|City of Pekanbaru|
"PKU", "Pekan", "Pakan", "Pakanbaru", "Kota Pakanbaru", "Kota Bertuah"
|Founded||22 June 1784|
|• Total||632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||12 m (39 ft)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups|| Minangkabau |
|• Religion|| Islam 84.88%|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (WIB)|
|Area code(s)||+62 761|
|HDI||0.813 (Very high)|
Pekanbaru is the capital of Indonesian province of Riau, and a major economic center on the eastern part of Sumatra Island. Its name is derived from the Malay words for 'new market' ('pekan' is market and 'baru' is new). It has an area of 632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi), with a population of 897,767 at the 2010 Census, and 983,356 at the 2020 Census. It is located on the banks of the Siak River, which flows into the Strait of Malacca, Pekanbaru has direct access to the busy strait and has long been known as a trading port.
A settlement has existed on the site since the 17th century. In the late 19th century, the city was developed to serve the coffee and coal industries, and the Dutch built roads to help ship goods to Singapore and Malacca. This city has an airport called Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport, and a port called Sungai Duku that is located by the Siak River.
The origin of Pekanbaru was inseparable from the existence of the Siak River as a distributing route for commodities from the Minangkabau Highlands to the Strait of Malacca. During the 18th century, Senapelan region on the banks of the Siak River became a market for the Minangkabau merchants.Over time, the area evolved into a crowded residential area. On June 23, 1784, based on the consultative meeting of the Council of Ministers from Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, consisting of four leaders (datuk) of Minangkabau tribes (Pesisir, Limapurah, Tanah Datar and Kampur), the area was named Pekanbaru. This date was later celebrated as the anniversary of this city.
In 1749, under the terms of a peace treaty between the Sultan of Johor and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), Siak was put under the Dutch administration. The Sultan moved residence to a palace in Senapelan built in 1760.
At Senapelan Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Alamudin unsuccessfully tried to organize a major regional fair. In the early 1780s his son Sultan Muhammad Ali managed to establish the grand fair. Due to the important commercial value for Sumatra region and Malacca Strait for general, the settlement itself was renamed Pekanbaru by the local council of tribal elders (consist of Datuk Pesisir, Datuk Limapuluh, Datuk Tanah Datar and Datuk Kampar) on 23 June 1784. Thus, 23 June is celebrated as the founding day of Pekanbaru.
Following the collapse of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC), all company ownership of Pekanbaru was transferred to the Dutch crown. During the colonial Dutch East Indies era in the 19th and early 20th century the city remained important, especially as a major trading point: Siak river navigation conditions provide a stable relationship with shipping from the Malacca Strait. Additionally the city became a major center of the coffee industry and coal industry. The urban influence of the sultans gradually became more and more nominal, especially after the capital of the Sultanate moved to Sri Indrapura in 1830. Actual management functions were carried out by representatives of the Dutch colonial administration, i.e., by the post of assistant-resident and controller.
During the Second World War from February 1942 to August 1945 the city was occupied by the armed forces of Japan. In an effort to strengthen the military and logistical infrastructure in this part of Sumatra, the Japanese started the construction of a 220-kilometer-long railway, connecting Pekanbaru to the coast of Malacca Straits.
The Pekanbaru Railway was constructed under harsh conditions using forced labour. 6,500 Dutch, mostly Indo-Europeans, and British prisoners of war and over 100,000 Indonesian, mostly Javanese, forced workers called Romusha were put to work by the Japanese army. By the time the work was completed in August 1945 almost a third of the European POWs and over half of the Indonesian coolies had died.
George Duffy, one of the 15 Americans there and survivor of the sinking of the MS American Leader tells of life and death for the POW workers on MemoryArchive: malaria, dysentery, pellagra, and malnutrition/"beri-beri" were the principal maladies compounded by overwork and mistreatment. "The average age at death of the 700 [POWs] who perished on that railway was 37 years and 3 months."
The railway was never fully utilised. Today it remains unused and in an advanced state of decay.
After Indonesian independence, Pekanbaru was organized as an administrative city in 1956, and was selected to be the capital of the newly formed Riau province in 1959.
Since 1946, Pekanbaru has been governed by at least 15 mayors. The first mayor to rule this city was Datuk Wan Abdul Rahman who was elected on 17 May 1946. Currently, the Mayor of Pekanbaru is H. Firdaus S.T., M.T.
Pekanbaru is one of the cleanest big cities in Indonesia.In 2011, Pekanbaru received the "Adipura" ('cleanest city') award in the category of large city for the seventh consecutive time.
Pekanbaru is the third most populous city on Sumatra Island after Medan and Palembang, with a population of 983,356 according to the official Census for 2020.The city is highly urbanised, drawing many of its people from the neighbouring province of West Sumatra. Since many centuries ago, Pekanbaru has one of the Minangkabau rantau (migration) area. After World War II, the number of Minangkabau people migrating to Pekanbaru surged, nearly doubling between the years 1943 and 1961. Many Minang in Pekanbaru have lived there for generations and has since assimilated into the Malay community. In addition to the Minangkabau, the Riau Malays natives are the second largest ethnic group in Pekanbaru, making up 26% of the population. The Javanese, Batak, and Tionghoa are the other main ethnic groups inhabiting Pekanbaru.
The pluralism surrounding the city can be reflected by the variety of religions and freedom of belief among the people in Pekanbaru. Islam is the majority religion in this city, followed by Christianity (Protestantism and Catholic) as well as Buddhism and small percentage of Hinduism and Confucianism. Each religion in this city is represented by the presence of the religion's respective worship places, such as The Great Mosque of An-Nur (Mesjid Agung An-nur) and Mesjid Raya Pekanbaru for the Muslim community, St. Maria A Fatima Church and St. Paulus Church for the Catholic community, HKBP Church for the Protestant community as well as Vihara Mandala Mautreya, Vihara Dharma Loka, Pusdiklat Bumi Suci Maitreyafor the Buddhist and Vihara Sasana Loka for Confucian community and Pura Agung Jagatnatha for the Hindu community in Pekanbaru.
Indonesian is the official language that is spoken by the citizens of Pekanbaru. For informal use, Pekanbaru people generally use Minangkabau language in their economic and daily activities, especially in the market area. In addition the Malay languages and Javanese are also widely spoken because of the large population of Malays and Javanese people in Pekanbaru. Hokkien is mainly spoken by Tionghoa as most of the Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru belong to the Hokkien people. In fact, many Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru come from other regions in Riau such as Selat Panjang, Bengkalis and Siak, along with the Chinese Indonesian who are originally from Pekanbaru itself. Moreover, many Chinese Indonesian especially from North Sumatra, particularly the Medan and West Sumatra regions have moved to Pekanbaru due to opportunities and rapid economical growth in the area since the 1990s and 2000s.
The city is divided into twelve administrative districts (Indonesian: kecamatan ), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Censusand the 2020 Census. The table also includes the locations of the district administrative centres, and the number of administrative urban villages (kelurahan) in each district.
|Name||Urban area||Area |
|Tampan||Sudomulyo Timur||59.81||169,654||203,238||Simpang Baru||9|
|Payung Sekaki||Labuh Baru Timur||43.24||86,583||96,296||Labuh Baru Barat||7|
|Bukit Raya||Simpang Tiga||22.05||91,914||93,478||Simpang Tiga||5|
|Marpoyan Damai||Tangkerang Tengah||29.74||125,697||127,600||Sidomulyo Timur||6|
|Sail||Cinta Raja||3.26||21,438||20,384||Cinta Raja||3|
|Pekanbaru Kota||Tanah Tinggi||2.26||25,062||22,604||Kota Tinggi||6|
|Senepelan||Padang Bulan||6.65||36,434||35,357||Kampung Bandar||6|
|Rumbai||Sri Meranti||128.85||64,625||78,185||Rumbai Bukit||9|
|Rumbai Pesisir||Lembah Damai||157.33||64,698||70,488||Meranti Pandak||8|
The city centre is the district of Pekanbaru Kota, ringed by the inner city districts of Limapuluh, Sail, Sukajadi and Senepelan. The other seven districts surround this inner city.
Pekanbaru has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification. 27.6 °C (81.7 °F), while the coolest month is January with average temperature 26.4 °C (79.5 °F). The precipitation accumulation also remains constant throughout the year with no real dry season. The month with most precipitation is November with precipitation total 312 millimetres (12.3 in), while the least precipitation is July with precipitation total 123 millimetres (4.8 in).As with many cities with an equatorial climate, the temperature only varies a little throughout the year. The hottest month is May with average temperature
|Climate data for Pekanbaru|
|Record high °C (°F)||36|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.0|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||21.8|
|Record low °C (°F)||18|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||240|
|Source 1: Climate-Data.org (average temps and precip)|
|Source 2: Weatherbase (extremes)|
After oil was discovered in the region in the 1930s, Pekanbaru's economy has depended heavily on oil revenues which caused the city to have the highest per capita income in Indonesia.[ citation needed ] Most of Indonesia's petroleum is produced in Riau, and much of Pekanbaru's economy is based on the petroleum industry. International oil companies, prominently Chevron from the US, as well as other Indonesian companies, have established their offices in the region. The city is connected by road to an oil refining and exporting port in Dumai. Many facilities and infrastructures such as an airport, stadiums, housing areas, schools, bridges that cross the Siak River in Pekanbaru, the roads in Rumbai and the roads to Dumai, were partially or fully financed by oil companies in the area.
Pekanbaru is really close with some of the home of mega-companies, such as PT Riau Andalan Pulp Paper, PT. Indah Kiat, PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia, and PT Perkebunan Nusantara V and some wood-sawmill, CPOs, and rubber-processing companies, and Pekanbaru is often said to be one of the cities with the highest money and banking rotation in Indonesia.
As Pekanbaru is prominently known as a major gateway for tourists from Singapore and Malaysia, the city has become a favourite stop-over for travellers before they go further inland to other regions of Sumatra Island such as Padang and Jambi. The Pasar Pusat (Central Market) is a food-trip destination and considered a household-goods trove. Pasar Bawah and Pasar Tengah, located near to the port and Siak riverbank, are especially known for the marketplace for buying and selling of Chinese goods like ceramics and carpets.
Around 127,000 foreign tourists arrived in Pekanbaru through its airport during 2018.
On the other hand, there are many developments of shopping malls such as Plaza Senapelan, Plaza Citra, Plaza Sukaramai, Mal Pekanbaru, Mal SKA, Sadira Plaza, Living World, Transmart Mini Studio, Mal Ciputra Seraya, Lotte Mart, Metropolitan Trade Center, The Central, Ramayana, Robinson, Metro, and Giant Grocery Store. Additionally, there are a lot of housing areas have been developed since the 2000s surrounding the city, particularly in Panam area whereby the housing project along the road has been tremendously established and now becoming one of the most populous area in Pekanbaru even though it is located far from downtown.
Favorably, there are several landmarks that have been built in this city. For example, The Great Mosque of An-nur, Mesjid Raya Pekanbaru, Pasar Bawah or Tourist Market, Riau Bank Tower, Riau Government Office Tower, Siak IV Bridge, Zapin Dance Monument and there are many more to come.
There are several modes of transportation in Pekanbaru such as taxi, bus, oplet (share taxi), bajaj (auto rickshaw), ojek (motorcycle taxi) and Trans Metro Pekanbaru (bus rapid transit). However, due to the rapidly increasing number of motorised vehicles, the traffic congestion that occurs on some roads such as Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Riau and Jalan HR. Subrantas that mainly connect populous sub-districts in the city cannot be avoided any more particularly during weekends and holidays. These problems initiated the government of Pekanbaru to come up with plans to solve these matters, especially within 10 to 15 years ahead.
For land transport, Pekanbaru is connected to Padang, Medan, Jambi, Palembang, and other cities or regions in Riau Province and Sumatra Island by the existence of Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Terminal Bus (Terminal AKAP). The terminal was officially open for public in 2007, replacing Pekanbaru's former "Mayang Terurai Terminal Bus" due to heavy congestion. However, the Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Bus Terminal is not fully utilised by several prominent Bus Companies such as Pelangi, Makmur, Riau Mandiri and Sidomulyo as well as other bus operators because its location which is deemed by some parties to be not as strategic as Mayang Terurai Bus Terminal. These matters surely make some bus companies have no choice but to drop off the passengers outside the designated zone. This informal drop-off zone is usually called by local people as terminal bayangan.
Sungai Duku Port (Pelabuhan Sungai Duku) is located by the Siak River, connecting Pekanbaru with some regions in Riau Province and Riau Islands such as Siak, Tanjung Buton, Selatpanjang, Bengkalis and Batam. In the past, there were ferry services travelling from this port directly to Malacca in Malaysia, but the service was discontinued as several ferry companies decided to move their operations to Tanjung Buton.
Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport serves flights in Pekanbaru from/and to several cities in Indonesia such as Batam, Medan, Bandung, Jakarta, Dumai, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, and others, and international flights to several countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, and Sri Lanka. Several prominent domestic airlines serve the route from/and to Pekanbaru such as Citilink, Garuda Indonesia, Lion Air, Batik Air, and Indonesia Air Asia. International flights are presently provided by AirAsia, Jetstar Asia Airways and Malindo Air.
In 2012, the new terminal was opened, replacing the old terminal that had been used since the 1980s. The old terminal is planned to be demolished to build more spaces for the apron and more aircraft capacity. Even though the new terminal has been fully used, the aerobridges that were constructed have never been utilized as the apron expansion has not been completed yet after two years since the opening of the new terminal to the public in 2012. Thus, the airport company PT Angkasa Pura II is currently ferrying passengers to and from the terminal using shuttle buses until the aerobridge can be used. Pekanbaru's airport is also utilized separately as the airbase of the TNI-AU (Indonesian Air Force) and home base of the 12th Squadron, a shelter to some Hawk Mk.109s and Mk.209s. The airbase is named after the former head of Indonesian Air Force, Roesmin Nurjadin and formally called as Pangkalan Udara Roesmin Nurjadin or Roesmin Nurjadin Airbase.
Pekanbaru has a formal and informal form of education. Pekanbaru currently implements a "zonation" system to assign new students in public schools.
Football is the most popular sport in Indonesia. In Pekanbaru, PSPS Pekanbaru is the local club that has been competing in Indonesian Super League since the 2000s. Kaharudin Nasution Sport Center Rumbai Stadium is the home stadium for PSPS Pekanbaru.
In 2012, 2013 AFC U-22 Asian Cup qualification, 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional (Indonesian National Games) and 2012 Pekan Paralympic Nasional was held in Riau Province. Since then, many sport facilities have been built in Pekanbaru because this city was the home for many sports venues used these multi-national events, such as the prominent Riau Main Stadium. Unfortunately, many sports facilities that have been developed before the 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional are not being managed and taken care of properly. An example would be the Riau Main Stadium, which was never used again after the event until today due to financial disputes between the local government and the contractors of the stadium.
Several golf courses can be found in Pekanbaru, such as Pekanbaru Golf Course Country Club at Kubang Kulim, Simpang Tiga Golf Course at AURI Complex, Rumbai Golf Course at IKSORA Rumbai Complex and Labersa Golf Course at Labersa Hotel and Convention Center.
The TVRI Riau (state-owned) and Riau TV (private) are some of the popular local television stations in Pekanbaru. Several local newspapers operating in Pekanbaru, such as Riau Pos, Haluan Riau, Tribun Pekanbaru, Pekanbaru Pos, Pekanbaru MX and Koran Riau.
This section needs additional citations for verification .(July 2015)
|Sister & Twin Towns/Cities||Country|
|San Jose, California||United States|
Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is fully within Indonesian territory, as well as the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 (182,812 mi.2), not including adjacent islands such as the Simeulue, Nias, Mentawai, Enggano, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung and Krakatoa archipelago.
Riau is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the central eastern coast of Sumatra along the Strait of Malacca. Until 2004 the province included the offshore Riau Islands, a large group of small islands located east of Sumatra Island and south of Singapore, before these islands were split off as a province in July 2004. The provincial capital and the largest city of Riau is Pekanbaru. The province shares land borders with North Sumatra to the northwest, West Sumatra to the west, and Jambi to the south. The total area for Riau province is 87,023.66 square kilometres (33,600.02 sq mi), which stretches from the slopes of the Bukit Barisan to the Strait of Malacca. Riau has a wet tropical climate with average rainfall ranging between 2000 and 3000 millimeters per year, and the average rainfall per year is about 160 days. Riau is currently one of the richest provinces in Indonesia and is rich in natural resources, particularly petroleum, natural gas, rubber, palm oil and fibre plantations. Extensive logging and plantation development in has led to a massive decline in forest cover Riau, and associated fires have contributed to haze across the larger region.
Padang is the capital and largest city of the Indonesian province of West Sumatra. With a Census population of 909,040 as of 2020, it is the 16th most populous city in Indonesia and the most populous city on the west coast of Sumatra. The Padang metropolitan area is the third most populous metropolitan area in Sumatra with a population of over 1.4 million. Padang is widely known for its Minangkabau culture, cuisine, and sunset beaches.
Payakumbuh is the second largest city in West Sumatra province, Indonesia, with a population of 116,825 at the 2010 Census and 139,576 at the 2020 Census. It covers an area of 80.43 km² and is in the Minangkabau Highlands, 120 km by road from the West Sumatran capital city of Padang and 180 km from the Riau capital city of Pekanbaru.
Bukittinggi is the third largest city in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of 111,312 in 2010 and 121,028 in 2020, and an area of 25.24 km2. It is in the Minangkabau Highlands, 90 km by road from the West Sumatran capital city of Padang. The whole area directly borders to the Agam Regency, making it an enclave, and is located at, near the volcanoes Mount Singgalang (inactive) and Mount Marapi. At 930 m above sea level, the city has a cool climate with temperatures between 16.1° to 24.9 °C.
Bekasi is a city in West Java, Indonesia, located on the eastern border of Jakarta. It serves as a commuter city within the Jakarta metropolitan area. According to the 2020 Census by Statistics Indonesia (BPS), Bekasi had 2,543,676 inhabitants. It lies within the largest metropolitan area in Indonesia (Jabodetabek). The city is bordered by Bekasi Regency to the north and the east, Bogor Regency and Depok to the south, and East Jakarta to the west.
Bengkalis Regency is a regency of Indonesia in the Riau province. The regency, which includes the whole of Bengkalis and Rupat Islands in the Strait of Malacca, has been established since 1956. The regency was formerly divided into 13 districts ; however five of these districts were removed to create the new Meranti Islands Regency, leaving eight districts in the Bengkalis Regency, which number has increased since 2010 to eleven by splitting of existing districts on the Sumatran mainland. Bengkalis Regency produces natural resources, particularly petroleum, rubber, and coconut. The regency is home to the Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve.
Padang Panjang, is located in the cool highlands of West Sumatra, inland from the provincial capital Padang. It sits on a plateau beneath the volcanoes Mount Marapi and Mount Singgalang. It has an area of 23.0 km² and a population at the 2010 Census of 47,008 and 56,311 at the 2020 Census. It is located at.
Tanjungpinang, also written as Tanjung Pinang, is the capital city of the Indonesian province of Riau Islands. It covers a land area of 144.56 km2, mainly on the southern Bintan Island, as well as other smaller islands such as Dompak Island and Penyengat Island. With a population of 227,663 at the 2020 Census, it is the second largest city of the province, after Batam. Tanjungpinang is a historic city of the Malay culture, having served as the capital of both Johor Sultanate and Riau-Lingga Sultanate.
Dumai, is a city in Riau province on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The city has an area of 1,727.38 km² and had 253,803 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, 285,448 at the 2015 Census and 316,782 at the 2020 Census. Dumai has a domestic airport, Pinang Kampai Airport. Dumai is an important transport and trade centre, both regionally and internationally, especially to Malaysia. Dumai is rich in oil.
Lima Puluh Kota Regency is a regency (kabupaten) of West Sumatra province, Indonesia. It has an area of 3,354.53 km² and had a population of 348,249 at the 2010 Census and 383,525 at the 2020 Census. The regency seat is the town of Sarilamak.
Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport, is an international airport that serves the city of Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia. The airport is often referred to as SSK II, SSK or Sultan Syarif Qasim II International Airport, and formerly known as Simpang Tiga Airport. The namesake of the airport is Sultan Syarif Kasim II, the last sultan of Siak and an Indonesian National Hero. The airport serves flights to and from several cities and towns in Indonesia and some countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Saudi Arabia.
Tanjungbalai, formerly known as Tanjungbalai-Asahan is a city in North Sumatra province, Indonesia, on the estuary of the Asahan River. It has an area of 60.52 square kilometers (23.37 sq mi) and the sixth largest kota (urban) population in North Sumatra with 154,445 inhabitants in the 2010 census and 176,027 at the 2020 Census. The town has a ferry terminal with services to Port Klang, Malaysia, and the city-island of Singapore.
Kampar is a regency (kabupaten) of Riau, Indonesia. It has an area of 11,289.28 km2 and had a population of 686,204 at the 2010 Census, 793,005 at the 2015 Intermediate Census and 841,332 at the 2020 Census. The administrative centre of the regency is located at Bangkinang town.
Siak, is a regency (kabupaten) of Riau Province, on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. It has an area of 8,556.09 km² and had a population of 376,742 at the 2010 Census and 457,940 at the 2020 Census, comprising 236,494 male and 221,446 female. The administrative centre of the regency is located at Siak Sri Indrapura. The northern part of this regency is covered by the Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve.
Lhokseumawe, is the second largest city in Aceh Special District, in the north of Sumatra, Indonesia. The city covers an area of 181.06 square kilometres, and had a population of 171,163 at the 2010 Census and 188,713 at the 2020 Census. Being between Banda Aceh and the large southern city of Medan, the town is a key regional centre important for the economy of Aceh.
Pidie Regency is a regency of Aceh Special region, in Indonesia. It is located in the north of the island of Sumatra, in Western Indonesia, bordered by the Malacca Strait and Pidie Jaya Regency in the north, Aceh Besar Regency in the west, Bireuen Regency in the northeast, and Aceh Jaya Regency in the south. The regency covers an area of 3,184.45 square kilometres and had a population of 379,108 people at the 2010 Census and 435,275 at the 2020 Census. Pidie was the largest rice-producing area of Aceh province, producing some 20% of its total output.
The Overseas Minangkabau is a demographic group of Minangkabau people of Minangkabau Highlands origin in West Sumatra, Indonesia who have settled in other parts of the world. Over half of the Minangkabau people can be considered overseas Minangkabaus. They make up the majority of the population of Negeri Sembilan and Pekanbaru. They also form a significant minority in the populations of Jakarta, Bandung, Medan, Batam, Surabaya and Palembang in Indonesia as well as Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, Penang, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam in the rest of the Malay world. Minangkabaus have also emigrated as skilled professionals and merchants to the Netherlands, United States, Saudi Arabia and Australia. The matrilineal culture and economic conditions in West Sumatra have made the Minangkabau people one of the most mobile ethnic group in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, often called Sultanate of Siak, was a kingdom that was located in the Siak Regency, Riau from 1722 to 1946 CE. It was founded by Raja Kechil, who from the Johor Kingdom, after he failed to seize the throne of the Sultanate of Johor. The polity expanded in the 18th century to encompass much of eastern Sumatra as it brought various communities under its control through warfare and control of trade between the interior of Sumatra and the Melaka Straits. The Dutch colonial state signed a series of treaties with Siak rulers in the 19th century, which reduced the area of state influence to the Siak River. For the remainder of the Dutch colonial era, it operated as an independent state with Dutch advisors. After Indonesia's Independence was proclaimed on 17 August 1945, the last sultan of Siak declared his kingdom to have joined the Republic of Indonesia.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pekanbaru .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pekanbaru .|