People's Daily

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People's Daily
人民日报
People's daily 1 Oct 1949.jpg
Front page on 1 October 1949
(the day the PRC was established)
TypeDaily newspaper
Owner(s) Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Publisher Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Founded15 June 1948;70 years ago (1948-06-15)
Language Chinese and others
HeadquartersNo. 2 Jintai Xilu, Chaoyang District, Beijing
Country China
Circulation 3 million [1]
Website www.people.cn
People's Daily
Simplified Chinese 人民日报
Traditional Chinese 人民日報

The People's Daily (Chinese :人民日报, Renmin Ribao) is the biggest newspaper group in China. The paper is an official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 million. In addition to its main Chinese-language edition, it has editions in English, Japanese, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, Tibetan, Kazakh, Uyghur, Zhuang, Mongolian, and other minority languages in China. The newspaper provides direct information on the policies and viewpoints of the Communist Party.

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Central Committee of the Communist Party of China political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is currently composed of 205 full members and 171 alternate members. Members are nominally elected once every five years by the unicameral National Congress of the Communist Party of China, though, in practice the selection process is done privately, and exclusively by the party's Politburo and its corresponding Standing Committee. The members have no essential decision making power. They ceremonially exercise their voting, to provide evidence to the nation that a decision has been made by the people.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Contents

History

The paper was established on 15 June 1948 and was published in Pingshan, Hebei, until its offices were moved to Beijing in March 1949. Ever since its founding, the People's Daily has been under direct control of the Party's top leadership. Deng Tuo and Wu Lengxi served as editor-in-chief from 1948–1958 and 1958–1966, respectively, but the paper was in fact controlled by Mao's personal secretary Hu Qiaomu.[ citation needed ]

Pingshan County, Hebei County in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Pingshan County, Hebei is a county of Hebei province, China, bordering Shanxi province to the west. It is under the administration of the Shijiazhuang, the provincial capital.

Hebei Province

Hebei is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.

Deng Tuo, also known by the pen name Ma Nancun, was a Chinese poet, intellectual and journalist. He became a cadre of the Communist Party of China and served as editor-in-chief of the People's Daily from 1948 to 1958. He committed suicide in 1966, as the Cultural Revolution was beginning.

During the Cultural Revolution, the People's Daily was one of the few sources of information from which either foreigners or Chinese could figure out what the Chinese government was doing or planning to do. During this period, an editorial in the People's Daily would be considered an authoritative statement of government policy, was studied and reproduced nationwide, and analyzed globally for insight into the Party's plans. The most important editorials were jointly published by People's Daily, People's Liberation Army Daily and Red Flag , from 1967 to 1978, so called "Two newspapers and one journal" (两报一刊), directly representing the highest voice of Chinese Communist Party. [2]

Cultural Revolution socio-political movement in China

The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976. Launched by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve Chinese Communism by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Mao Zedong Thought as the dominant ideology within the Party. The Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after the failures of his Great Leap Forward. The movement paralyzed China politically and negatively affected both the economy and society of the country to a significant degree.

The People's Liberation Army Daily, or PLA Daily for short, is the official newspaper of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). Institutionally, the PLA Daily is the mouthpiece of and speaks for the General Political Department of the PLA, and in that capacity speaks on the part of the PLA itself. Its editorial line hews closely to that found in the Communist Party's own official newspaper, People's Daily.

<i>Red Flag</i> (magazine) Chinese magazine

The Red Flag was a theoretical political journal published by the Chinese Communist Party. It was one of the "Two Newspapers and One Magazine"(两报一刊) during the 1960s and 1970s. The newspapers were People's Daily and Guangming Daily. People's Liberation Army Daily is also regarded as one of them.

Newspaper articles in the People's Daily are often not read for content so much as placement. A large number of articles devoted to a political figure or idea is often taken as a sign that the mentioned official or subject is rising. Likewise with articles on geographical areas foreign or domestic; recently increased interest in Latin America has been shown.

Editorials in the People's Daily are regarded both by foreign observers and Chinese readers as authoritative statements of official government policy, and are therefore studied with care. Distinction is made between editorials, commentaries, and opinions. Although all must be government approved, they differ sharply on the amount of official authoritativeness they contain by design – from the top. For example, although an opinion piece is unlikely to contain views opposed to those of the government, it may express a viewpoint, or it may contain a debate that is under consideration and reflect only the opinions of the writer: an editorial trial balloon to assess internal public opinion. By contrast, an official editorial, which is rather infrequent, means that the government has reached a final decision on an issue.

A trial balloon, or kite-flying, is information sent out to the media in order to observe the reaction of an audience. It can be used by companies sending out press releases to judge reaction by customers, or it can be used by politicians who deliberately leak information on a policy change under consideration. The term is of French origin. Trial balloon translates French ballon d'essai, a small balloon sent up immediately before a manned ascent to determine the direction and tendency of winds in the upper air, though the earliest use in English is figurative.

During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the People's Daily editorial of 26 April, which condemned "unlawful parades and demonstrations," marked a significant moment in the newspaper's history. [3] The editorial increased tension between the government and protesters, and top CPC leaders argued about whether to revise it. An article that compiles the most important editorials was released by the People's Daily during the student movement.

The April 26 Editorial was a front-page article published in People's Daily on April 26, 1989, during the Tiananmen Square protests. The editorial effectively defined the student movement as a destabilizing anti-party revolt that should be resolutely opposed at all levels of society. As the first authoritative document from the top leadership on the growing movement, it was widely interpreted as having communicated the party's position of "no-tolerance" to student protesters and their sympathizers.

The People's Daily is an official newspaper supervised by the Chinese Communist Party, providing direct information on the policies and positions of the government to its readers. During the 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests, People's Daily played an important role in changing the course of events, especially its April 26 Editorial that provoked great tension between the government and the students when the movement was slowly abating after Hu Yaobang's memorial on April 25. As an official newspaper, its attitude toward the government and the student protestors changed multiple times as the newspaper leadership team had to balance between reporting the truth and staying in line with its higher authority, the Propaganda Department of China, according to the then deputy chief editor, Lu Chaoqi.

Since the mid-1990s, the People's Daily has faced a decline of governmental subsidies combined with increasing competition from international news sources and Chinese tabloids. As part of its effort to modernize, it began an online edition in 1997, and the web bulletin forums, such as the Strengthening Nation Forum in the Chinese edition, has been known for their surprisingly candid content.

Chinese tabloid refers to a newspaper format that became extremely popular in the People's Republic of China in the mid-1990s. Like tabloids in the rest of the world, they focus on sensationalism and scandal, but some commentators argue that in the context of media in China this has the effect of challenging government limits on press censorship. Others argue that although tabloids have inadvertently led to a fragmented and decentralized press structure that undermines core party organs, the Chinese regime has maintained a fundamental stronghold on public discourse through media market influence and political control.

The Strengthening Nation Forum is a Chinese bulletin board on the website of the People's Daily, an official newspaper of the Communist Party of China.

An analysis of the wording of all the issues of the People's Daily from 1995 to 2000 was used in the writing of The First Series of Standardized Forms of Words with Non-standardized Variant Forms . [4] :3

The People's Daily is also responsible for the publication Global Times , [5] and hosts the Strengthening Nation Forum on its website. [6]

Online version

The People's Daily also maintains a multilingual internet presence; and established the People's Daily Online (人民网) in 1997. [7]

The internet website of People's Daily includes pages in Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish, Japanese and English. In comparison to the original Chinese version, the foreign language version offer less in-depth discussion of domestic policies and affairs and more editorial about China's foreign policies and motives, often explaining China's positive intentions. [8]

In 2014 the news paper launched a Chinese language application which was followed on October 15, 2017 by an English language version. [9]

Overseas media platforms

People's Daily in recent years has been expanding its publicity on the overseas social media platforms. It has tens of millions followers on its Facebook page, Twitter account, Instagram account, and YouTube account. However, an unusually high proportion of its followers are virtually inactive and likely to be fake users, according to the study of Committee to Protect Journalists. [10]

There have been calls for the People's Daily to register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act in US. [11]

List of presidents

See also

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References

  1. "About us". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  2. “两报一刊社论”两次泄露中共最大机密. huanqiu.com (in Chinese). 28 April 2011.
  3. "April 26 Editorial". Tsquare.tv. 26 April 1989. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  4. 国家语言文字工作委员会 (20 April 2016). 第一批异形词整理表(试行) (in Chinese). Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  5. Tania Branigan in Beijing (20 April 2009). "Guardian Article". Guardian Article. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  6. "Strengthening Nation Forum". People's Daily. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  7. "A Loyal Customer: People's Daily and Beijing". Wall Street Journal. 10 January 2012.
  8. Chinese and English versions of China's leading news portals – Two styles of journalism, Thinking Chinese, August 2011.
  9. Chen, Liubing (陈柳兵) (15 October 2017). "People's Daily expands reach with English-language news app - China - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  10. Christian Shepherd.(2015-11-23).Twitter tally at People’s Daily does not add up, say researchers. Financial Times.
  11. "U.S. panel accuses Chinese journalists of spying for Beijing". CNN Money. 16 November 2017.

Further reading