People's Party (Iran)

Last updated
People's Party
Leader Asadollah Alam
Founded16 May 1957 (1957-05-16)
Dissolved2 March 1975 (1975-03-02)
Merged into Resurgence Party
Ideology Royalism
Liberalism

People's Party (Persian : حزب مردم, romanized: Ḥezb-e Mardom) was a liberal [1] political party in Pahlavi era Iran. It was one of two major parties in the apparent attempt to decree a two-party system by Mohammad Reza Shah, apparently opposition to the ruling New Iran Party and previously Party of Nationalists.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

A political party is an organized group of people who have the same ideology, or who otherwise have the same political positions, and who field candidates for elections, in an attempt to get them elected and thereby implement the party's agenda.

Contents

The party was often criticized for its "lethargic, belated and disorganized" election campaigns, as well as being incapable of prepararing a viable alternative to the New Iran Party's platform, thus blamed for the latter's continuing domination of the political scene. [2]

Iran Novin Party

The Iran Novin Party was a royalist political party in Iran and the country's ruling party for more than a decade, controlling both cabinet and the parliament from 1964 to 1975. People's Party was regarded its opposition.

American diplomat Andrew Killgore, described the party "made up of cliques of followers of a few competing leaders who cooperate with one another for personal and pragmatic reasons but not out of any sense of party unity", what he calls a "traditional Iranian political party". [3]

Andrew Killgore American diplomat

Andrew Ivy Killgore was an American diplomat and a U.S. Foreign Service Officer. He was ambassador of the United States to Qatar from 1977 until his retirement from the U.S. Foreign Service in 1980.

The party was dissolved in 1975, in order to be merged into newly founded Resurgence Party, the only legal party in the attempted single-party system. [4]

Rastakhiz Party party

Rastakhiz Party of People of Iran or simply Rastakhiz Party was Iran's single legal political party from 1975 to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, founded by the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Electoral history

According to Ervand Abrahamian, People's Party and New Iran Party were interchangeably called "Yes Sir, Party" (Persian : حزب بله‌قربان) and "Yes of Course Sir, Party" (Persian : حزب چشم‌قربان) by people, as members of the two parties in the National Consultative Assembly were assigned to their affiliation by Shah and with the help of SAVAK. [6]

Ervand Abrahamian is a historian of Middle Eastern and particularly Iranian history.

National Consultative Assembly

The National Consultative Assembly or simply Majlis, was the national legislative body of Iran from 1906 to 1979.

SAVAK

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

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References

  1. Cottam, Richard W. (1979). Nationalism in Iran: Updated Through 1978. University of Pittsburgh Pre. p. 297. ISBN   0822974207. Rumor in Tehran had it that Melliyun ("conservative") had been allotted two seats for each seat given Mardom ("liberal") , and as the returns began...
  2. Ramazani, Rouhollah K. (1974). "Iran's 'White Revolution': a Study in Political Development". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 5 (2): 124–139 (subscription required). JSTOR   162585.
  3. Andrew I. Killgore (30 October 1972), Letter From the Embassy in Iran to the Country Director for Iran (Miklos), Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State
  4. Chehabi, Houchang E. (1990) Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism: The Liberation Movement of Iran Under the Shah and Khomeini. I.B.Tauris
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz & Christof Hartmann (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, ISBN   0-19-924958-X
  6. Abrahamian, Ervand. (2008) History of Modern Iran. Cambridge University Press.