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Pedro Juan Caballero (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ˈxwaŋ kaβaˈʎeɾo] ; 1786–1821) was a leading figure of Paraguayan independence. He was born in Tobatí, a town located Cordillera Department of Paraguay which was then part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was one of the major leaders of the Revolution of May 14, 1811, despite being six years younger than the leading figure of Independence period Fulgencio Yegros and 20 years younger than the future dictator of Paraguay José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia. In 1820 he was accused of being involved in the conspiracy against Francia, and committed suicide in his cell on July 13, 1821. The Paraguayan city of Pedro Juan Caballero is named after him.
Independence of Paraguayde facto started on May 14 of 1811 after the Revolution of May 14 when a local ruling junta was created. In early 1811 Paraguayan forces had repeatedly defeated the Argentinian army which considered Paraguay to be a break-away province. On October 12, 1813 the Paraguayan Republic was proclaimed. Officially Independence was proclaimed only on November 25, 1842. Paraguayan independence was assured only after the Paraguayan War, when the Empire of Brazil resisted Argentine offers to divide and annex the country.
Tobatí is a city in Tobatí District in the Cordillera Department, Paraguay. The population of the city is 9,688.
Cordillera is a department in Paraguay. The capital is the city of Caacupé.
Caballero participated in the Battle of Tacuarí and Battle of Paraguari against the army led by Manuel Belgrano. Paraguayan victory at the January 19, 1811 Battle of Paraguari forced Belgrano to retreat southward. On March 9, 1811, on the banks of River Tacuarí, while Belgrano awaited reinforcements from Buenos Aires, another battle was launched and won by Paraguayans. Belgrano called for capitulation, which was granted, and his troops left Province of Paraguay.
The Battle of Tacuarí was a battle in Southern Paraguay between revolutionary forces under the command of General Manuel Belgrano, member of the Primera Junta government of Argentina, and Paraguayan troops under colonel Manuel Atanasio Cabañas, at the time at the service of the royalists.
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González, usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer, politician, and military leader. He took part in the Argentine Wars of Independence and created the Flag of Argentina. He is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country.
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million.
Military victories against the troops sent by the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata increased Paraguayan determination to create and safeguard their own state. Worried by the rumors that the last Spanish governor Velasco is about to ask for military protection from the Portuguese Brazil, local patriots started plotting against him. Initially they were planning to take action on May 25, a one-year anniversary of the May Revolution, but on Francia's advice decided to act sooner, without waiting for the arrival of troops led by Fulgencio Yegros.
The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, earlier known as the United Provinces of South America, a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818. It comprised most of the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata dependencies and had Buenos Aires as its capital.
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This Spanish colony included roughly the territories of present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and parts of Brazil. The result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta, on May 25. It was the first successful revolution in the South American Independence process.
Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres was Paraguayan soldier and first head of state of independent Paraguay. The town of Yegros is named in his honor.
In the evening of May 14, 1811, after the curfew had started, plotters led by Captain Pedro Juan Caballero went to the Governor's quarters located on the main square of Asuncion, where they were greeted by second lieutenant Mauricio Jose Troche, a supporter of plot, was on duty and in charge of the small garrison of 34 men from Curuguaty.
Curuguaty is a city and a district in the Canindeyú Department of Paraguay, that was the 4th and last capital of Paraguay during the Paraguayan War in 1869-1870.
Governor's quarters became the center of the revolution; political prisoners were released, weapons prepared, security measures taken and emissaries sent to bring Fulgencio Yegros and Manuel Atanasio Cabañas to Asuncion. The Cathedral bells were rung and resonated throughout the city.
At midnight Vicente Ignacio Iturbe presented Governor Velasco with demands from plotters led by Caballero, which could be summarized as follows:
As Governor Bernardo de Velasco was reluctant to accept the conditions presented by plotters, additional revolutionary troops came to the square and settled eight cannons in front of the house of government; Vicente Ignacio Iturbe brought a new ultimatum, setting a short deadline for response. Governor Velasco was against any bloodshed, and came to the door to say: "If this is because of authority, I give up the command baton." This announcement was met with joy by the crowd. The flag was raised and 21 cannonballs fired.
On May 17 a public proclamation informed people that a ruling junta, consisting of Governor Velasco, Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia and Army captain Juan Valeriano de Zeballos has been created.
The new junta quickly convened a National Congress on June 17, 1811, which removed Velasco from all power and created a new five-man Junta Superior Gubernativa to which Caballero was appointed. Other members were Fulgencio Yegros as President, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, Francisco Xavier Bogarin, and Fernando de la Mora.
The Congress of October 1813 disbanded the five-man junta and created a two-man Consulate. Caballero was a strong candidate for consulship, but in the end the more politically powerful Fulgencio Yegros and Francia were elected to be consuls.
Caballero, who was involved in the profitable yerba mate trade, was opposed to Francia's economic policies and together with Juan Manuel Gamarra and Jose Teodoro Fernandez created opposition group which unsuccessfully tried to get support of the Consul Fulgencio Yegros. He refused and together with Consul Francia on September 26, 1814 ordered Caballero's group to leave Asuncion and retire to their country estates. Just eight days later National Congress convened and elected Francia to be the Supreme dictator for a period of five years. During the next years Caballero did not participate in politics and turned his attention to yerba mate trade.
Since 1814 José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia ruled alone as the Supreme dictator and in 1816 was elected by Congress to be Dictator for life. A conspiracy, which involved many leading men of the Independence era, to overthrow Francia, was planned for the last days of the Holy Week of 1820. Francia learned about the plot from two slaves that denounced their master for making gunpowder and from a confession of a conspirator to his priest on Holy Week and arrests started. All the heroes of Independence were arrested, even those who had voluntarily renounced any political activity, such as Fulgencio Yegros. Dr. Francia was relentless. Some of the prisoners (64 in ten days) were shot, and a period of persecution and repression began. Historically this is the start of "the Franciato", the period of Francia's absolute dictatorship. Pedro Juan Caballero was arrested six months after the discovery of the plot, and committed suicide in his cell on July 13, 1821 after learning that he was to be executed. He allegedly wrote a note on the wall of his cell: "I know that suicide is against the laws of God and man, but the thirst of the Tyrant of my country shall not be appeased with mine".
The history of Paraguay is a result of development and interaction of varying cultures of indigenous peoples in Paraguay and overseas immigrants who together have created the modern-day Paraguay. Paraguay celebrates Independence Day on May 15, from 1811 to now.
José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco was a Paraguayan lawyer and politician, and the first dictator (1814–1840) of Paraguay following its independence from the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. His official title was "Supreme and Perpetual Dictator of Paraguay", but he was popularly known as El Supremo.
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution.
Yaguarón is a city in Paraguay, located at the base of Yaguarón Hill in the Yaguarón District of Paraguarí Department, 48 kilometres (30 mi) from the capital Asunción. The town began as a Franciscan reservation for the Guaraní Indians.
The Paraguayan Army is an institution of the State of Paraguay, organized into three divisions and 9, and several commands and directions, went to war three occasions, in the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870) against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, Chaco War (1932–1935) against Bolivia, and the ongoing Paraguayan People's Army insurgency.
Juan José Castelli was an Argentine lawyer. He was one of the leaders of the May Revolution, which started the Argentine War of Independence. He led an ill-fated military campaign in Upper Peru.
The Paraguay campaign (1810–11) was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution. In Paraguay it is considered as their War of Independence. The first battles fought were the Battle of Campichuelo and Battle of Campo Maracana, in which Argentinians claimed victory. However, they were completely vanquished in the subsequent Battle of Paraguarí and Battle of Tacuarí. The campaign ended in a military failure and Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgrano's withdrawal, starting its course towards full independence.
The Casa de la Independencia Museum, located in Asunción, Paraguay was inaugurated on May 14, 1965 and showcases pieces of history that date back to the independence of the country. In the evening of May 14, 1811 a group of brave Paraguayans came out of this house to declare the independence of Paraguay. It is a national monument which has a great historical significance. Behind its walls the emancipation from the Spanish colonial rule was planned in a silent and brave manner. Located on the corner of the streets Presidente Franco and 14 de Mayo, it is noticeable by its marked colonial style.
Francisco Javier Bogarín was a Catholic priest and teacher who actively participated in the process of independence of Paraguay. Born in Carapeguá, Paraguarí Department, 66 kilometers from Asunción, in 1763. For a couple of months in 1811 he was a member of the five-man governing junta of Paraguay.
Fernando de la Mora was one of the founding fathers of Paraguay, and was one of early leaders of the country between 1811 and 1813, but soon lost his power and died imprisoned. The Paraguayan city Fernando de la Mora is named in his honor.
Nicolás Rodriguez Peña was an Argentine politician. Born in Buenos Aires in April 1775, he worked in commerce which allowed him to amass a considerable fortune. Among his several successful businesses, he had a soap factory partnership with Hipólito Vieytes, which was a center of conspirators during the revolution against Spanish rule. In 1805 he was a member of the "Independence Lodge", a masonic lodge, along with other prominent revolutionary patriots such as Juan José Castelli and Manuel Belgrano. This group used to meet in his ranch, then situated in what today is Rodriguez Peña square in Buenos Aires.
Paraguay–Spain refers to the current and historical relations between Paraguay and Spain. Both nations are members of the Association of Spanish Language Academies and the Organization of Ibero-American States.
The battle of Paraguarí took place on January 19, 1811, in Paraguarí (Paraguay), between the patriot army led by Manuel Belgrano and the Royalist army located in Paraguay led by Bernardo de Velasco. The battle would end with a Paraguayan victory; but it boosted confidence in the local population to declare themselves independent from both Buenos Aires patriots and royalists months later.
Below is a timeline of the history of Paraguay:
The dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the independence and breaking up of the Spanish colony in South America. Most of the viceroyalty is now part of Argentina, and other regions belong to Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
Bernardo Luis de Velasco y Huidobro was a figure in the Spanish American wars of independence, the last Spanish governor of Paraguay and a commander of royalist military forces in the war. He was deposed by the congress celebrated in Asunción on 17 June 1811. He was born in Villadiego, Burgos, Spain.
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