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The Peace of Busza (Busha, Bose) also known as the Treaty of Jaruga was negotiated by Stanisław Żółkiewski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Iskender Pasha of the Ottoman Empire in Busza (Busha or Bose) near the Jaruga and Dniester rivers on 23 September 1617. Polish and Ottoman armies met, but decided to negotiate, instead of to fight. In this peace treaty Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth agreed to cede the Khotyn to the Ottomans and to stop its interference in Moldavia.
That 1617 treaty stated that Poland would not interfere in the internal affairs of Ottoman vassals in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia, the Commonwealth was to prevent Cossacks from raiding lands in the Ottoman Empire, while ceding Khotyn. In return, the Ottoman Empire promised to stop Tatar raids. The Ottoman Empire also had the right to interfere in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia and select the rulers of that region.
The treaty would be violated by both sides, as Cossacks and Tatars would continue to raid the borderlands. This would lead to a new war, but the status quo of the peace of Busza would be confirmed in the aftermath of the Polish-Ottoman War (1620–1621) by the Treaty of Khotyn.
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The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Great Turkish War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman Empire had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta by the Holy League. It marks the end of Ottoman control in much of Central Europe, with their first major territorial losses after centuries of expansion, and established the Habsburg Monarchy as the dominant power in the region.
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender. Incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction were met with refusal from Sultan Ahmed III, prompting Peter to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Peter the Great signed the Treaty of Lutsk, by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invade the Balkan peninsula.
The Battle of Cecora was a battle during the Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ottoman forces, fought from 17 September to 7 October 1620 in Moldavia, near the Prut River.
The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination and influence over the principality.
Registered Cossacks comprised special Cossack units of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Polish–Ottoman War of 1633–1634 was one of the many military conflicts between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland together with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire and its vassals.
Ieremia Movilă, was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600, and again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606.
The Battle of Khotyn or Battle of Chocim or Hotin War was a combined siege and series of battles which took place between 2 September and 9 October 1621 between a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth army and an invading Ottoman Imperial army. The Commonwealth commanding officer, Grand Hetman of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, held the forces of Sultan Osman II at bay until the first autumn snows, dying in the process. On 9 October, due to the lateness of the season and heavy losses—from several assaults on fortified Commonwealth lines—the Ottomans abandoned their siege and the battle ended in stalemate, reflected in a treaty that in some sections favoured the Ottomans and in others favoured the Commonwealth. Chodkiewicz died on September 24, 1621 shortly after concluding a treaty with the Turks.
The Polish–Ottoman War (1620–1621) or First Polish–Ottoman War was a conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire over the control of Moldavia. It ended with the Commonwealth withdrawing its claims on Moldavia.
Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676) or the Second Polish–Ottoman War was a conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, as a precursor of the Great Turkish War. It ended in 1676 with the Treaty of Żurawno and the Commonwealth ceding control of most of its Ukraine territories to the Empire.
Polish-Cossack-Tatar War was the war between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire over Ukraine. It was one of the aftermaths of the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667) and a prelude to the Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676).
The Khotyn Fortress is a fortification complex located on the right bank of the Dniester River in Khotyn, Chernivtsi Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is situated on a territory of the historical northern Bessarabia region which was split in 1940 between Ukraine and Moldova. The fortress is also located in a close proximity to another famous defensive structure, the Old Kam'yanets Castle of Kamianets-Podilskyi. Construction on the current Khotyn fortress was started in 1325, while major improvements were made in the 1380s and in the 1460s.
Polish–Ottoman War (1683–1699), the Third Polish–Ottoman War or the War of the Holy League refers to the Polish side of the conflict otherwise known as the Great Turkish War. The conflict begun with a great Polish victory at the battle of Vienna in 1683, and ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz, restoring to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth lands lost in the previous Polish-Ottoman War. It was the last conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, and despite the Polish victory, it marked the decline of power of not only the Ottoman Empire, but also of the Commonwealth, which would never again interfere in affairs outside of its declining borders.
Treaty of Khotyn (Chocim/Hotin), signed in the aftermath of the Battle of Khotyn (1621), ended the Polish-Ottoman War (1620–1621). This peace treaty resulted in no border change but Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth agreed to stop its interference in Moldavia. Both sides claimed victory, as Commonwealth saw the battle of Khotyn as successfully stopping the Ottoman Empire's invasion of its mainland.
A Polish–Ottoman alliance, based on several treaties, occurred during the 16th century between the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, as the Ottomans were expanding into Central Europe.
The history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century. The Union of Lublin of 1569 established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state, replacing the previously existing personal union of the two countries. The Union was largely run by the Polish and increasingly Polonized Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility, through the system of the central parliament and local assemblies, but from 1573 led by elected kings. The formal rule of the proportionally more numerous than in other European countries nobility constituted a sophisticated early democratic system, in contrast to the absolute monarchies prevalent at that time in the rest of Europe.
The Battle of Cecora took place on October 19–20, 1595, during an expedition of Jan Zamoyski, of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, to Moldavia, as part of the Moldavian Magnate Wars.
Ğazı II Giray was a khan of the Crimean Khanate. Born in 1554, he distinguished himself in the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–90), gaining the trust of his Ottoman suzerains. He was appointed khan in 1588, after his homeland experienced a period of political turmoil. He failed to capture Moscow during his 1591 campaign against Tsardom of Russia, however he managed to secure a favorable peace treaty two years later. He was then summoned to support his Ottoman allies in the Long Turkish War, taking part in multiple military expeditions centered in Hungary. In late 1596, the Ottoman sultan briefly unseated Ğazı II Giray in favor of Fetih I Giray after heeding the advice of Grand Vizier Cığalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha. He returned to power three months later, continuing his reign until his death in November 1607.
The Zhmaylo uprising was a Cossack rebellion headed by Marek Zhmaylo against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1625. On 5 November Marek Zhmaylo was deprived of his title and Hetman Mykhailo Doroshenko was chosen to sign the Treaty of Kurukove, pledging allegiance to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
The Polish–Turkish War of 1485-1503 was a prolonged conflict, rather a series of conflicts, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Ottoman Empire. The conflict formally lasted eighteen years, but during this time hostilities were ceased on several occasions due to temporary treaties being signed between the warring parties. The climax of the conflict was the disastrous King Jan Olbracht’s raid on Moldavia.