Pepi II Neferkare

Last updated

Pepi II (also Pepy II; 2284 BC – after 2247 BC, probably either c. 2216 or c. 2184 BC [2] [note 1] ) was a pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty in Egypt's Old Kingdom who reigned from c. 2278 BC. His throne name, Neferkare (Nefer-ka-Re), means "Beautiful is the Ka of Re". He succeeded to the throne at age six, after the death of Merenre I.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt along with Dynasties III, IV and V constitute the Old Kingdom of Dynastic Egypt.

Ra ancient Egyptian solar deity

Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings, and the sky.

Contents

He was traditionally thought to be the son of Pepi I and Queen Ankhesenpepi II but the South Saqqara Stone annals record that Merenre had a minimum reign of 11 years. Several 6th dynasty royal seals and stone blocks—the latter of which were found within the funerary temple of Queen Ankhesenpepi II, the known mother of Pepi II—were discovered in the 1999/2000 excavation season at Saqqara which demonstrate that she also married Merenre after Pepi I's death and became this king's chief wife. [5] Inscriptions on these stone blocks give Ankhesenpepi II the royal titles of: "King's Wife of the Pyramid of Pepy I, King's Wife of the Pyramid of Merenre, King's Mother of the Pyramid of Pepy II". [6]

Pepi I Meryre Egyptian pharaoh

Pepi I Meryre was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. His first throne name was Neferdjahor which the king later altered to Meryre meaning "beloved of Rê".

Ankhesenpepi II Egyptian queen consort

Ankhesenpepi II or Ankhesenmeryre II was a queen consort during the sixth dynasty of Egypt. She was the wife of Kings Pepi I and Merenre Nemtyemsaf I, and the mother of Pepi II. She was buried in a pyramid in Saqqara.

South Saqqara Stone

The South Saqqara Stone is the lid of the sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian queen Ankhenespepi which was inscribed with a list for the reigns of the pharaohs of the 6th dynasty from Teti, Userkare, Pepi I, Merenre to the early years of Pepi II under whom the document was likely created. It is essentially an annal document which records events in each year of a king's reign; unfortunately, it was reused in antiquity for Ankhesenpepi I's burial and many of its invaluable inscriptions have been erased.

Therefore, today, many Egyptologists believe that Pepi II was likely Merenre's own son. [7] Pepi II would, therefore, be Pepi I's grandson while Merenre was, most likely, Pepi II's father since he is known to have married Pepi II's known mother, Queen Ankhesenpepi II. This would also conform well with the evidence from the South Saqqara Stone which shows no coregency between the reigns of Pepi I and Merenre thus making it far more likely that Pepi II was Merenre's own son.

Pepi II's reign marked a sharp decline of the Old Kingdom. As the power of the nomarchs grew, the power of the pharaoh declined. With no dominant central power, local nobles began raiding each other's territories and the Old Kingdom came to an end within mere decades after the close of Pepi II's reign.

A nomarch was a provincial governor in Ancient Egypt; the country was divided into 42 provinces, called nomes. A nomarch was the government official responsible for a nome.

Early years of Pepi II's reign

Base of a headrest inscribed with Pepi II's titulary. Musee du Louvre. Headrest Pepi II.jpg
Base of a headrest inscribed with Pepi II's titulary. Musée du Louvre.

His mother Ankhesenpepi II (Ankhesenmeryre II) most likely ruled as regent in the early years of his reign. She may have been helped in turn by her brother Djau, who was a vizier under the previous pharaoh. An alabaster statuette in the Brooklyn Museum depicts a young Pepi II, in full kingly regalia, sitting on the lap of his mother. Despite his long reign, this piece is one of only three known sculptural representations in existence of this particular king. Some scholars have taken the relative paucity of royal statuary to suggest that the royal court was losing the ability to retain skilled artisans.

Djau was a vizier of Upper Egypt during the 6th dynasty. He was a member of an influential family from Abydos; his mother was the vizier Nebet, his father was called Khui. His two sisters Ankhesenpepi I and Ankhesenpepi II married Pharaoh Pepi I. Djau was already in office when his nephew Pepi II became pharaoh. He is mentioned in two royal decrees, one from Abydos, the other from Coptos; one of them is dated to Year 11. It is unknown when he died, but when the tomb of Pepi II was decorated, he was no longer vizier. He was buried in Abydos, but the exact place of his tomb is not known.

Vizier (Ancient Egypt) highest rank of official in Ancient Egypt

The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the pharaoh (king) during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Vizier is the generally accepted rendering of ancient Egyptian tjati, tjaty etc., among Egyptologists. The Instruction of Rekhmire, a New Kingdom text, defines many of the duties of the tjaty, and lays down codes of behavior. The viziers were often appointed by the pharaoh. During the 4th Dynasty and early 5th Dynasty, viziers were exclusively drawn from the royal family; from the period around the reign of Neferirkare Kakai onwards, they were chosen according to loyalty and talent or inherited the position from their fathers.

Brooklyn Museum United States historic place

The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet (52,000 m2), the museum is New York City's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works.

A glimpse of the personality of the pharaoh while he was still a child can be found in a letter he wrote to Harkhuf, a governor of Aswan and the head of one of the expeditions he sent into Nubia. Sent to trade and collect ivory, ebony, and other precious items, he captured a pygmy. News of this reached the royal court, and an excited young king sent word back to Harkhuf that he would be greatly rewarded if the pygmy were brought back alive, where he would have likely served as an entertainer for the court. This letter was preserved [8] as a lengthy inscription on Harkhuf's tomb, and has been called the first travelogue. [9]

Aswan City in Egypt

Aswan is a city in the south of Egypt, and is the capital of the Aswan Governorate.

Nubia region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2500 BC onward with the Kerma culture. The latter was conquered by the New Kingdom of Egypt under pharaoh Thutmose I around 1500 BC. Nubia was home to several empires, most prominently the kingdom of Kush, which conquered Egypt during the 8th century BC during the reign of Piye and ruled the country as its Twenty-fifth Dynasty.

The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.

Family

A plate mentioning Pepi II's first heb sed jubilee. Pepy II hed seb.jpg
A plate mentioning Pepi II's first heb sed jubilee.

Over his long life Pepi II had several wives, including:

Of these queens, Neith, Iput, and Udjebten each had their own minor pyramids and mortuary temples as part of the king's own pyramid complex in Saqqara. Queen Ankhesenpepi III was buried in a pyramid near the pyramid of Pepi I Meryre, and Ankhesenpepi IV was buried in a chapel in the complex of Queen Udjebten. [10]

Two more sons of Pepi II are known: Nebkauhor-Idu and Ptashepses (D). [10]

Foreign policy

Pepi II seems to have carried on foreign policy in ways similar to that of his predecessors. Copper and turquoise were mined at Wadi Maghareh in the Sinai, and alabaster was quarried from Hatnub. He is mentioned in inscriptions found in the Phoenician city of Byblos. [12]

In the south the trade relations consist of caravans trading with the Nubians. Harkhuf was a governor of Upper Egypt who led several expeditions under Merenre and Pepi II. His last expedition was a trip to a place called Iam. [13] Harkhuf brought back with him what his correspondence with the young pharaoh referred to as a dwarf, apparently pygmy. [14] Egypt received goods such as incense, ebony, animal skins, and ivory from Nubia. [15] The Western desert was known to have extensive caravan routes. Some of these routes allowed for trade with the Kharga Oasis, the Selima Oasis, and the Dakhla Oasis. [15]

"King Neferkare and General Sasenet"

Only a small number of pharaohs were immortalized in ancient fiction, Pepi II may be among them. In the tale of King Neferkare and General Sasenet , three fragments of a papyrus dating from the late New Kingdom (although the story may have been composed earlier), [16] report clandestine nocturnal meetings with a military commander – a General Sasenet or Sisene. Some have suggested this reflects a homosexual relationship; although it is disputed that the text relates to Pepi II at all. [17] Some, like R. S. Bianchi, think that it is a work of archaizing literature and dates to the 25th dynasty referring to Shabaka Neferkare, a Kushite pharaoh. [18]

Decline of the Old Kingdom

A decree from Pepi II, granting tax immunity to the temple of Min, on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City PepiII-DecreeOfOfficialExactionForTempleOfMin MetropolitanMuseum.png
A decree from Pepi II, granting tax immunity to the temple of Min, on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

The decline of the Old Kingdom arguably began before the time of Pepi II, with nomarchs (regional representatives of the king) becoming more and more powerful and exerting greater influence. Pepi I, for example, married two sisters who were the daughters of a nomarch and later made their brother a vizier. Their influence was extensive, both sisters bearing sons who were chosen as part of the royal succession: Merenre Nemtyemsaf I and Pepi II.

Increasing wealth and power appears to have been handed over to high officials during Pepi II's reign. Large and expensive tombs appear at many of the major nomes of Egypt, built for the reigning nomarchs, the priestly class and other administrators. Nomarchs were traditionally free from taxation and their positions became hereditary. Their increasing wealth and independence led to a corresponding shift in power away from the central royal court to the regional nomarchs.

Later in his reign it is known that Pepi divided the role of vizier so that there were two viziers: one for Upper Egypt and one for Lower, a further decentralization of power away from the royal capital of Memphis. Further, the seat of vizier of Lower Egypt was moved several times. The southern vizier was based at Thebes.

It has been suggested that Pepi II's long reign was a contributing factor to the general breakdown of centralized royal rule that brought the Old Kingdom to its end.

Reign length

Pepi II is often mentioned as the longest reigning monarch in history, due to a 3rd-century BC account of Ancient Egypt by Manetho, which accords the king a reign of 94 years; this has, however, been disputed by some Egyptologists due to the absence of attested dates known for Pepi I after his 31st count (Year 62 if biennial) such as Hans Goedicke and Michel Baud. Ancient sources upon which Manetho's estimate is based are long lost, and could have resulted from a misreading on Manetho's behalf (see von Beckerath). [19] The Turin canon attributes 90+ [X] years of reign to Pepi II, but this document dates to the time of Ramesses II, 1,000 years later, and its accuracy for the reign length of the Old Kingdom king, Pepi II, is uncertain.

At the present time, the oldest written source contemporary with Pepi II dates from the "Year after the 31st Count, 1st Month of Shemu, day 20" from Hatnub graffito No.7 (Spalinger, 1994), [20] which implies, assuming a biennial cattle count system, that this king had a reign of at least 62 complete or partial years. Therefore, some Egyptologists suggest instead that Pepi II reigned no more than 64 years. [21] These Egyptologists dispute a reign of 94 years for Pepi II and advocate a shorter reign of not much more than 64 years for this king. [4] This is based on the complete absence of higher attested dates for Pepi beyond his Year after the 31st Count (Year 62 on a biannual cattle count). A previous suggestion by Hans Goedicke that the Year of the 33rd Count appears for Pepi II in a royal decree for the mortuary cult of Queen Udjebten was withdrawn by Goedicke himself in 1988 in favour of a reading of "the Year of the 24th Count" instead, notes Spalinger. [20] Goedicke writes that Pepi II is attested by numerous year dates until the Year of his 31st count which strongly implies that this king died shortly after a reign of about 64 years. [22] Other scholars note that the lack of contemporary sources dated after his 62nd year on the throne does not preclude a much longer reign, in particular since the end of Pepi II's reign was marked by a sharp decline in the fortunes of the Old Kingdom pharaohs who succeeded him. [2]

The Egyptologist David Henige states while there have been examples of kinglists where rulers were ascribed reigns as long as that assigned to Pepi II, "often exceeding 100 years, but these are invariably rejected as mythical", the problems inherent in dating Pepi II's reign are many since:

...a hyperextended duration [for Pepi II's reign] is not really necessary to bring Old Kingdom chronology into some equilibrium with other chronologies. For Mesopotamia from at least this early until virtually the Persian conquest, numerous localized synchronisms play vital roles in absolute dating, but seldom affect the duration of individual dynasties. Not only is Old Kingdom Egypt well outside any "synchronism zone" but, as it happens, since Pepy [II] was the last substantive ruler of Egypt before a period of political and chronological chaos...there are no awkward ramifying effects by reducing his reign by twenty or thirty years, a period that can simply be added on to the First Intermediate Period. [23]

Henige himself is somewhat skeptical of the 94 year figure assigned to Pepi II [24] and follows Naguib Kanawati's 2003 suggestion that this king's reign was most probably much shorter than 94 years. [25]

This situation could have produced a succession crisis and led to a stagnation of the administration, centered on an absolute yet aging ruler who was not replaced because of his perceived divine status. A later, yet better documented, example of this type of problem is the case of the long reigning Nineteenth Dynasty pharaoh Ramesses II and his successors.[ citation needed ]

It has been proposed that the 4.2 kiloyear event be linked to the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, though current resolution of evidence is not sufficient to make an assertion. [26] [27]

The Ipuwer Papyrus

In the past it had been suggested that Ipuwer the sage served as a treasury official during the last years of Pepi II Neferkare's reign. [28] [29] The Ipuwer Papyrus was thought by some to describe the collapse of the Old Kingdom and the beginning of the Dark Age, known to historians as the First Intermediate Period. [30] It had been claimed that archaeological evidence from Syrian button seals supported this interpretation. [31] The admonitions may not be a discussion with a king at all however. Otto was the first to suggest that the discussion was not between Ipuwer and his king, but that this was a discussion between Ipuwer and a deity. Fecht showed through philological interpretation and revision of the relevant passages that this is indeed a discussion with a deity. [32] Modern research suggests that the papyrus dates to the much later 13th dynasty, with part of the papyrus now thought to date to the time of Pharaoh Khety, and the admonitions of Ipuwer actually being addressed to the god Atum, not a mortal king. [29] The admonitions are thought to harken back to the First Intermediate Period and record a decline in international relations and a general impoverishment in Egypt. [33]

Pyramid complex

Ruins of the pyramid complex of Pepi II PepiIIPyramid.jpg
Ruins of the pyramid complex of Pepi II

The pyramid complex was called

Pepi II Neferkare
Pepi II NeferkarePepi II NeferkarePepi II Neferkare
Pepi II NeferkarePepi II Neferkare
Pepi II Neferkare
Pepi II NeferkarePepi II Neferkare
[34]
"Neferkare is Established and Living". [35]

The complex consists of Pepi's pyramid with its adjacent mortuary temple. The pyramid contained a core made of limestone and clay mortar. The pyramid was encased in white limestone. An interesting feature is that after the north chapel and the wall was completed, the builders tore down these structures and enlarged the base of the pyramid. A band of brickwork reaching to the height of the perimeter wall was then added to the pyramid. The purpose of this band is not known. It has been suggested that the builders wanted the structure to resemble the hieroglyph for pyramid, [35] or that possibly the builders wanted to fortify the base of the structure due to an earthquake. [34]

The burial chamber had a gabled ceiling covered by painted stars. Two of the walls consisted of large granite slabs. The sarcophagus was made of black granite and inscribed with the king's name and titles. A canopic chest was sunk in the floor. [35]

To the northwest of the pyramid of Pepi II, the pyramids of his consorts Neith and Iput were built. The pyramid of Udjebten is located to the south of Pepi's pyramid. The Queen's pyramids each had their own chapel, temple and a satellite pyramid. Neith's pyramid was the largest and may have been the first to be built. The pyramids of the Queens contained Pyramid Texts. [34] [35]

The mortuary temple adjacent to the pyramid was decorated with scenes showing the king spearing a hippopotamus and thus triumphing over chaos. Other scenes include the sed festival, a festival of the god Min and scenes showing Pepi executing a Libyan chieftain, who is accompanied by his wife and son. The scene with the Libyan chief is a copy from Sahure's temple. [34] [35] A courtyard was surrounded by 18 pillars which were decorated with scenes of the king in the presence of gods. [35]

Despite the longevity of Pepi II, his pyramid was no larger than those of his predecessors at 150 cubits (78.5 m) per side at the base and 100 cubits (52.5 m) high and followed what had become the 'standard format'. The pyramid was made from small, local stones and infill, covered with a veneer of limestone. The limestone was removed and the core has slumped. The causeway was approximately 400m long and the valley temple was on the shores of a lake, long since gone.

Pyramid of Pepi II taken from a 3D model 023 pepi IIa.jpg
Pyramid of Pepi II taken from a 3D model
Close up of the pyramid complex of Pepi II taken from a 3D model 023 pepi IIa 2.jpg
Close up of the pyramid complex of Pepi II taken from a 3D model

29°50′25″N31°12′49″E / 29.84028°N 31.21361°E / 29.84028; 31.21361

Excavation

The complex was first investigated by John Shae Perring, but it was Gaston Maspero who first entered the pyramid in 1881. Gustave Jéquier was the first to investigate the complex in detail between 1926 and 1936. [34] [36] Jéquier was the first excavator to start actually finding any remains from the tomb reliefs, [37] and he was the first to publish a thorough excavation report on the complex. [38]

Portraiture

A statue which is now in the Brooklyn Museum depicts Queen Ankhenesmerire II with her son Pepi II on her lap. Pepi II wears the royal nemes headdress and a kilt. He is shown at a much smaller scale than his mother. This difference in size is atypical because the king is usually shown larger than others. The difference in size may refer to the time period when his mother served as a regent. Alternatively the statue may depict Ankhenesmerire II as the divine mother. [39]

Another statue of Pepi II is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (JE 50616). The king is shown as a naked child. The depiction of the king at such a young age may refer to the age he came to the throne. [40]

Successors

There are few official contemporary records or inscriptions of Pepi's immediate successors. According to Manetho and the Turin King List, he was succeeded by his son Merenre Nemtyemsaf II, who reigned for just over a year. [41] It is then believed that he was in turn succeeded by the obscure pharaoh Neitiqerty Siptah, though according to popular tradition (as recorded by Manetho two millennia later) he was succeeded by Queen Nitocris, who would be the first female ruler of Egypt. [42] There is considerable doubt that she ever existed, given the absence of contemporary physical evidence in such things as the various Kings Lists attesting to her rule.[ citation needed ]

This was the end of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, a prelude to the roughly 200-year span of Egyptian history known as the First Intermediate Period. [42]

See also

Notes

  1. The year 2247 BC is a conservative lower estimate based on the number of cattle counts (thirty-one) that occurred during the pharaoh's reign, if counts are assumed to have been taken annually. Though Egyptian cattle counts are most often thought to have taken place biennially, late Old Kingdom reigns might have been an exception to the rule. [4] If they indeed were taken every two years, then the pharaoh reigned for about 62 years, till around 2212 BC. Pepi II is often mentioned as the longest reigning monarch in History based on accounts from the late 2nd millennium BC Turin canon and the 3rd century BC history of Egypt by Manetho. Earlier sources upon which Manetho's estimate and the Turin canon are based are lost.

Related Research Articles

The 22nd century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2200 BC to 2101 BC.

Unas Egyptian pharaoh

Unas or Wenis, also spelled Unis, was a pharaoh, the ninth and last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. Unas reigned for 15 to 30 years in the mid-24th century BC, succeeding Djedkare Isesi, who might have been his father.

Teti, less commonly known as Othoes, sometimes also Tata, Atat, or Athath in outdated sources, was the first pharaoh of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. He is buried at Saqqara. The exact length of his reign has been destroyed on the Turin King List but is believed to have been about 12 years.

Userkare Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh

Userkare was the second pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty, reigning briefly, 1 to 5 years, in the late 24th to early 23rd century BC. Userkare's relation to his predecessor Teti and successor Pepi I is unknown and his reign remains enigmatic. Although he is attested in historical sources, Userkare is completely absent from the tomb of the Egyptian officials who lived during his reign. In addition, the Egyptian priest Manetho reports that Userkare's predecessor Teti was murdered. Userkare is often considered to have been a short-lived usurper. Alternatively, he may have been a regent who ruled during Teti's son's childhood who later ascended the throne as Pepi I.

Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Egyptian pharaoh

Merenre Nemtyemsaf I was the fourth king of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt. His nomen, theophorically referring to Nemty, was formerly read as Antyemsaf, a reading now known to be incorrect.

The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a poorly known and short-lived line of pharaohs reigning in rapid succession in the early 22nd century BC, likely with their seat of power in Memphis. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was increasingly important, the Egyptian state having by then effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious.

Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Egyptian pharaoh

Merenre Nemtyemsaf II was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the sixth and penultimate ruler of the 6th Dynasty. He reigned for 1 year and 1 month in the first half of the 22nd century BC, at the very end of the Old Kingdom period. Nemtyemsaf II likely ascended the throne as an old man, succeeding his long-lived father Pepi II Neferkare at a time when the power of the pharaoh was crumbling.

Neferkare Neby Egyptian pharaoh

Neferkare Neby was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty during the early First Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the fourth king of the seventh dynasty, as he appears as the fourth king in the Abydos King List within the list of kings assigned to this dynasty.

Neferkare Pepiseneb Egyptian pharaoh

Neferkare Pepiseneb was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty during the early First Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker he was the twelfth king of the combined Eighth Dynasty.

Neith was an ancient Egyptian queen consort, one of the principal queens of the Old Kingdom pharaoh Pepi II Neferkare, who ruled. Queen Neith was named after goddess Neith.

Neferkare VII was the third pharaoh of the ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, ca. 2140 BCE, according to the Turin King List where his name, Neferkare, is inscribed in the register 4.20.
Neferkare is not included on the Abydos King List or the Saqqara King List, nor can the existence of his reign be positively confirmed through archaeological finds.

Pyramid of Pepi I Pyramid complex in South Saqqara

The Pyramid of Pepi I is the pyramid complex built for the Egyptian pharaoh Pepi I of the Sixth Dynasty in the 24th or 23rd century BC. The complex gave its name to the capital city of Egypt, Memphis. As in the pyramids of his predecessors, Pepi I's substructure was filled with vertical columns of hieroglyphic texts, Pyramid Texts. It was in Pepi I's pyramid that these texts were initially discovered in 1880 by Gaston Maspero, though they originated in the Pyramid of Unas. The corpus of Pepi I's texts is also the largest comprising 2,263 columns and lines of hieroglyphs.

Nebet (“Lady”) was created vizier during the late Old Kingdom of Egypt by Pharaoh Pepi I of the Sixth dynasty, her son-in-law. She is the first recorded female vizier in Ancient Egyptian history; the next one was in the 26th Dynasty.

Ankhesenpepi IV was an ancient Egyptian queen, a wife of Pharaoh Pepi II of the Sixth dynasty. She was the mother of King Neferkare II. Pepi II also had several other wives.

References

  1. Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. p.64. Thames & Hudson. 2006. ISBN   0-500-28628-0
  2. 1 2 3 Darell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300 – 1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008
  3. VIth Dynasty
  4. 1 2 Michel Baud, "The Relative Chronology of Dynasties 6 and 8" in Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Leiden, 2006) pp.152–57
  5. A. Labrousse and J. Leclant, "Une épouse du roi Mérenrê Ier: la reine Ankhesenpépy I", in M. Barta (ed.), Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000, Prague, 2000. pp.485–490
  6. Labrousse and J. Leclant, pp.485–490
  7. A. Labrousse and J. Leclant, "Les reines Ânkhesenpépy II et III (fin de l'Ancien Empire): campagnes 1999 et 2000 de la MAFS", Compte-rendu de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres/, (CRAIBL) 2001, pp.367–384
  8. Tomb inscriptions of Harkhuf
  9. Omar Zuhdi, Count Harkhuf and The Dancing Dwarf, KMT 16 Vol:1, Spring 2005, pp.74–80
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. pp 70–78, ISBN   0-500-05128-3
  11. 1 2 3 4 Tyldesley, Joyce, Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2006. pp 61–63, ISBN   0-500-05145-3
  12. G. Edward Brovarski, "First Intermediate Period, overview" in Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, eds. Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt(New York: Routledge, 1999), 46.
  13. Wente, Edward, Letters from Ancient Egypt, Scholars Press, 1990. ISBN   1-55540-473-1, pp 20–21
  14. Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003. ISBN   0-8014-4050-5. p.74
  15. 1 2 Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. 2000. ISBN   0-19-280458-8, pp 116–117
  16. Lynn Meskell, Archaeologies of social life: age, sex, class et cetera in ancient Egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, 1999, p.95
  17. Greenberg, David, The Construction of Homosexuality, 1988; Parkinson, R.B.,‘Homosexual’ Desire and Middle Kingdom Literature Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 81, 1995, p. 57-76
  18. Robert Steven Bianchi, Daily Life Of The Nubians, Greenwood Press, 2004. p.164
  19. Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägypten (Mainz 1997), p151
  20. 1 2 Anthony Spalinger, Dated Texts of the Old Kingdom, SAK 21, 1994, p.308
  21. Hans Goedicke, The Death of Pepi II-Neferkare" in Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 15, (1988), pp.111–121
  22. Goedicke, 1988, pp.111–121
  23. David Henige (University of Wisconsin), How long did Pepy II reign?, GM 221 (2009), p. 44
  24. Henige, GM 221, p.48
  25. Naguib Kanawati, Conspiracies in the Egyptian Palace, Unis to Pepy I (London: Routledge, 2003), 4.170.
  26. Ann Gibbons, How the Akkadian Empire Was Hung Out to Dry, Science 20 August 1993: 985. Online citation
  27. Jean-Daniel Stanley, Michael D. Krom, Robert A. Cliff, Jamie C. Woodward, Short contribution: Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence, Geoarchaeology, Volume 18, Issue 3, pages 395–402, March 2003 Online citation
  28. Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc (2002). The new encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. ISBN   978-0-85229-787-2.
  29. 1 2 Williams, R. J. (1981), "The Sages of Ancient Egypt in the Light of Recent Scholarship", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 101 (1): 1–19, doi:10.2307/602161, JSTOR   602161
  30. Barbara Bell, The Dark Ages in Ancient History. I. The First Dark Age in Egypt, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Jan., 1971), pp. 1–26 JSTOR
  31. Thomas L. Thompson (2002). The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives: The Quest for the Historical Abraham. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN   978-1-56338-389-2.
  32. Winfried Barta, Das Gespräch des Ipuwer mit dem Schöpfergott, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Bd. 1 (1974), pp. 19–33
  33. Mumford, Gregory (2006), "Tell Ras Budran (Site 345): Defining Egypt's Eastern Frontier and Mining Operations in South Sinai during the Late Old Kingdom (Early EB IV/MB I)", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 342 (342): 13–67, doi:10.1086/BASOR25066952, JSTOR   25066952
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Verner, Miroslav. The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Grove Press. 2001 (1997). pp 362 – 372, ISBN   0-8021-3935-3
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids. Thames & Hudson. 2008 (reprint). pp 161–163, ISBN   978-0-500-28547-3
  36. Shaw, Ian. and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. p. 220. The British Museum Press, 1995.
  37. Shaw and Nicholson, p.220
  38. Jéqier, Gustav. Le monument funéraire de Pepi II. 3 volumes, Cairo, 1936–41.
  39. Gay Robins, The Art of Ancient Egypt, Harvard University Press, 1997, pp 66–67, ISBN   978-0-674-00376-7
  40. N. Grimal, A history of ancient Egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, 1994, pg 98
  41. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. p 288, ISBN   0-500-05128-3
  42. 1 2 Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. 2000. pp 116–117, ISBN   0-19-280458-8

Bibliography

Preceded by
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
Pharaoh of Egypt
Sixth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II