Peace of Brześć Kujawski

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Peace of Brześć Kujawski was a peace treaty signed on December 31, 1435 in Brześć Kujawski that ended the Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435). The treaty was signed in the aftermath of the Livonian Order's defeat at the hands of the allied Polish-Lithuanian force in the Battle of Pabaiskas (Wiłkomierz). The Teutonic Knights agreed to cease their support to Švitrigaila (who tried to break the Polish-Lithuanian union) and in the future to support only Grand Dukes properly elected jointly by Poland and Lithuania. The treaty did not change borders determined by the Treaty of Melno in 1422. [1] The Peace of Brześć Kujawski showed that Teutonic Knights lost their universal missionary status. [2] Teutonic and Livonian Order no longer interfered with Polish–Lithuanian affairs; instead Poland and Lithuania involved themselves in the Thirteen Years' War, the civil war in Prussia that tore it in half. [3]

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Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) 15th-century war in Northern Europe

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Lithuanian Crusade

The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Roman Catholicism. The Livonian Order settled in Riga in 1202 and the Teutonic Order arrived to Culmerland in 1230s. They first conquered other neighboring Baltic tribes – Curonians, Semigallians, Latgalians, Selonians, Old Prussians. The first raid against the Lithuanians and Samogitians was in 1208 and the Orders played a key role in Lithuanian politics, but they were not a direct and immediate threat until 1280s. By that time the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was already an established state and could offer organized defense. Thus for the next hundred years the Knights organized annual destructive reise (raids) into the Samogitian and Lithuanian lands but without great success: border regions in Samogitia and Suvalkija became sparsely inhabited wilderness, but the Order gained very little territory. The war between the Teutonic Order and Lithuania was one of the longest wars in the history of Europe.

References

  1. Kamuntavičius, Rūstis; Vaida Kamuntavičienė; Remigijus Civinskas; Kastytis Antanaitis (2001). Lietuvos istorija 11–12 klasėms (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Vaga. p. 92. ISBN   5-415-01502-7.
  2. Kiaupa, Zigmantas; Jūratė Kiaupienė; Albinas Kunevičius (2000) [1995]. The History of Lithuania Before 1795 (English ed.). Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. pp. 205–211. ISBN   9986-810-13-2.
  3. Christiansen, Eric (1997). The Northern Crusades . London: Penguin Books. pp.  242–243. ISBN   0-14-026653-4.