Peenemünde

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Peenemünde
Peenemuende, Hafen, U461.JPG
Seaport
DEU Peenemunde COA.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Peenemünde within Vorpommern-Greifswald district
Peenemunde in SVO.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Peenemünde
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Peenemünde
Coordinates: 54°08′0″N13°46′0″E / 54.13333°N 13.76667°E / 54.13333; 13.76667 Coordinates: 54°08′0″N13°46′0″E / 54.13333°N 13.76667°E / 54.13333; 13.76667
Country Germany
State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
District Vorpommern-Greifswald
Municipal assoc. Usedom-Nord
Government
   Mayor Rainer Barthelmes
Area
  Total24.97 km2 (9.64 sq mi)
Elevation
3.0 m (9.8 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total323
  Density13/km2 (34/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
17449
Dialling codes 038371
Vehicle registration VG (Vorpommern-Greifswald)
Website(in German) AMT USEDOM-NORD

Peenemünde (German pronunciation: [peːnəˈmʏndə] , English: "Peene [River] Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is part of the Amt (collective municipality) of Usedom-Nord. The community is known for the Peenemünde Army Research Center, where the world's first functional large-scale liquid-propellant rocket, the V-2, was developed.

Contents

Geography

Peenemunde railway station for service to Zinnowitz Peenemuende, UBB-Bahnhof.JPG
Peenemünde railway station for service to Zinnowitz
V-2 rocket V2 rocket.JPG
V-2 rocket

The village with its seaport is located on the westernmost extremity of a long sand-spit, where the Peene empties into the Baltic Sea, in the northwestern part of Usedom Island. To the southeast it borders on the sea resort of Karlshagen.

Peenemünde harbour can be reached by ferry boat across the Peene from Kröslin, liners also run along the Baltic coast to Rügen Island. The local railway station is the northern terminus of the Usedomer Bäderbahn line to Zinnowitz. Air service for the village is available at the Peenemünde Airfield.

History

During the 10th and 11th centuries, Peenemünde was part of the region of Circipania, an area settled by the Circipanes, a West Slavic tribe constituent of the Lutici federation. Circipania was incorporated into the Billung March of the Holy Roman Empire in 936, but the Empire's influence in the region decayed by the end of that century after a successful Slavic uprising. During the late 12th century, in the aftermath of the Wendish Crusade, the region fell under the rule of the Duchy of Pomerania. After the Treaty of Kremmen in 1236, most of Circipania was transferred to the Margraviate of Brandenburg. [2]

In World War II, the area was highly involved in the development and production of the V-2 rocket, until the production's relocation to Nordhausen. The village's docks were used for the ships which recovered V-2 wreckage from test launches over the Baltic Sea. German scientists such as Wernher von Braun, who worked at the V-2 facility, were known as "Peenemünders". The entire island was captured by the Soviet Red Army on 5 May 1945. The gas plant for the production of liquid oxygen still lies in ruins at the entrance to Peenemünde.

The post-war port was a Soviet naval base until turned over to the armed forces of East Germany in 1952. The seaport facilities were used at first by the East German Seepolizei (sea police) after new facilities for police motorboats had been built. On 1 December 1956 the headquarters of the First Fleet of the East German People's Navy was established at Peenemünde.

The birthplace of modern rocket science is today displayed at the Peenemünde Historical Technical Museum, a World War II museum on the European Route of Industrial Heritage opened in 1992 in the power station of the former Army Testing Site [3] and the area of the World War II power station (now part of the village) – exhibits include a V-1 and a V-2.

Related Research Articles

Peenemünde Army Research Center World War II weapons research center

The Peenemünde Army Research Centre was founded in 1937 as one of five military proving grounds under the German Army Weapons Office (Heereswaffenamt). Several German guided missiles and rockets of World War II were developed by the HVP, including the V-2 rocket. The works were attacked by the British in Operation Crossbow from August 1943, before falling to the Soviets in May 1945.

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern State in Germany

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, also known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania or Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, is a state of Germany. Of the country's sixteen states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, and 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Stralsund, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow.

Usedom Baltic Sea island

Usedom is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided between Germany and Poland. It is the second biggest Pomeranian island after Rügen, and the most populous island in the Baltic Sea.

Ribnitz-Damgarten Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Ribnitz-Damgarten is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated on Lake Ribnitz. Ribnitz-Damgarten is in the west of the district Vorpommern-Rügen.

Demmin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Demmin is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It was the capital of the former district of Demmin.

Zempin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Zempin is a German municipality and the smallest seaside resort on Usedom island. It lies between Zinnowitz and Koserow on the narrowest part of the island, between the Baltic Sea and the Achterwasser, a bay of the Oder Lagoon.

Karlshagen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Karlshagen is a Baltic Sea resort in Western Pomerania in the north of the island Usedom. Karlshagen has 3400 inhabitants and lies between Zinnowitz and Peenemünde.

Trassenheide Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Trassenheide is a seaside resort on the island of Usedom in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in Germany. Trassenheide has approximately 1,000 inhabitants and the main source of income is tourism.

Zinnowitz Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Zinnowitz is a Spa (resort) town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern on the northern German island of Usedom on the Baltic Sea. The town has rail connections to Wolgast and Ahlbeck.

Usedom (town) Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Usedom is a town on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is the seat of the Amt Usedom-Süd, to which 14 other communities also belong.

Gützkow Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Gützkow is a town in the District of Vorpommern-Greifswald in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated some 15 km south of Greifswald, on the north bank of the River Peene. Gützkow was the central town of the medieval County of Gützkow.

Jarmen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Jarmen is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the southern bank of the river Peene, 20 km south of Greifswald. Founded during the Ostsiedlung in the medieval terrae Miserez and Ploth, Jarmen remained a rural town at an important Peene crossing. Jarmen was in the Duchy of Pomerania from its foundation until the Thirty Years' War, in Swedish Pomerania until the Great Northern War, in Prussian Pomerania until World War II, in the East German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and later Bezirk Neubrandenburg until the peaceful revolution in 1989 and in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern within reunited Germany since 1990. The Autobahn 20 crosses the Peene at Jarmen.

Ückeritz Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Ückeritz is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Loddin Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Loddin is a municipality on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Koserow Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Koserow is a municipality on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Zirkow Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Zirkow is a municipality on the German Baltic Sea island of Rügen in the county of Vorpommern-Rügen in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

Benz (Usedom) Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Benz is a municipality on the island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. In an area that has been occupied since the Stone Age, the first documentation of the village dates to 1229 and during historical times, possession of it has changed several times, including by Sweden and Prussia.

Vorpommern-Greifswald is a district in the east of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and Vorpommern-Rügen, the Baltic Sea, Poland and the state of Brandenburg. The district seat is Greifswald. A lake called Berliner See is found in the district.

Historical Technical Museum, Peenemünde Technology museum in Peenemünde, Germany

The Peenemünde Historical Technical Museum, former "Peenemünde Information Centre for History and Technology" is a museum, founded in 1991, in the observation bunker and site of the former power station in Peenemünde on the island of Usedom in eastern Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany. The museum is dedicated to the history of the Peenemünde Army Research Centre and the Luftwaffe test site of "Peenemünde-West", especially the rockets and missiles developed there between 1936 and 1945. Since January 2007 the information centre has become an anchor point on the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH), a Europe-wide network of industrial monuments, and a part of the ERIH themed routes for Energy and Transport & Communication.

Western Pomerania

Western Pomerania, also called Hither Pomerania, is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.

References

  1. "Statistisches Amt M-V – Bevölkerungsstand der Kreise, Ämter und Gemeinden 2018". Statistisches Amt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (in German). July 2019.
  2. Bucholz, Werner (1999). Pommern. Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas. Siedler, pp. 23ff. ISBN   3-88680-272-8
  3. "The Peenemünde Historical Technical Museum" . Retrieved 8 December 2014.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Peenemünde at Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Peenemünde travel guide from Wikivoyage