People's Movement of Ukraine

Last updated

People's Movement of Ukraine

Народний Рух України
President Viktor Kryvenko [1]
Founded9 February 1990;29 years ago (1990-02-09) [2]
Headquarters Kiev, Ukraine
Youth wing Young Activists of the Popular Rukh [3]
Membership35,000 (November 2016) [4]
Ideology Ukrainian nationalism [5] [6] [7]
Liberal conservatism [8]
Economic liberalism
Political position Centre-right [9]
European affiliation European People's Party (observer)
International affiliationNone
Colours         Blue, yellow
SloganStatehood, Democracy, Reforms
Website OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

The People's Movement of Ukraine (Ukrainian : Народний Рух України, romanized: Narodnyi Rukh Ukrajiny) is a Ukrainian centre-right political party. Often it is simply referred to as the Movement (Ukrainian : Рух, Rukh). The party under the name Rukh was an observer member of the European People's Party (EPP) until 2013.

Ukrainian language language member of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine and one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.

The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

Ukraine Sovereign state in Eastern Europe

Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.


Rukh gathers most of its voters and support from Western Ukraine. In November 2016, the party had 35.000 members. [4]

Western Ukraine geographical and historical region in the western territories of Ukraine

Western Ukraine or West Ukraine is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine. It includes several actual historical regions such as Transcarpathia, Halychyna including Pokuttia, most of Volhynia, northern Bukovina as well as western Podolia. Less often it includes territories of eastern Volhynia, Podolia, and small portion of northern Bessarabia. Important cities are Buchach, Chernivtsi, Drohobych, Halych, Ivano-Frankivsk, Khotyn, Lutsk, Lviv, Mukacheve, Rivne, Ternopil, Uzhhorod and others. Western Ukraine is not an administrative category within Ukraine.


Public movement

Initially organized as the People's Movement of Ukraine for Reconstruction (i.e. for Perestroika), Rukh was founded in 1989 as a civil-political movement as there were no other political parties allowed in the Soviet Union but the Communist Party. The founding of Rukh was made possible due to Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's Glasnost policies. [10] The program and statutes of the movement were proposed by the Writers Association of Ukraine and were published in the journal Literary Ukraine (Literaturna Ukraina) on 16 February 1989. The organization has its roots in Ukrainian dissidents — the most notable of them being Viacheslav Chornovil — yet not excluding the fact that it was accepting various other politically oriented members from liberal communists to integralist nationalists. From March to September 1989 numerous constituent party conferences took place across Ukraine. The first Constituent Congress of the "People's Movement of Ukraine for Reconstruction" took place on 8–10 September 1989 in Kiev. Elected as the first leader of the movement was the Ukrainian poet and screenwriter Ivan Drach.

Perestroika political movement for reformation

Perestroika was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s and 1990s and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost policy reform. The literal meaning of perestroika is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system.

General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union De facto Leader of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries. With a few exceptions, from 1929 until the union's dissolution the holder of the office was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union, because the post controlled both the CPSU and the Soviet government. Joseph Stalin elevated the office to overall command of the Communist Party and by extension the whole Soviet Union. Nikita Khrushchev renamed the post First Secretary in 1953; the change was reverted in 1966.

Mikhail Gorbachev 20th-century General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a Russian and formerly Soviet politician. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of its governing Communist Party from 1985 until 1991. He was the country's head of state from 1988 until 1991, serving as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, and President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991. Ideologically, he initially adhered to Marxism-Leninism although by the early 1990s had moved toward social democracy.

Appearance of the organization coincided with dismissal of Volodymyr Shcherbytsky as the First Secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and rise of Leonid Kravchuk. On one hand Kravchuk officially promised that "faster he will grow hair on his palm than Rukh will be registered", on the other hand according to author of the book "People's Movement of Ukraine. History" (Ukrainian : Народный рух Украины. История), Hryhoriy Honcharuk, with reference to Ivan Drach, it was Kravchuk who facilitated publishing of the Rukh's program draft in "Literaturna Ukrayina" in February 1989. [11] And according to rumors, he also approved that the rector of KPI Talanchuk would grant the Politech's Assembly Hall to hold the Rukh's constituent congress. [11]

Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbytsky was a Ukrainian and Soviet politician. He was a leader of the Communist Party of Ukraine from 1972 to 1989.

Leonid Kravchuk Ukrainian politician

Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk is a former Ukrainian politician and the first President of Ukraine, who served from 5 December 1991, until his resignation on 19 July 1994. He is also a former Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada and People's Deputy of Ukraine serving in the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united) faction.

Ivan Drach Ukrainian writer

Ivan Fedorovych Drach was a Ukrainian poet, screenwriter, literary critic, politician, and political activist.

The official Soviet press and government portrayed members as anti-Semites at first. [12]

Media of the Soviet Union Wikipedia disambiguation page

Media of the Soviet Union includes:

Government of the Soviet Union main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union

The Government of the Soviet Union, formally the All-Union Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, commonly abbreviated to Soviet Government, was the executive and administrative organ of state in the former Soviet Union. It had three different names throughout its existence; Council of People's Commissars (1923–1946) and the Council of Ministers (1946–1991).

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. It has also been characterized as a political ideology which serves as an organizing principle and unites disparate groups which are opposed to liberalism.

The movement's biggest public, political, cultural, and social actions were:

Human chain (politics) demonstration

A human chain is a form of demonstration in which people link their arms as a show of political solidarity. The chains can involve thousands of people, with the world record being claimed by a 2017 protest in Bihar, India, which was estimated to include 20 million people across 11,292 kilometres (7,017 mi).

Lviv City of regional significance in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of 724,713 as of January 2019. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine.

Kiev City with special status in Kiev City Municipality, Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

At first the movement aimed at supporting Gorbachev's reforms, [10] later the People's Movement of Ukraine was instrumental in conducting an independence referendum in the Ukrainian SSR. This was partially due to the Russification policies of the Soviet Union when the USSR Supreme Soviet officially announced the Russian language as the singular official state language of the country in 1989. During Rukh's existence within the Soviet Union, its members were threatened and intimidated. [10] In the western oblasts "Rukh" became colloquially known as an abbreviation for the call Save Ukraine, fellows! (Рятуйте Україну, Хлопці!). [13] [14] [15]

Political party

The movement initially registered by the Ministry of Justice on 9 February 1990 as the political party. After the creation of the Ukrainian Republican Party (URP) in January 1990 and later the Democratic Party of Ukraine (DemPU), the People's Movement of Ukraine unofficially existed as a coalition of those two along with numerous other smaller factions. These parties created a group within the Verkhovna Rada called the "Democratic Bloc" which stood in opposition to "Group 239", which was led by Oleksandr Moroz ("For the sovereign Soviet Ukraine") (see 1990 Ukrainian parliamentary election). In October 1990 Rukh's second Party Congress took place. During the session it was decided to exclude the word "Reconstruction" (Perestroika), not to be associated with the Communist movement. Ivan Drach was re-elected as leader, while his deputies became Mykhailo Horyn and Oleksandr Lavrynovych. In order to draw the URP and DemPU closer to Rukh, the "Institute of Associative Membership in the Movement" was established. The brittle coalition of the mentioned parties held until the presidential elections in September 1991 when URP and DemPU provided their own candidates in opposition to Vyacheslav Chornovil.

From 28 February – 1 March 1992 the third Party Congress took place during which a schism within Rukh was avoided by electing a leadership triad of Ivan Drach, Mykhailo Horyn, and Vyacheslav Chornovil. The new deputy leaders were M. Boychyshyn, O. Burakovsky, V. Burlakov, and O. Lavrynovych. The "Institute of Associative Membership in the Movement" was formally recognized as dissolved due to both the URP and DemPU declaring themselves as supporters of state president Leonid Kravchuk. The People's Movement of Ukraine declared its parliamentary opposition to the government and in January 1992 re-registered due to substantial changes in its statutes. Soon Ivan Drach left the party, followed by the resignation of Mykhailo Horyn in June 1992 together with V. Burlakov. Horyn was soon elected as leader of the Ukrainian Republican Party. In December 1992 Rukh's IV Party Congress took place which once again revised its statute and the party's goals. Vyacheslav Chornovil was elected leader, the rest of the party's leadership was left without major changes. During the Congress some party delegates in opposition to Chornovil created the All-National Movement of Ukraine (VNRU), headed by Larysa Skoryk.

The People's Movement of Ukraine was registered by the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice as a political party on 1 February 1993. [2] Rukh's parliamentary faction did split up into 2 different factions in the spring of 1999 (the breakaway faction was led by Hennadiy Udovenko with its highest Rada membership of 19 dwindling to 14; the "other" faction ended with 23; meaning that 10 elected People's Movement of Ukraine deputies did not represent any segment of the party anymore by June 2002). [16] [17] Right before the 1999 presidential elections another major schism took place within the party. Yuriy Kostenko openly protested against the election of Viacheslav Chornovil as the party leader and established another party, People's Movement of Ukraine (Kostenko), where Kostenko became the leader of the party. Despite the split a followed party congress elected Vyacheslav Chornovil as party leader. The congress also adopted the signing of an agreement between People's Movement of Ukraine and the Reforms and Order Party for a political bloc supporting Hennadiy Udovenko as a single presidential candidate for the next elections. At the parliamentary elections on 29 March 1998, the party received 9.4% of the vote [2] and 46 seats. At the parliamentary elections on 30 March 2002, the party was part of the Viktor Yushchenko Bloc–Our Ukraine. Currently, Rukh was a part of the Our Ukraine Bloc, [2] where it represented the right wing of the Union's party spectrum. At the parliamentary elections on 26 March 2006, the party was part of the Our Ukraine alliance, [2] and the party's members secured 13 seats in the parliament. At the 2007 parliamentary elections the party was again part of the Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc alliance, [2] that won 72 out of 450 seats.

In the 2010 local elections the party won 8 representative in the regional parliament of the Lviv Oblast, 3 representative in the regional parliament of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, 1 in Kherson Oblast, 5 in the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea and 3 seats in the city councils of Lviv and Simferopol. [18]

The party competed as one single party under the "umbrella" party "Fatherland", together with several other parties, during the 2012 parliamentary elections [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] During the election this list won 62 seats (25.55% of the votes) under the proportional party-list system and another 39 by winning 39 simple-majority constituencies; a total of 101 seats in Parliament. [25]

In 2013, the party split in two parts. The party merged with Ukrainian People's Party in May 2013. [26] While its former chairman Borys Tarasyuk and others assimilated into "Fatherland" in June 2013. [27] [28] The bulk of the party organisation and ordinary members remained loyal to the party. [4]

In the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election party leader Vasyl Kuybida received 0.06% of the vote. [29]

In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election the party participated in 3 constituencies; but its candidates lost in all of them and thus the party won no parliamentary seats. [30] [31] However, after being expelled from (the political party) Self Reliance the lawmakers Pavlo Kyshkar and Viktor Kryvenko joined the party in April 2016 (in parliament they both joined the faction of the Petro Poroshenko Bloc in March 2016 before leaving it in December 2017). [4] [32] [33]

In the 2015 Ukrainian local elections the party was able to gain seats in 270 local councils (0.17% of all local councils). [4]

Political platform

We do not impose on Russia how to interpret its own history. Why did Russia try and continues to try to impose on us the use of the Russian language? Why do Russians want to make us forget our own history and our heroes? Ukrainians must know their history and live accordingly, instead of living by the stereotypes spun by tsarist and Soviet ideologists.

— Party-leader Borys Tarasyuk on Echo of Moscow Radio (February 5, 2011) [28]

Directly out of the official website:

Associated organizations

Elections history

Supreme Council of Ukraine
Constituency /total
Overall seats won
Seat change
Popular vote
Seats /total
1990 no party list voting15/450
15 / 450
Increase2.svg 15opposition
1994 20/450
20 / 450
Increase2.svg 5opposition
1998 2,498,2629.7%32/22514/225
46 / 450
Increase2.svg 26minority support
2002 Yushchenko Bloc Our Ukraine 15/2253/225
18 / 450
Decrease2.svg 8opposition
2006 Bloc Our Ukraine 10/450N/A
10 / 450
Decrease2.svg 8opposition
2007 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc 6/450N/A
6 / 450
Decrease2.svg 4coalition government
2012 Fatherland-United Opposition N/ADecrease2.svg 6opposition
2014 Did not participate
2019 Did not participate
Presidency of Ukraine
Election yearCandidateFirst RoundPlaceSecond Round
# of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
1991 Viacheslav Chornovil 7,420,72723.32
1994 Volodymyr Lanovyi 2,483,9869.64
1999 Hennadiy Udovenko 319,7781.27
2004 nonefully supported Viktor Yushchenko
2010 nonesupported Yulia Tymoshenko in second round
2014 Vasyl Kuybida 12,3920.117
DateParty leaderRemarks
1989–1992 Ivan Drach
1992–1999 Viacheslav Chornovil
1999–2003 Hennadiy Udovenko
2003–2012 Borys Tarasyuk
2012–2017 Vasyl Kuybida
2017–present Viktor Kryvenko

Notable politicians


a Temporarily merged with Batkivshchyna as Fatherland – United Opposition

See also

Related Research Articles

This article presents the historical development and role of political parties in Ukrainian politics, and outlines more extensively the significant modern political parties since Ukraine gained independence in 1991.

European Solidarity is a political party in Ukraine. However, it has its roots in a parliamentary group called Solidarity dating from 2000 and has existed since in various forms as a political outlet for Petro Poroshenko.

Third Ukrainian Republic is a political party in Ukraine. The party was formally named Forward, Ukraine! and People's Self-Defense Political Party.

Republican Platform political party in Ukraine

Republican Platform is a political party in Ukraine. It was the first registered political party in Ukraine, created on November 5, 1990 by the Ministry of Justice of UkrSSR. RP was founded earlier that year in place of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group in April 1990.

The Ukrainian Republican Party was the first registered political party in Ukraine created on November 5, 1990 by the Ministry of Justice of UkrSSR. URP was founded earlier that year in place of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group in April 1990. In April 2002 the party merged with the Ukrainian People's Party "Sobor" as the Ukrainian Republican Party "Sobor".

Ukraine – Forward! is a political party in Ukraine. From its registration in December 1998 till March 2012 it was named Ukrainian Social Democratic Party. The party has, according to official figures, about 86,000 party members. The official name of the party is: Party of Natalia Korolevska "Ukraine – Forward!".

Ukrainian Peoples Party political party

The Ukrainian People's Party is a political party in Ukraine, registered on Old Year's Day 1999 as Ukrainian National Movement.

Mykola Tomenko Ukrainian scisntist and politician

Mykola Volodymyrovych Tomenko is a Ukrainian politician. He has been a member of Ukraine's parliament, the Verkhovna Rada from 2006 until 2016. In 2014, Tomenko became a member of the Petro Poroshenko Bloc, which elected him to the 8th Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada on its party lists during the 2014 parliamentary election. On 25 March 2016 the party Congress of Petro Poroshenko Bloc removed Tomenko's parliamentary mandate using the Imperative mandate provisions of the Ukrainian constitution. This was considered illegal by Tomenko; on 28 July 2016 Ukraine's highest Administrative Court rejected his appeal to gain back his parliamentary seat.

The Social-Christian Party is a political party in Ukraine registered in July 2004

Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform Ukrainian political party

The Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform is a political party in Ukraine headed by retired Ukrainian professional heavyweight boxer and the WBC world heavyweight champion emeritus Vitali Klitschko. It merged into the Petro Poroshenko Bloc on 28 August 2015. However, in May 2019, Klitschko announced that the party would take part in the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election. In 2017, UDAR was still registered as a political party and it employed two persons. The party has been an observer member of the European People's Party (EPP) since 2013.

For Ukraine! is a political party in Ukraine, headed by Vyacheslav Kyrylenko. Legally it is the successor of Party of Social Protection.

Labour Ukraine

Labour Ukraine is a political party in Ukraine registered in June 2000.

Civil Position political party in Ukraine

Civil Position or Civic Position is a political party in Ukraine registered in March 2005. It is led by former Minister of Defence of Ukraine Anatoliy Hrytsenko.

Union "Self Reliance" or "Self Help" is a political party in Ukraine. The party’s leader is currently, vacant, as of 21 July 2019. It was founded on 29 December 2012, and identifies with the ideology of "Christian morality and common sense." The name of the party is similar to the name of the NGO, founded by former leader, Andriy Sadovyi in 2004. The party won 33 seats in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election. In the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election the party won 1 seat.

Opposition Bloc is a Ukrainian political party that was founded in 2014 as six parties that did not endorse Euromaidan merged. Legally, the party was created by renaming the lesser-known party Leading force.

Movement of New Forces Ukrainian political party

Movement of New Forces is a Ukrainian political party registered in February 2017 that was formed by Mikheil Saakashvili.

Opposition Platform — For Life is a political party in Ukraine founded in December 2018 with the aim to contest together the 2019 Ukrainian presidential election and then the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election. The party is the successor of For life, formerly All-Ukrainian Union "Center" from 1999 to 2016. It was originally registered in December 1999.

Opposition Bloc (2019) Ukranian political party

Opposition Bloc, formerly called Opposition Bloc — Party for Peace and Development until June 2019, is a Ukrainian political party that was founded in 2019.


  1. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) The People's Movement of Ukraine party nominated its presidential candidate, Ukrayinska Pravda (10 January 2019)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Народний Рух України, Database DATA
  3. Young opposition activists stage rally to celebrate resignation of Azarov's government, Kyiv Post (5 December 2012)
  4. 1 2 3 4 5
  5. D′Anieri, Paul (2007), Understanding Ukrainian Politics: Power, Politics, And Institutional Design, M. E. Sharpe, p. 113
  6. Bugajski, Janusz (2002), Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era, The Center for Strategic and International Studies, pp. 952–953
  7. Magocsi, Paul Robert (2002), The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism: Galicia As Ukraine's Piedmont, University of Toronto Press, p. 63
  8. Salnykova, Anastasiya (2012), "Electoral Reforms and Women's Representation in Ukraine", Gender, Politics and Society in Ukraine, University of Toronto Press, p. 89
  9. Haran, Olexiy; Burkovsky, Petro (2009), "In the Aftermath of the Revolution: From Orange Victory to Sharing Power with Opponents", Ukraine on Its Meandering Path Between East and West, Peter Lang, pp. 86, 96
  10. 1 2 3 How 1989 fanned flames in Ukraine BBC News (10 June 2009)
  11. 1 2 Rakhmanin, S. Rukh and the presidents: a story of amorous dragon (РУХ И ПРЕЗИДЕНТЫ: ИСТОРИЯ ВЛЮБЧИВОГО ДРАКОНА) . Mirror Weekly. 10 September 1999
  12. The Jewish card in Russian operations against Ukraine, Kyiv Post (30 June 2009)
  13. Official website of the party in Ivano-Frankivsk region Archived 14 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Hutsul, Ye. Iryna Farion: "The enemy never vanish on its own "like dew in the sun". "2000 weekly". 14 June 2012
  15. In the anticipation of Apostle. "Newspaper Den". 2004-1-13
  16. Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001 ISBN   0742510174
  17. Understanding Ukrainian Politics: Power, Politics, and Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M. E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN   978-0-7656-1811-5
  18. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Results of the elections, preliminary data, on interactive maps by Ukrayinska Pravda (8 November 2010)
  19. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Соціально-християнська партія вирішила приєднатися до об'єднаної опозиції, Den (24 April 2012)
  20. Opposition to form single list to participate in parliamentary elections, Kyiv Post (2 March 2012)
    ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) "ФРОНТ ЗМІН" ІДЕ В РАДУ З "БАТЬКІВЩИНОЮ", Ukrayinska Pravda (7 April 2012)
    Yatseniuk wants to meet with Tymoshenko to discuss reunion of opposition, Kyiv Post (7 April 2012)
  21. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Tymoshenko and Yatsenyuk united ("Тимошенко та Яценюк об'єдналися"), Ukrayinska Pravda (23 April 2012)
  22. Civil Position party joins Ukraine's united opposition, Kyiv Post (20 June 2012)
  23. Ukrainian opposition parties agree to form single list for 2012 elections, Kyiv Post (23 January 2012)
  24. Opposition to form single list to participate in parliamentary elections, Kyiv Post (2 March 2012)
  25. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Proportional votes Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine & Constituency seats Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Central Electoral Commission of Ukraine
    % of total seats, Ukrayinska Pravda
  26. Ukrainian People's Party, People's Movement Of Ukraine Decide Unite Into Rukh, Elect Kuibida Its Leader, Ukrainian News Agency (19 May 2013)
  27. Batkivschyna, Front for Change, Reform and Order Party, part of NRU unite for victory – Tymoshenko’s address to congress, Interfax-Ukraine (15 June 2013)
    Tymoshenko re-elected Batkivshchyna leader, Yatseniuk council chair, Ukrinform (15 June 2013)
  28. 1 2 Ukraine-Russia relations didn’t get any better, ex-Foreign Minister Borys Tarasiuk says, z i k (February 5, 2011)
  29. "Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote – CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
    ‹See Tfd› (in Russian) Results election of Ukrainian president, Телеграф (29 May 2014)
  30. Poroshenko Bloc to have greatest number of seats in parliament Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine , Ukrainian Television and Radio (8 November 2014)
    People's Front 0.33% ahead of Poroshenko Bloc with all ballots counted in Ukraine elections – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
    Poroshenko Bloc to get 132 seats in parliament – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
  31. ‹See Tfd› (in Ukrainian) Rukh candidates for constituency seats in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election, RBK Ukraine