Pei Yanling (裴延齡) (728 – October 23, 796) was an official of the Tang dynasty of China. He was a close associate of Emperor Dezong and was in charge of financial matters. He drew severe criticism from traditional historical accounts for his frivolousness, fiscal irresponsibility, and attacks against other officials.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China spanning the 7th to 10th centuries. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Emperor Dezong of Tang, personal name Li Kuo, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of Emperor Daizong. His reign of 26 years was the third longest in the Tang dynasty. Emperor Dezong started out as a diligent and frugal emperor and he tried to reform the governmental finances by introducing new tax laws. His attempts to destroy the powerful regional warlords and the subsequent mismanagement of those campaigns, however, resulted in a number of rebellions that nearly destroyed him and the Tang Dynasty. After those events, he dealt cautiously with the regional governors, causing warlordism to become unchecked, and his trust of eunuchs caused the eunuchs' power to rise greatly. He was also known for his paranoia about officials' wielding power, and late in his reign, he did not grant much authority to his chancellors.
Pei Yanling was born in 728, during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong. His family was from Hezhong Municipality (河中, in modern Yuncheng, Shanxi).His father Pei Xu (裴旭) served as a prefectural prefect. Toward the end of the Qianyuan era (758-760) of Emperor Xuanzong's son Emperor Suzong, Pei Yanling was serving as the sheriff of Sishui County (汜水, in modern Luoyang, Henan), when the nearby eastern capital Luoyang was captured by the rebel Yan army. Pei fled to E Prefecture (鄂州, in modern Ezhou, Hubei). During his time there, he edited the commentaries that Pei Yin (裴駰) wrote for the Records of the Grand Historian , and referred to himself as "Little Pei" in his remarks.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty. In the early half of his reign he was a diligent and astute ruler. Ably assisted by capable chancellors like Yao Chong, Song Jing and Zhang Yue, he was credited with bringing Tang China to a pinnacle of culture and power. Emperor Xuanzong, however, was blamed for over-trusting Li Linfu, Yang Guozhong and An Lushan during his late reign, with Tang's golden age ending in the Anshi Rebellion.
Shanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.
Emperor Suzong of Tang, personal name Li Heng, né Li Sisheng (李嗣升), known as Li Jun (李浚) from 725 to 736, known as Li Yu (李璵) from 736 to 738, known briefly as Li Shao (李紹) in 738, was an emperor of the Tang dynasty and the son of Emperor Xuanzong. Suzong ascended the throne after his father fled to Sichuan during the An Lushan Rebellion in 756; Li Heng himself had fled in the opposite direction, to Lingwu, where he was declared emperor by the army. Much of Emperor Suzong's reign was spent in quelling the aforementioned rebellion, which was ultimately put down in 763 during the reign of his son Emperor Daizong.
When Dong Jin was serving as the prefect of Hua Prefecture (華州, in modern Weinan, Shaanxi), he invited Pei Yanling to serve as his assistant in his role as defender of Tong Pass.Later, when a regional surveyor recommended Pei for his abilities, Pei was recalled to the capital Chang'an to serve as Taichang Boshi (太常博士), a scholar at the ministry of worship (太常寺, Taichang Si). When Lu Qi was chancellor, Pei was promoted to be Shanbu Yuanwailang (膳部員外郎), a low-level official at the ministry of rites (禮部, Libu) and an imperial scholar at Jixian Institute (集賢院); he later became Cibu Langzhong (祠部郎中), a supervisorial official at the ministry of rites. While Cui Zao was chancellor, Cui was in charge of the finances, and he sent Pei to Luoyang to be in charge of the financial matters at the Luoyang branch government. After Han Huang took over the financial matters, Pei was recalled to Chang'an to resume his duties as Cibu Langzhong and imperial scholar. Once Pei arrived at Chang'an, however, he did not wait for imperial orders to clarify his responsibilities and directly headed for Jixian Institute to resume his duties there. This displeased the chancellor Zhang Yanshang, and Zhang had him demoted to be the magistrate of Zhaoying County (昭應, near Chang'an). While he was serving there, there was an occasion when he had a disagreement with the mayor of Jingzhao Municipality (京兆, i.e., the Chang'an region), Zheng Shuze (鄭叔則), and he submitted a petition attacking Zheng. The chancellor Li Mi favored Zheng, but the deputy chief imperial censor Dou Can, who was jealous of Li and protective of Pei, sided with Pei in the dispute. As a result, Zheng was demoted to be a prefectural prefect, while Pei was recalled to serve as Zhuzuolang (著作郎), an imperial librarian. When Dou subsequently became chancellor, he made Pei the deputy minister of imperial supplies (太府少卿, Taifu Shaoqing) and later the deputy minister of agriculture (司農少卿, Sinong Shaoqing).
Dong Jin, courtesy name Huncheng (混成), was an official and general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Weinan is a prefecture-level city in the east of Shaanxi province, China. The city lies about 60 km (37 mi) east of the provincial capital Xi'an.
Shaanxi, is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.
In 792, Ban Hong (班宏) the director of finances died. The chancellor Lu Zhi recommended Li Sun (李巽) as Ban's replacement, and Emperor Dezong initially agreed. However, he soon changed his mind and wanted to replace Ban with Pei Yanling; he made Pei the deputy minister of census (戶部侍郎, Hubu Shilang) and the director of finances. Lu submitted a petition severely criticizing Pei for frivolousness and lack of judgment, but Emperor Dezong did not take heed.As Pei was not himself familiar with financial matters, he summoned experienced administrators at the directorate of finances and asked them for suggestions on how to please the emperor. In 793, he came up with a scheme — to change, on the books, uncollectible tax debts from the various prefectures into collectible ones, and moving the tax revenues that were actually submitted into a new separate storage. In all, no actual revenues were created, but Emperor Dezong was fooled into believing that Pei could increase the wealth of the state and therefore favored him more. Pei also falsely claimed that there was a large meadow to the west of Chang'an that could be used for raising horses — which turned out to be nonexistent when Emperor Dezong sent investigators to consider it for that purpose, but Emperor Dezong did not punish him, despite criticism by other officials. Also at Pei's suggestion, Emperor Dezong left many officials' positions unfilled in order to save money, notwithstanding the necessity for those positions to be filled. Pei further suggested that the money used on imperial temples be diverted to Emperor Dezong's own palace, and also falsely claimed that he had access to giant trees for the building of a temple that Emperor Dezong commissioned, Shenlong Temple (神龍寺) — such that when Emperor Dezong pointed out that those giants trees were not even available during the prosperous reign of Emperor Xuanzong, he responded that Emperor Xuanzong's reign was not impressive enough for those trees to reveal themselves. It was said that Emperor Dezong actually did realize that Pei was frivolous and often spoke untruths, but that he was happy to hear Pei gossip about other officials, and therefore continued to favor Pei.
It was said that only several officials whose responsibilities were directly related to Pei's — Zhang Pang (張滂) the director of the salt and iron monopolies, Li Chong (李充) the mayor of Jingzhao, and Li Xian (李銛) the minister of agriculture — dared to speak out against him, in addition to Lu, who repeatedly submitted petitions attacking Pei. However, Emperor Dezong's trust in Pei was not shaken, and instead, he began to be disaffected from Lu, whose opinion he had deeply valued previously. Lu's criticism of Pei was further neutralized when his chancellor colleague Zhao Jing began to leak Lu's criticism to Pei, such that Pei was able to anticipate it and deflect it. Around the new year 796, Lu was removed from his chancellor position, and thereafter Pei began to strike back, accusing Zhang, Li Chong, and Li Xian of being Lu's partisans, spreading rumors to cause soldiers to resent Emperor Dezong and Pei and to encourage them to mutiny. When an imperial guard soldier complained to Emperor Dezong that his corps was being inadequately supplied, Emperor Dezong came to believe that Pei was telling the truth about Lu and the others. In spring 796, he exiled Lu, Zhang, Li Chong, and Li Xian, to distant prefectures to be prefectural officials. In the aftermaths of these officials' exile, a number of low-level officials in charge of submitting suggestions to the emperor, led by Yang Cheng (陽城), submitted petitions attacking Pei and defending Lu and the others, but the petitions fell on deaf ears. However, despite expectations at the time that Pei would soon be made chancellor, Pei was never made chancellor. Still, Pei was promoted to be the minister of census (戶部尚書, Hubu Shangshu).It was said, though, that Pei was confident that he would become chancellor, and he was abusive in his language toward other officials. Further, when he subsequently grew ill, he was freely delivering items from the imperial treasury to his own home, but no one dared to speak against him. Pei died in fall 796, and it was said that no official mourned him, and many people actually celebrated, but Emperor Dezong mourned deeply and posthumously honored him. During the reign of Emperor Dezong's grandson Emperor Xianzong, Pei was given the posthumous name Miao (繆, meaning "untrue").
Emperor Xianzong of Tang, personal name Li Chun, né Li Chun (李淳), was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Emperor Shunzong, who reigned for less than a year in 805 and who yielded the throne to him late that year.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during their life. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
The Later Jin historian Liu Xu, the lead editor of the Old Book of Tang , commented thus about Pei and another official during the reign of Emperor Xianzong, Huangfu Bo:
The Later Jìn, also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, who was posthumously titled "Gaozu". Liao, its original protector state, destroyed Later Jin by invading in 946 and 947, after Jin's second ruler, Shi Chonggui, fell out with them.
Liu Xu (劉昫) (888–947), courtesy name Yaoyuan (耀遠), formally the Duke of Qiao (譙公), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, serving as a chancellor during both of those short-lived dynasties. He was the lead editor of the Old Book of Tang, one of the official histories of the preceding Tang Dynasty, completed during Later Jin, although most of the work was probably completed during the term of his predecessor Zhao Ying.
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories. Originally compiled during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, it was superseded by the New Book of Tang which was compiled in the Song dynasty, but later regained acceptance.
Evil and wicked people had been harming the righteous ever since ancient times, but for someone who was so careless in his frivolousness and falsehood, as well as his jealousy of the talented and harmfulness to the good, no one could compare to Pei Yanling and Huangfu Bo. Whenever I, your subject,read Chancellor Lu's comments on Pei, I always get emotional and weep.
Pei Yaoqing, courtesy name Huanzhi (渙之), formally Marquess Wenxian of Zhaocheng (趙城文獻侯), was a poet and politician of the Chinese Tang dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong. He had friendly relationship with fellow chancellor Zhang Jiuling, and when another chancellor, Li Linfu, managed to convince Emperor Xuanzong that both Zhang and Pei were engaging in factionalism, both were removed, although Pei continued to serve in important positions in the imperial administration until his death in 743. He was known for improving the food transportation system between the capital Chang'an and the eastern capital Luoyang, obviating the need for the emperor to periodically move between the two capitals.
Lu Shang (盧商) (789–859), courtesy name Weichen (為臣), formally the Duke of Fanyang (范陽公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, briefly serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.Sudikshya lohani is also called lu sang.
Qi Ying (齊映), formally Baron Zhong of Hejian (河間忠男), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Cui Youfu (崔祐甫), courtesy name Yisun (貽孫), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor briefly early during the reign of Emperor Dezong. He was credited for governing in an effective manner and guiding Emperor Dezong to correct decisions that, for some time, evoked comparisons between Emperor Dezong and his well-regarded ancestors Emperor Taizong and Emperor Xuanzong.
Lu Qi (盧杞), courtesy name Ziliang (子良), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong. He was characterized as treacherous and selfish in traditional histories, and traditional historians blamed him for provoking the rebellions of Zhu Ci and Li Huaiguang, which greatly weakened the Tang state.
Guan Bo (關播), courtesy name Wuyuan (務元), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Liu Congyi (劉從一) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Li Mian, courtesy name Xuanqing (玄卿), formally Duke Zhenjian of Qian (汧貞簡公), was an official and general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Liu Zi (劉滋), courtesy name Gongmao (公茂), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, briefly serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Zhao Jing (趙憬), courtesy name Tuiweng (退翁), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong.
Lu Zhi, courtesy name Jingyu (敬輿), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Dezong. Even before he became chancellor, he became a trusted advisor to Emperor Dezong, who greatly valued his opinion. However, eventually he offended Emperor Dezong by repeatedly accusing Emperor Dezong's associate Pei Yanling of misconduct, and he was demoted and died in exile. He left a relatively large body of writing on his advice to Emperor Dezong, which discussed in fair detail the condition of the Tang people at the time and thus is considered valuable, by historians such as the modern historian Bo Yang, in understanding mid-Tang life.
Li Fan (李藩), courtesy name Shuhan (叔翰), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xianzong.
Zheng Xunyu (鄭珣瑜), courtesy name Yuanbo (元伯), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Dezong and Emperor Shunzong.
Li Jifu (李吉甫), courtesy name Hongxian (弘憲), formally Duke Zhongyi of Zhao (趙忠懿公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xianzong.
Pei Ji (裴垍), courtesy name Hongzhong (弘中), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xianzong.
Lu Sui, courtesy name Nanshi (南式), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Wenzong.
Pei Xiu, courtesy name Gongmei (公美), formally the Viscount of Hedong (河東子), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xuānzong.
Lu Yi (陸扆), né Lu Yundi (陸允迪), courtesy name Xiangwen (祥文), formally the Duke of Wu Commandery (吳郡公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor for two terms during the reign of Emperor Zhaozong.