel laureate biologist Camillo Golgi, the Nobel laureate chemist Giulio Natta (1903-1979) and Emanuele Severino (1929-2020), one of the most important contemporary Italian philosophers.

See also

Footnotes

  1. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. "Pavia". Collins English Dictionary . Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  4. "Pavia". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  5. Tuttitalia. "Popolazione Pavia 2001-2018". Tuttitalia. 2019 Gwind srl. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  6. "Saint Sebastian Interceding for the Plague Stricken". The Walters Art Museum.
  7. Thompson, E. A. (1982). Romans and Barbarians The Decline of the Western Empire . Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press. pp.  61–63.
  8. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. pp. 61–63.
  9. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. pp. 61–63.
  10. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. p. 64.
  11. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. p. 64.
  12. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. p. 64.
  13. Moorhead, John (1992). Theoderic in Italy. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 19.
  14. Moorhead. Theoderic. p. 26.
  15. Moorhead. Theoderic. p. 42.
  16. Wickham, Chris (1981). Early Medieval Italy Central Power and Local Society 400-100. London: Macmillan Press Ltd. p. 38.
  17. Moorhead. Theoderic. p. 42.
  18. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. p. 38.
  19. Moorhead. Theoderic. pp. 219–222.
  20. Moorhead. Theoderic. pp. 223–225.
  21. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. p. 95.
  22. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. pp. 95–96.
  23. Thompson. Romans and Barbarians. p. 96.
  24. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. pp. ix.
  25. Christie, Neil (1995). The Lombards The Ancient Longobards. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell Inc. pp. xxii.
  26. Christie. The Lombards. pp. xxv.
  27. Christie. The Lombards. p. 79.
  28. Paul the Deacon; William Dudley Foulke (2003). Edward Peters (ed.). History of the Lombards. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 80.
  29. Hodgkin, Thomas (1895). Italy and Her Invaders 553 Volume V The Lombard Invasion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 162–163.
  30. Arnaldi, Girolamo (2005). Italy and Its Invaders. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 31.
  31. Christie. The Lombards. p. 147.
  32. Christie. The Lombards. p. 188.
  33. Christie. The Lombards. p. 100.
  34. Christie. The Lombards. pp. xxv, 101.
  35. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. p. 84.
  36. Christie. The Lombards. p. 200.
  37. Christie. The Lombards. pp. xxv.
  38. Dale, Sharon (2001). "A house divided: San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia and the politics of Pope John XXII". Journal of Medieval History. 27 (1): 55–77. doi:10.1016/S0304-4181(00)00016-6.
  39. Scott, Leader (1899). The Cathedral Builders The Story of a Great Masonic Guild. London: S. Low, Marston and Company. p. 50.
  40. Dale (2001). p. 43.
  41. Arnaldi. Italy and Its Invaders. pp. 39–40.
  42. Geary, Patrick J. (2010). Readings in Medieval History Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 28–45.
  43. Weinstein, Donald (October 2003). "rev. of St. Augustine's Bones: A Microhistory, by Harold Samuel Stone". The American Historical Review. 108 (4): 1242–1243. doi:10.1086/529942.
  44. Arnaldi. Italy and Its Invaders. p. 39.
  45. Arnaldi. Italy and Its Invaders. pp. 39–40.
  46. Scott. The Cathedral Builders. p. 50.
  47. Scott. The Cathedral Builders. p. 50.
  48. Scott. The Cathedral Builders. p. 50.
  49. Scott. The Cathedral Builders. pp. 50–51.
  50. Christie. The Lombards. p. 142.
  51. Christie. The Lombards. p. 142.
  52. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. pp. 46–47.
  53. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. p. 47.
  54. Christie. The Lombards. p. 106.
  55. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. p. 38.
  56. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. p. 47.
  57. Wickham. Early Medieval Italy. pp. 48–49.
  58. Quis in igne positus, igne non uratur? Quis Papiae demorans, castus habeatur? Ubi Venus digito juvenes venatur, oculis illaqueat, facie praedatur? Si ponas Hippolytum hodie Papiae, non erit Hippolytus in sequenti die. Veneris in thalamos "ducunt omnes viae." Non est in tot turribus turris Alethiae.
  59. "Pavia Climate". climate-data.org. Retrieved May 4, 2021.

Works cited

Further reading

Published in the 19th century

Published in the 20th century

Related Research Articles

Alboin King of the Lombards

Alboin was king of the Lombards from about 560 until 572. During his reign the Lombards ended their migrations by settling in Italy, the northern part of which Alboin conquered between 569 and 572. He had a lasting effect on Italy and the Pannonian Basin; in the former his invasion marked the beginning of centuries of Lombard rule, and in the latter his defeat of the Gepids and his departure from Pannonia ended the dominance there of the Germanic peoples.

Lombards Historical ethnical group

The Lombards or Langobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774, with origins near the Elbe in northern Germany and Scania in southern Sweden before the Migration Period.

Romulus Augustulus Roman emperor (r. 475–476)

Romulus Augustus, commonly known by the nickname Augustulus, was Roman emperor of the West from 31 October 475 until 4 September 476. Romulus was placed on the imperial throne by his father, the magister militum Orestes, and, at that time still a minor, was little more than a figurehead for his father. After Romulus ruled for just ten months, the barbarian general Odoacer defeated and killed Orestes and deposed Romulus. As Odoacer did not proclaim any successor, Romulus is typically regarded as the last western Roman emperor, his deposition marking the end of the Western Roman Empire as a political entity. The deposition of Romulus Augustulus is also sometimes used by historians to mark the transition from antiquity to the medieval period.

Odoacer 5th-century Germanic monarch

Flavius Odoacer, also spelled Odovacer or Odovacar, was a soldier and statesman of barbarian background, who deposed the child emperor Romulus Augustulus and became King of Italy (476–493). Odoacer's overthrow of Romulus Augustulus is traditionally seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire as well as Ancient Rome.

Julius Nepos Roman emperor from 474 to 475/480

Julius Nepos, also known as just Nepos, ruled as Roman emperor of the West from 24 June 474 to 28 August 475. After losing power in Italy, Nepos retreated to his home province of Dalmatia, from which he continued to claim the western imperial title, with recognition from the Eastern Roman Empire, until he was murdered in 480. Though that distinction is most often awarded to Nepos' successor in Italy, Romulus Augustulus, Nepos is regarded by some historians as the last western Roman emperor, being the last widely recognised claimant to the position.

Foederati were peoples and cities bound by a treaty, known as foedus, with Rome. During the Roman Republic, the term identified the socii, but during the Roman Empire, it was used to describe foreign states, client kingdoms or barbarian tribes to which the empire provided benefits in exchange for military assistance. The term was also used, especially under the empire, for groups of "barbarian" mercenaries of various sizes who were typically allowed to settle within the empire.

Eutychius was the last Exarch of Ravenna, heading the Exarchate from 726 or 727 until 751.

King of Italy Ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a barbarian military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Western Roman Empire Independently administered western provinces of the Roman Empire

The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period from 395 to 476, where there were separate coequal courts dividing the governance of the empire in the Western and the Eastern provinces, with a distinct imperial succession in the separate courts. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire were coined in modern times to describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two imperial courts as an administrative expediency. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, and the Western imperial court in Ravenna was formally dissolved by Justinian in 554. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453.

Orestes was a Roman general and politician of Pannonian ancestry, who held considerable influence in the late Western Roman Empire.

Liutprand, King of the Lombards King of the Lombards

Liutprand was the king of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his multiple phases of law-giving, in fifteen separate sessions from 713 to 735 inclusive, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy. He is often regarded as the most successful Lombard monarch, notable for the Donation of Sutri in 728, which was the first accolade of sovereign territory to the Papacy.

Ostrogothic Kingdom

The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy, was established by the Germanic Ostrogoths in Italy and neighboring areas from 493 to 553.

Hildeprand, sometimes called the Useless, was the king of the Lombards from around 735 in association with his uncle, Liutprand. After Liutprand's death in 744, Hildeprand ruled in his own name until he was overthrown later that year by Ratchis, duke of Friuli.

San Pietro in Ciel dOro Church in Italy

San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro is a Catholic basilica of the Augustinians in Pavia, Italy, in the Lombardy region. Its name refers to the mosaics of gold leaf behind glass tesserae that decorates the ceiling of the apse. The plain exterior is of brick, with sandstone quoins and window framing. The paving of the church floor is now lower than the modern street level of Piazza San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, which lies before its façade.

Ovida or Odiva was a late Western Roman general and warlord of likely Gothic origin and the last Roman ruler of Dalmatia. Ovida initially served Julius Nepos, ruler of Roman Dalmatia and later western Roman emperor in Italy from 474–475. After being usurped in 475, Nepos continued to claim the imperial title in exile in Dalmatia, supported by the Eastern Roman Empire, but he was murdered by Ovida and another general, Viator, in 480. Upon his death, Ovida became the ruler of Dalmatia, a position he held until he was defeated and killed by Odoacer, the first barbarian king of Italy, in 481 or 482.

Battle of Ravenna (476)

The Battle of Ravenna, capital of the Western Roman Empire, between the Heruli under their King Odoacer and the remnants of the Western Roman Army in Roman Italy occurred in early September 476, and represented a culminating event in the ongoing fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Roman Empire had been in relative decline since the beginning of the barbarian invasions and Rome, the symbolical heart and largest city of the Western Empire, was sacked in 410 by the Visigoths and in 455 by the Vandals. By 476 the Roman Emperor was little more than a puppet, having very little de facto control of any territory outside of Italy. The last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was not recognized as a legitimate ruler outside of Italy; the Eastern Roman Empire recognized Julius Nepos as the true Western Roman Emperor.

Peter of Pavia was a Lombard who was Bishop of Pavia, during the reign of the Lombard King Liutprand

Lombard architecture

Lombard architecture refers to the architecture of the Kingdom of the Lombards, which lasted from 568 to 774 and which was commissioned by Lombard kings and dukes.

Deposition of Romulus Augustus

Odoacer's deposition of Romulus Augustus, occurring in 476 AD, was a coup that marked the end of the reign of the Western Roman Emperor last approved by the Western Roman Senate and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy, although Julius Nepos exercised control over Dalmatia until 480. Romulus Augustus was a 16-year-old minor at the time.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Pavia in the Lombardy region of Italy.