Peenemünde

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Peenemünde
Peenemuende, Hafen, U461.JPG
Seaport
DEU Peenemunde COA.svg
Coat of arms
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Peenemünde
Location of Peenemünde within Vorpommern-Greifswald district
Peenemunde in SVO.svg
Coordinates: 54°08′0″N13°46′0″E / 54.13333°N 13.76667°E / 54.13333; 13.76667 Coordinates: 54°08′0″N13°46′0″E / 54.13333°N 13.76667°E / 54.13333; 13.76667
Country Germany
State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
District Vorpommern-Greifswald
Municipal assoc. Usedom-Nord
Government
   Mayor Rainer Barthelmes
Area
  Total24.97 km2 (9.64 sq mi)
Elevation3.0 m (9.8 ft)
Population (2017-12-31) [1]
  Total292
  Density12/km2 (30/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 17449
Dialling codes 038371
Vehicle registration VG (Vorpommern-Greifswald)
Website(in German) AMT USEDOM-NORD

Peenemünde (German pronunciation: [peːnəˈmʏndə] , English: "Peene [River] Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is part of the Amt (municipal confederation) of Usedom-Nord. The community is known for the Peenemünde Army Research Center, where the world's first functional large-scale liquid-propellant rocket, the V-2, was developed.

Peene river in Germany

The Peene is a river in Germany.

Baltic Sea A sea in Northern Europe bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands

The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.

Usedom Baltic Sea island

Usedom is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland. It is the second biggest Pomeranian island after Rügen.

Contents

Geography

Peenemunde railway station for service to Zinnowitz Peenemuende, UBB-Bahnhof.JPG
Peenemünde railway station for service to Zinnowitz
V-2 rocket V2 rocket.JPG
V-2 rocket

The village with its seaport is located on the westernmost extremity of a long sand-spit, where the Peene empties into the Baltic Sea, in the northwestern part of Usedom Island. To the southeast it borders on the sea resort of Karlshagen.

Karlshagen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Karlshagen is a Baltic Sea resort in Western Pomerania in the north of the island Usedom. Karlshagen has 3400 inhabitants and lies between Zinnowitz and Peenemünde.

Peenemünde harbour can be reached by ferry boat across the Peene from Kröslin, liners also run along the Baltic coast to Rügen Island. The local railway station is the northern terminus of the Usedomer Bäderbahn line to Zinnowitz. Air service for the village is available at the Peenemünde Airfield.

Kröslin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Kröslin is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It consists of the villages

Rügen island in the Baltic Sea off the Pomeranian coast of Germany

Rügen is Germany's largest island by area. It is located off the Pomeranian coast in the Baltic Sea and belongs to the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

Usedomer Bäderbahn transport company

The Usedomer Bäderbahn (UBB) with its head office in Heringsdorf, northeastern Germany, is a 100 percent-owned subsidiary of the German national railway, Deutsche Bahn and the owner and operator of the railway network on the island of Usedom as well as the Züssow–Wolgast and Velgast–Barth lines. It calls all the lines that it runs services on – i.e. also Züssow–Stralsund–Velgast – as the Vorpommernbahn or “West Pomeranian Railway”.

History

During the 10th and 11th centuries, Peenemünde was part of the region of Circipania, an area settled by the Circipanes, a West Slavic tribe constituent of the Lutici federation. Circipania was incorporated into the Billung March of the Holy Roman Empire in 936, but the Empire's influence in the region decayed by the end of that century after a successful Slavic uprising. During the late 12th century, in the aftermath of the Wendish Crusade, the region fell under the rule of the Duchy of Pomerania. After the Treaty of Kremmen in 1236, most of Circipania was transferred to the Margraviate of Brandenburg. [2]

Circipania was a medieval territory in what is now northeastern Germany. The name derives from Latin circum (around) and Pane. The region was enclosed roughly by the upper Recknitz, Trebel and Peene rivers, the western border ran east of Güstrow. The region developed in the 10th and 11th centuries, when it was the tribal territory of the Circipanes, a West Slavic tribe which along with the neighboring tribes was a part of the Lutici federation. The main burghs were Teterow, Malchin, and Demmin.

West Slavs group of Slavic peoples speaking the West Slavic languages (Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Sorbs, Kashubians, Moravians, Silesians), separating from the common Slavic group around the 7th century in Central Europe

The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages. They separated from the common Slavic group around the 7th century, and established independent polities in Central Europe by the 8th to 9th centuries. The West Slavic languages diversified into their historically attested forms over the 10th to 14th centuries.

Billung March

The Billung March or March of the Billungs was a frontier region of the far northeastern Duchy of Saxony in the 10th century. It was named after the family which held it, the House of Billung.

In World War II, the area was highly involved in the development and production of the V-2 rocket, until the production's relocation to Nordhausen. The village's docks were used for the ships which recovered V-2 wreckage from test launches over the Baltic Sea. German scientists such as Wernher von Braun, who worked at the V-2 facility, were known as "Peenemünders". The entire island was captured by the Soviet Red Army on 5 May 1945. The gas plant for the production of liquid oxygen still lies in ruins at the entrance to Peenemünde.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Nordhausen Place in Thuringia, Germany

Nordhausen is a city in Thuringia, Germany. It is the capital of the Nordhausen district and the urban centre of northern Thuringia and the southern Harz region; its population is 42,000. Nordhausen is located approximately 60 km north of Erfurt, 80 km west of Halle, 85 km south of Braunschweig and 60 km east of Göttingen.

V-2 rocket worlds first long-range guided ballistic missile

The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, was developed during the Second World War in Germany as a "vengeance weapon", assigned to attack Allied cities as retaliation for the Allied bombings against German cities. The V-2 rocket also became the first man-made object to travel into space by crossing the Kármán line with the vertical launch of MW 18014 on 20 June 1944.

The post-war port was a Soviet naval base until turned over to the armed forces of East Germany in 1952. The seaport facilities were used at first by the East German Seepolizei (sea police) after new facilities for police motorboats had been built. On 1 December 1956 the headquarters of the First Fleet of the East German People's Navy was established at Peenemünde.

Post-war interval immediately following the end of a war

In Western usage, the phrase post-war era or postwar era usually refer to the time since the end of World War II, even though many nations involved in this war have been involved in other wars since.

Naval base port for naval ships and other assets

A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or want to restock. Usually ships may also perform some minor repairs. Some naval bases are temporary homes to aircraft that usually stay on the ships but are undergoing maintenance while the ship is in port.

East Germany Former communist country, 1949-1990

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", and the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.

The birthplace of modern rocket science is today displayed at the Peenemünde Historical Technical Museum, a World War II museum on the European Route of Industrial Heritage opened in 1992 in the power station of the former Army Testing Site [3] and the area of the World War II power station (now part of the village) – exhibits include a V-1 and a V-2.

Related Research Articles

Peenemünde Army Research Center spaceport

The Peenemünde Army Research Centre was founded in 1937 as one of five military proving grounds under the German Army Weapons Office (Heereswaffenamt).

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern State in Germany

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, also known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, is a state of Germany. Of the country's 16 states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, and 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Stralsund, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow.

Ribnitz-Damgarten Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Ribnitz-Damgarten is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated on Lake Ribnitz. Ribnitz-Damgarten is in the west of the district Vorpommern-Rügen.

Demmin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Demmin is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It was the capital of the former district of Demmin.

Zempin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Zempin is a German municipality and the smallest seaside resort on Usedom island. It lies between Zinnowitz and Koserow on the narrowest part of the island, between the Baltic Sea and the Achterwasser, a bay of the Oder Lagoon.

Trassenheide Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Trassenheide is a seaside resort on the island of Usedom in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in Germany. Trassenheide has approximately 1,000 inhabitants and the main source of income is tourism.

Zinnowitz Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Zinnowitz is a Spa (resort) town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern on the northern German island of Usedom on the Baltic Sea. The town has rail connections to Wolgast and Ahlbeck.

Heringsdorf Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Heringsdorf is a municipality and a popular seaside resort town on Usedom Island in Western Pomerania, Germany. It is also known by the name Kaiserbad.

Usedom (town) Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Usedom is a town on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is the seat of the Amt Usedom-Süd, to which 14 other communities also belong.

Jarmen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Jarmen is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the southern bank of the river Peene, 20 km south of Greifswald. Founded during the Ostsiedlung in the medieval terrae Miserez and Ploth, Jarmen remained a rural town at an important Peene crossing. Jarmen was in the Duchy of Pomerania from its foundation until the Thirty Years' War, in Swedish Pomerania until the Great Northern War, in Prussian Pomerania until World War II, in the East German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and later Bezirk Neubrandenburg until the peaceful revolution in 1989 and in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern within reunited Germany since 1990. The Autobahn 20 crosses the Peene at Jarmen.

Ückeritz Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Ückeritz is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Loddin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Loddin is a municipality on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Koserow Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Koserow is a municipality on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Zirkow Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Zirkow is a municipality on the German Baltic Sea island of Rügen in the county of Vorpommern-Rügen in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

Benz (Usedom) Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Benz is a municipality on the island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. In an area that has been occupied since the Stone Age, the first documentation of the village dates to 1229 and during historical times, possession of it has changed several times, including by Sweden and Prussia.

Vorpommern-Greifswald District in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Vorpommern-Greifswald is a district in the east of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and Vorpommern-Rügen, the Baltic Sea, Poland and the state of Brandenburg. The district seat is Greifswald. A lake called Berliner See is found in the district.

Historical Technical Museum, Peenemünde Technology museum in Peenemünde, Germany

The Peenemünde Historical Technical Museum, former "Peenemünde Information Centre for History and Technology" is a museum, founded in 1991, in the observation bunker and site of the former power station in Peenemünde on the island of Usedom in eastern Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany. The museum is dedicated to the history of the Peenemünde Army Research Centre and the Luftwaffe test site of "Peenemünde-West", especially the rockets and missiles developed there between 1936 and 1945. Since January 2007 the information centre has become an anchor point on the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH), a Europe-wide network of industrial monuments, and a part of the ERIH themed routes for Energy and Transport & Communication.

Western Pomerania

Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania, is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.

References

  1. "Bevölkerungsstand der Kreise, Ämter und Gemeinden in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 31.12.2017". Statistisches Amt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (in German). October 2018.
  2. Bucholz, Werner (1999). Pommern. Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas. Siedler, pp. 23ff. ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  3. "The Peenemünde Historical Technical Museum" . Retrieved 8 December 2014.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Peenemünde at Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Peenemünde travel guide from Wikivoyage