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The Peace of Busza (Busha, Bose) also known as the Treaty of Jaruga was negotiated by Stanisław Żółkiewski of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Iskender Pasha of the Ottoman Empire in Busza (Busha or Bose) near the Jaruga and Dniester rivers on 23 September 1617. Polish and Ottoman armies met, but decided to negotiate, instead of to fight. In this peace treaty Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth agreed to cede the Khotyn to the Ottomans and to stop its interference in Moldavia.
That 1617 treaty stated that Poland would not interfere in the internal affairs of Ottoman vassals in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia, the Commonwealth was to prevent Cossacks from raiding lands in the Ottoman Empire, while ceding Khotyn. In return, the Ottoman Empire promised to stop Tatar raids. The Ottoman Empire also had the right to interfere in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia and select the rulers of that region.
The treaty would be violated by both sides, as Cossacks and Tatars would continue to raid the borderlands. This would lead to a new war, but the status quo of the peace of Busza would be confirmed in the aftermath of the Polish-Ottoman War (1620–1621) by the Treaty of Khotyn.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region.
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, was a brief military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
The Battle of Cecora was a battle during the Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ottoman forces, fought from 17 September to 7 October 1620 in Moldavia, near the Prut River.
The Moldavian Magnate Wars or Moldavian Ventures refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination and influence over the principality.
Registered Cossacks comprised special Cossack units of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Cossack Hetmanate, officially known as the Zaporizhian Host was a Cossack state in the region of Central Ukraine between 1648 and 1764.
The Polish–Ottoman War of 1633–1634 was one of the many military conflicts between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland together with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire and its vassals.
Michael the Brave was the Prince of Wallachia, Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600). He is considered one of Romania's greatest national heroes. Since the 19th century, Michael the Brave is regarded by Romanian nationalists as a symbol of Romanian unity, as under his reign was the first time when all principalities inhabited by Romanians were under the same ruler.
Ieremia Movilă, was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600, and again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606.
The Early Modern Times in Romania started after the death of Michael the Brave, who ruled in a personal union, Wallachia, Transylvania, and Moldavia – three principalities in the lands that now form Romania – for three months, in 1600. The three principalities were subjected to the Ottoman Empire, and paid a yearly tribute to the Ottoman Sultans, but they preserved their internal autonomy. In contrast, Dobruja and the Banat were fully incorporated into the Ottoman Empire.
Khan Temir was a steppe warlord and raider. He ruled the Budzhak Horde in what is now the southwestern corner of Ukraine (Budjak) along the Romanian border. Budjak is the southwesternmost corner of the Eurasian Steppe. He raided mostly along the eastern frontier of the Polish Commonwealth. Nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, the Turks used him to pressure the Poles just as the Poles used the Zaporozhian Cossacks to pressure the Turks and Crimeans. His habit of acting independently caused problems. The Turks several times tried to move him east from Poland and eventually executed him. The most important event in his life was his conflict with the Crimean khan in 1628.
The Battle of Khotyn or Battle of Chocim or Hotin War was a combined siege and series of battles which took place between 2 September and 9 October 1621 between a Polish-Lithuanian army with Cossack allies, commanded by the Grand Hetman of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, and an invading Ottoman Imperial army, led by Sultan Osman II, which was stopped until the first autumn snows. On 9 October, due to the lateness of the season and heavy losses - due to failed assaults on Commonwealth fortifications - the Ottomans abandoned their siege and the battle concluded with a stalemate, which is reflected in the treaty where some sections favour the Ottomans while others favoured the Commonwealth. Chodkiewicz died on 24 September 1621 shortly after concluding a treaty with the Turks.
The Polish–Ottoman War (1620–1621) was a conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire over the control of Moldavia. It ended with the Commonwealth withdrawing its claims on Moldavia and to the eventual demise of the Sultan Osman II.
Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676) was a conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, as a precursor of the Great Turkish War. It ended in 1676 with the Treaty of Żurawno and the Commonwealth ceding control of most of its Ukraine territories to the Empire.
The Khotyn Fortress is a fortification complex located on the right bank of the Dniester River in Khotyn, Chernivtsi Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is situated on a territory of the historical northern Bessarabia region which was split in 1940 between Ukraine and Moldova. The fortress is also located in a close proximity to another famous defensive structure, the Old Kam'yanets Castle of Kamianets-Podilskyi. Construction on the current Khotyn fortress was started in 1325, while major improvements were made in the 1380s and in the 1460s.
Polish–Ottoman War (1683–1699) or the War of the Holy League refers to the Polish side of the conflict otherwise known as the Great Turkish War. The conflict begun with a great Polish victory at the battle of Vienna in 1683, and ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz, restoring to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth lands lost in the previous Polish-Ottoman War. It was the last conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, and despite the Polish victory, it marked the decline of power of not only the Ottoman Empire, but also of the Commonwealth, which would never again interfere in affairs outside of its declining borders.
Treaty of Khotyn (Chocim/Hotin), signed in the aftermath of the Battle of Khotyn (1621), ended the Polish-Ottoman War (1620–1621). This peace treaty resulted in no border change but Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth agreed to stop its interference in Moldavia. Both sides claimed victory, as Commonwealth saw the battle of Khotyn as successfully stopping the Ottoman Empire's invasion of its mainland.
A Polish–Ottoman alliance, based on several treaties, occurred during the 16th century between the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, as the Ottomans were expanding into Central Europe.
The history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century. The Union of Lublin of 1569 established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state, replacing the previously existing personal union of the two countries. The Union was largely run by the Polish and increasingly Polonized Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility, through the system of the central parliament and local assemblies, but from 1573 led by elected kings. The formal rule of the proportionally more numerous than in other European countries nobility constituted a sophisticated early democratic system, in contrast to the absolute monarchies prevalent at that time in the rest of Europe.
The Battle of Cecora took place on October 19–20, 1595, during an expedition of Jan Zamoyski, of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, to Moldavia, as part of the Moldavian Magnate Wars.