The Pentaglot Dictionary(Chinese: 御製五體清文鑑, Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian; the term 清文, Qingwen, "Qing language", was another name for the Manchu language in Chinese), also known as the Manchu Polyglot Dictionary, was a dictionary of major imperial languages compiled in the late Qianlong era of the Qing dynasty (also said to be compiled in 1794). The work contains Manchu lexemes and their translations into various administrative languages such as Tibetan, Mongolian, post-classical or vernacular Chagatai (Eastern Turki, now known as Modern Uyghur since 1921) and Chinese.
The literal meaning of the Chinese title 《御製五體清文鑑》 Yù zhì wǔ tǐ Qīng wén jiàn is "Imperially-Published Five-Script Textual Mirror of Qing", which corresponds to Manchu :ᡥᠠᠨ ᡳ ᠠᡵᠠᡥᠠ ᠰᡠᠨᠵᠠ ᡥᠠᠴᡳᠨ ᡳ ᡥᡝᡵᡤᡝᠨ ᡴᠠᠮᠴᡳᡥᠠ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᡤᡳᠰᡠᠨ ᡳ ᠪᡠᠯᡝᡴᡠ ᠪᡳᡨ᠌ᡥᡝ᠈; Möllendorff : han-i araha sunja hacin-i hergen kamciha manju gisun-i buleku bithe; Abkai : han-i araha sunja haqin-i hergen kamqiha manju gisun-i buleku bithe, "dictionary of Manchu words written by the Emperor (i.e., by imperial order) containing five languages". The translations into the other languages are as follows:
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian is organized into six boxes, containing 36 volumes on 2563 pages. The original work contained 32 volumes, with a four-volume supplement. It is divided into divisions (such as "Heaven Division"), category (such as "Astronomy"), with the categories further separated into types. There are 56 divisions, 318 categories, 616 types, with a total of 18671 terms. Each term has eight rows. From the top, the rows contain Manchu, Tibetan, a mechanical Tibetan transliteration into Manchu, a phonetic Tibetan transcription into Manchu, Mongolian, Chagatai, a transcription of Chagatai into Manchu, and Chinese.
For some terms, synonyms were included in the target languages (except Chinese). Thus, there are 19503 terms used in Mongolian corresponding to 18145 terms in Chinese (with 526 synonyms noted in Chinese). The Manchu text was largely based on the Beijing dialect of Manchu, using vertical regular script, with sentences terminated with punctuation (᠈ ), but no subsidiary pronunciation marks. Tibetan used the common written Tibetan usage at the time, in horizontal script in Uchen script (དབུ་མེད་), with terms that could not be written into a single line divided at syllabic boundaries, and terminating punctuation marks (།). Under the Tibetan was the Manchu transliteration, using Manchu phonemes to transliterate Tibetan letters to allow two-way transliteration and using distinctive characters for initial and medial phonemes; further, to transliterate some Tibetan letters, some new written forms for Manchu phonemes were invented (including initial "ng" and terminal vowels). Below the Manchu transliteration was the Manchu transcription to record the pronunciation in the Lhasa/Ü-Tsang dialect, due to the substantial difference between written Tibetan and spoken Tibetan. For Mongolian, the common written Mongolian of that time was used, in horizontal regular script, with punctuation marks at the end (᠈ ). Chagatai is written horizontally in Nastaʿlīq script, with terms that could not be written into a single line divided at syllabic boundaries and no terminal punctuations. Below Chagatai was Manchu transcription to record the eastern Xinjiang Turkic pronunciation, due to the substantial difference between Chagatai and the spoken language of Xinjiang at the time; the sounds showed characteristics of the pronunciations used in the Hami/Turpan regions; Chinese was spelled in traditional Chinese characters, also in vertical regular script, with the diction showing the influence of common usage in the Beijing Mandarin dialect. No punctuation or pronunciation marks were used.
Below were the renderings of the first term, "Heaven," on the first page of the first section, "Astronomy":
|1. Entry in Manchu||ᠠᠪᡴᠠ᠈||abka|
|2. Tibetan translation||གནམ།||gnam|
|3. Transliteration of Tibetan into Manchu letters||ᡤᠨᠠᠮ||gnam|
|4. Transcription of the Tibetan pronunciation in Manchu script||ᠨᠠᠮ||nam|
|5. Translation into Mongolian||ᠲᠨᠭᠷᠢ᠈||t[e]ngri|
|6. Translation into Chagatai||آڛمان||āsmān|
|7. Transcription of Chagatai in Manchu script||ᠠᠰᠮᠠᠨ||asman|
|8. Translation into Chinese||天||tiān|
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian has been transmitted in three known manuscripts, held by the Beijing Palace Museum, the Yonghe Temple, and the British Museum in London. A print edition doesn’t seem to exist. In 1957, the Ethnic Publishing House (Nationalities Publishing House, Minzu Chubanshe, 民族出版社) published a photo-mechanic reproduction of the dictionary, which was reprinted in 1998. In 1967, Japanese scholars recompiled it and added Latin transliteration into a work known as the Interpretation of the Wuti Qing Wenjian. In 1967, an edition was published in Japan that added transliterations of Manchu, the Manchu transcriptions of the other languages and a Japanese translation. In 2013, a critical edition with complete transliterations as well as indices for all five languages was published in Germany.
The Yuzhi Wuti Qing Wenjian is based on the Yuzhi Siti Qing Wenjian 御製四體清文鑑 ("Imperially-Published Four-Script Textual Mirror of Qing"), with Chagatai added as fifth language.The four-language version of the dictionary with Tibetan was in turn based on an earlier three-language version with Manchu, Mongolian, and Chinese called the Yuzhi Manzhu Menggu Hanzi San He Jieyin Qingwen Jian 御製滿珠蒙古漢字三合切音清文鑑 ("Imperially-Published Manchu Mongol Chinese Three pronunciation explanation mirror of Qing"), which was in turn based on the Yuzhi Zengding Qing Wenjian 御製增訂清文鑑 ("Imperially-Published Revised and Enlarged mirror of Qing") in Manchu and Chinese, which used both Manchu script to transcribe Chinese words and Chinese characters to transcribe Manchu words with fanqie. In Mongol the title of 御製滿珠蒙古漢字三合切音清文鑑 is "(Qaɣan-u bicigsen) Manzu Mongɣol Kitad üsüg ɣurban züil-ün ajalɣu nejilegsen toli bicig". In Manchu the title of 御製增訂清文鑑 is "Han-i araha nonggime toktobuha Manju gisun-i buleku bithe". It was used in banner schools as a textbook. A tetraglot dictionary (Yuzhi Zengding Qing Wenjian) in manuscript form exists in the Harvard-Yenching Library, where black ink is used for Chinese and Manchu and red ink for Tibetan and Mongolian. In 1708 the Yuzhi Qing Wenjian 御制清文鉴 "han-i araha manju gisun buleku bithe" was published.
"gamma uc̆in nigen boti, orosil nigen boti".
The Battle of Bun'ei, or Bun'ei Campaign, also known as the First Battle of Hakata Bay, was the first attempt by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty of China to invade Japan. After conquering the Japanese settlements on Tsushima and Iki islands, Kublai Khan's fleet moved on to Japan proper and landed at Hakata Bay, a short distance from Kyūshū's administrative capital of Dazaifu. Despite the superior weapons and tactics of the Yuan forces, those that disembarked at Hakata Bay were grossly outnumbered by the samurai force; the Japanese had been preparing, mobilizing warriors and reinforcing defenses since they heard of the defeats at Tsushima and Iki. The Japanese defenders were aided by major storms which sunk a sizable portion of the Yuan fleets. Ultimately, the invasion attempt was decisively repulsed shortly after the initial landings.
The Battle of Kōan, also known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty of China to invade Japan after their failed attempt seven years earlier at the Battle of Bun'ei. In the summer of 1281, the Yuan invaded with two large armies. The Japanese defenders were aided by a major storm which sank a sizeable portion of the Yuan fleets. The invaders who reached the shore were repulsed shortly after landing. The Japanese called the opportune storm kamikaze, a name later used in the Second World War for pilots who carried out aerial suicide attacks.
The Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī, also known as the Mahākaruṇā(-citta) Dhāraṇī, Mahākaruṇika Dhāraṇī or Great Compassion Dhāraṇī,, is a Mahayana Buddhist dhāraṇī associated with the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.
The Hun River is a river in Liaoning Province, China, and was formerly one of the largest tributaries of the Liao River. It was also formerly known as Shen River (瀋水). Two of Liaoning's most important cities, the provincial capital Shenyang and the seventh largest city Fushun, are located on the Hun River.
In the study of the classic Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber, the Cheng-Gao versions or Cheng-Gao editions (程高本) refer to two illustrated, woodblock print editions of the book, published in 1791 and 1792, both entitled The Illustrated Dream of the Red Chamber (绣像红楼梦). The 1791 version, produced at the year's end, was the novel's earliest print edition. A revised edition, differing in minor details, was published less than eighty days after the first print edition in early 1792. Both editions were edited by Cheng Weiyuan (程伟元) and Gao E and were published by Suzhou's Cuiwen Book House (萃文书屋).
The Ciyuan or Tz'u-yüan was the first major Chinese dictionary linguistically structured around words instead of individual characters used to write them. The Commercial Press published the first edition Ciyuan in 1915, and reissued it in various formats, including a 1931 supplement, and a fully revised 1979–1984 edition. The latest (3rd) edition was issued in 2015 to commemorate the centenary anniversary of its first publication.
Yu Min was an influential Chinese linguist, a 1940 graduate of the Fu Jen Catholic University, Chinese Department, a former professor of Yenching University, and professor of Beijing Normal University. His primary research areas were Chinese historical linguistics, Sino-Tibetan comparison, the study of Sanskrit in Chinese transcription. His collected writings were published posthumously in 1999.
Zeng Fengnian (Chinese: 曾逢年; 1809-1885) was a late Qing military figure from Jieshi, Lufeng, Guangdong. In 1845 he was appointed commander of the Nan'ao Subdistrict and in 1863 was given the peacock plume for his successful suppression of local bandits.
Đặng Huy Trứ was a Vietnamese official of Nguyễn dynasty.
Chinese traditional music includes various music genres which have been inherited for generations in China. Specifically, this term refers to the music genres originated in or before Qing dynasty. According to the appearance, the genres can be classified into instrumental ensemble, instrumental solo, theatre, shuochang, dance music and song. It is now the primary classification in both research and education, although some genres contain different forms of performance and thus do not belong to a single category. The genres could also be classified into literati music, folk music, religious music and palace music, according to their cultural connotations or purpose.
Li Shunxian 李舜弦 was an Iranian-born Chinese poet celebrated for her beauty and poetic talent. She was a concubine of Wang Yan, the Chinese Emperor of Former Shu. She was famous for being a non-Chinese woman who was an accomplished poet in the Chinese language.
Cao Xian (541-645), a native of Jiangdu County, Yangzhou, was a scholar of the Southern Dynasties and Sui and Tang Dynasties.
Chen Weisong (陈维崧), also called Chen Qinian (其年) or Chen Jialing (迦陵), lived 1626 January 7－1682 June 13, was the first of the great Ci and Pianwen poets during the Qing dynasty. He was the leader and founder of the Yangxian poetry school (阳羡词派).
Donggo (董鄂，pinyin:Dong'e) was a clan of Manchu nobility belonging to the Manchu Plain White Banner, one of the 3 upper banners of Eight Banner system. Several lineages were members of Manchu Plain Red Banner.
Aisin Gioro Yoto was a Qing dynasty imperial prince and Nurhaci's grandson. Yoto became the first bearer of the Prince Keqin peerage as Prince Cheng of the First Rank. He was demoted two ranks for committing a grave offence and posthumously granted a title of Prince Keqin of the Second Rank. After his death, the peerage was twice renamed until 1778, when the peerage was granted iron-cap status, which meant that each successive bearer of the title would hold undiminished title vis-a-vis his predecessor.
The Qing dynasty developed a complicated system of ranks and titles. Princesse's consort was granted a title of efu, meaning "imperial charioter". However, the title was not granted to the spouses of clanswoman. An efu retained his title and privileges as long as the princess remained his primary spouse – even after her death. However, if an efu remarried or promoted another consort to be his primary spouse, he lost all rights obtained from his marriage to the princess.
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