Percy Bernard, 5th Earl of Bandon

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The Earl of Bandon
Earl of Bandon in Burma WWII IWM CI 1323.jpg
Air Vice Marshal the Earl of Bandon, Air Officer Commanding No. 224 Group at his Headquarters at Akyab, Burma.
Nickname(s)Paddy
Born(1904-08-30)30 August 1904
Gillingham, England
Died8 February 1979(1979-02-08) (aged 74)
Bon Secours Hospital, Cork, Ireland
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Service/branch Royal Air Force
Years of service1922–64
Rank Air Chief Marshal
Commands held Allied Air Forces Central Europe (1961–63)
Far East Air Force (1957–60)
Second Tactical Air Force (1956–57)
No. 11 Group (1951–53)
No. 2 Group (1950–51)
Royal Observer Corps (1945–49)
No. 224 Group (1944–45)
RAF Horsham St Faith (1942)
RAF West Raynham (1941)
RAF Watton (1940–41)
No. 82 Squadron (1940)
Battles/wars Second World War
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire
Companion of the Order of the Bath
Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Distinguished Service Order
Mentioned in Despatches (3)
Distinguished Flying Cross (United States)
Bronze Star Medal (United States)

Air Chief Marshal Percy Ronald Gardner Bernard, 5th Earl of Bandon, GBE , CB , CVO , DSO (30 August 1904 – 8 February 1979) was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat who served as a senior commander in the Royal Air Force in the mid-20th century. He was a squadron, station and group commander during the Second World War, and the fifth Commandant of the Royal Observer Corps after the war. He was awarded the American Distinguished Flying Cross and Bronze Star Medal in 1946. [1]

Distinguished Service Order UK military decoration

The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. Since 1993 all ranks have been eligible.

Aristocracy (class) person who either possess hereditary titles granted by a monarch or are related to such people

The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order. In many states, the aristocracy included the upper class of people (aristocrats) with hereditary rank and titles. In some—such as ancient Greece, Rome, and India—aristocratic status came from belonging to a military caste, although it has also been common, notably in African societies, for aristocrats to belong to priestly dynasties. Aristocratic status can involve feudal or legal privileges. They are usually below only the monarch of a country or nation in its social hierarchy. In modern European societies, the aristocracy has often coincided with the nobility, a specific class that arose in the Middle Ages, but the term "aristocracy" is sometimes also applied to other elites, and is used as a more generic term when describing earlier and non-European societies.

Royal Air Force Aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain.

Contents

Early life

Born in Gillingham, Kent, Bernard was the elder of twin boys by twenty minutes and the son of Lieutenant Colonel Ronald Percy Hamilton Bernard and Lettice Mina Paget, [2] daughter of Captain Gerald Cecil Stewart Paget, son of Lord Alfred Paget, younger son of Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey. On his father's side he was a great-grandson of the Right Reverend Charles Bernard, Bishop of Tuam, younger son of James Bernard, 2nd Earl of Bandon. [3] His family resided in a house on the Theobald's Park estate in Hertfordshire where the eccentric horse breeder and owner Lady Meux had loaned his parents a house. [2]

Gillingham, Kent Town in Kent, England

Gillingham is a town in the county of Kent in South East England. For local government purposes it is also in the unitary authority of Medway. The town includes the settlements of Brompton, Hempstead, Wigmore, Parkwood, Rainham which has its own significant retail and leisure hub, Rainham Mark and Twydall.

Lieutenant colonel, is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries. The rank is superior to major, and subordinate to colonel. The comparable Royal Navy rank is commander, and the comparable rank in the Royal Air Force and many Commonwealth air forces is wing commander.

Lord Alfred Paget British politician

Lord Alfred Henry Paget was a British soldier, courtier and Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1837 and 1865.

In the summer of 1914 he and his twin brother were sent to St. Aubyns Preparatory School at Rottingdean, and four years later both boys entered the Orange dormitory at Wellington College where Percy was continually referred to as Bernard Minor incorrectly throughout his time at Wellington College. [2] Having studied for and passing the entrance examination he entered the Royal Air Force College at Cranwell in Lincolnshire in 1922. [2]

Rottingdean village in the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex

Rottingdean is a coastal village next to the town of Brighton and within the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex, on the south coast of England. It borders the villages of Saltdean, Ovingdean and Woodingdean, and has a historic centre, often the subject of picture postcards.

Wellington College, Berkshire school in the village of Crowthorne in Berkshire, England

Wellington College is an English co-educational day and boarding independent school in the village of Crowthorne, Berkshire. Wellington is a registered charity and currently has about 1,050 pupils aged between 13 and 18. It was built as a national monument to the first Duke of Wellington (1769–1852), after whom the College is named. Queen Victoria laid the foundation stone in 1856 and inaugurated the School's public opening on 29 January 1859.

Cranwell village in the United Kingdom

Cranwell is a village in the North Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It is part of the civil parish of Cranwell and Byard's Leap and is situated approximately 3 miles (5 km) north-west from Sleaford and 14 miles (23 km) south-east from the city and county town of Lincoln. The principal through road, the B1429 between the A15 to the east and the A17 to the west, joins the village to RAF Cranwell. The appropriate civil parish is called Cranwell, Brauncewell and Byard's Leap with a population of 2,827 at the 2011 census.

Earldom

In 1924, whilst still a cadet in B Squadron at Cranwell, Bernard succeeded his first cousin twice removed, James Bernard, 4th Earl of Bandon, as 5th Earl of Bandon. [2] This was an Irish peerage and did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords. There was also little money attached to his inheritance and the main element, Castle Bernard outside Bandon and eighteen miles south west of Cork, was derelict after being burned down by the IRA four years earlier in 1920. The new Earl eventually received £123,000 (£4.7 million in today's terms) compensation for the damage to the family seat, which remains a ruin. The earl built a modern and modestly sized mansion alongside the castle ruins.

James Bernard, 4th Earl of Bandon Irish peer and politician

James Francis Bernard, 4th Earl of Bandon, KP, was a British Deputy Lieutenant in Ireland and Representative Peer. Lord Bandon was a cousin of the Earl of Middleton, who was head of the southern Irish Unionist Alliance at the time of the Anglo-Irish War, 1919-21.

Earl of Bandon

Earl of Bandon was a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1800 for Francis Bernard, 1st Viscount Bandon. He had already been created Baron Bandon, of Bandon Bridge in the County of Cork, in 1793, Viscount Bandon, of Bandon Bridge in the County of Cork, in 1795, and was made Viscount Bernard at the same time as he was granted the earldom. These titles were also in the Peerage of Ireland. The titles descended from father to son until the death of his great-grandson, James, the fourth Earl, in 1924. The late Earl was succeeded by his first cousin twice removed, Percy Bernard, the fifth Earl. The latter was the great-grandson of the Right Reverend Charles Bernard, Bishop of Tuam, younger son of the second Earl. the fifth Earl was an Air Chief Marshal in the Royal Air Force. He had two daughters but no sons and on his death in 1979 the titles became extinct.

The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government. As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force.

Although the British Army and the Royal Navy have always had a significant number of peers within their ranks the new Earl of Bandon was almost unique within the RAF. Known to one and all by the familial name of "Paddy" Bandon he developed a devilish sense of humour and was involved in many scrapes with superior officers during his career. There were a number of anecdotes told about the Earl, perhaps the most repeated was the occasion that he and several of his fellow pilots wearing grubby and dishevelled flight dress, straight after combat flights, entered the Shepheard's Hotel in Cairo used as an officers’ mess during 1942. An immaculately dressed army officer snootily told him, "I am Major the Honourable (A N Other), Assistant Provost Marshal. You and your men are improperly dressed and must leave." The Earl replied, "I am Group Captain the Earl of Bandon and therefore outrank you on both counts. Now do push off, there's a good chap." [4]

British Army land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Shepheards Hotel architectural structure of a hotel burned down in 1952

Shepheard's Hotel was the leading hotel in Cairo and one of the most celebrated hotels in the world from the middle of the 19th century until it was burned down in 1952 in the Cairo Fire. Five years after the original hotel was destroyed, a new one was built nearby and was named the Shepheard Hotel.

Early RAF career

The Earl graduated from Cranwell in December 1924 and was posted as a pilot to No 4 Squadron RAF in the rank of pilot officer. [5] Two years later he was promoted to flying officer and appointed as a Qualified Flying Instructor (QFI) at No 5 Flying Training School RAF. [5]

Pilot officer Military rank

Pilot officer is the lowest commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. It ranks immediately below flying officer.

Flying officer junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries

Flying officer is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence. It is also sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. In these cases a flying officer usually ranks above pilot officer and immediately below flight lieutenant.

On 2 May 1930, by now a flight lieutenant, he was posted as a QFI to the RAF's Central Flying School but only stayed there eight months before he took up a post as Personal Assistant to the Air Officer Commanding the Middle East. [5] In November 1931 he returned to active flying duties with No 216 Squadron RAF, also acting as squadron Adjutant. [5] During 1931 whilst still serving with No. 216 Squadron RAF, he made the first non-stop flight from Khartoum to Cairo, re-filling his fuel tanks by hand from cans stored recklessly inside the aircraft’s cockpit. [5]

Promotion to squadron leader came on 1 December 1936 [6] when the Earl was posted to RAF Ternhill in Shropshire as a flight commander at No 10 Flying Training School. [5] At the end of 1938 Bandon spent several months as a supernumerary squadron leader within No 6 (Auxiliary) Group RAF. [5] The hiatus in his career ended in January 1939, just prior to World War II when he was summoned to a Headquarters staff posting as the Plans 3 Officer at the Directorate of Operational Plans at Adastral House. During his time in the Directorate he was a member of the committee that held talks in 1939 with delegates from Poland about the supply of Fairey Battles, Hawker Hurricanes and Supermarine Spitfires, but the agreed provision failed to reach the country before the German victory.

Second World War

On 1 January 1940 he received a promotion to temporary wing commander and a short term posting to Senior Staff Officer, No. 2 Group RAF. [5] Later that year he received his first proper command when appointed Officer Commanding No. 82 Squadron RAF. [5] A month later he was additionally designated Station Commander of RAF Watton. [5] On 17 May 1940, his squadron was detailed to carry out a raid against German columns around Gembloux. When the expected fighter escort did not arrive, having already been intercepted by Bf109's, the twelve Blenheims pressed on to the target and were themselves attacked by Bf109's. All but one of the aircraft were shot down and that one collapsed when it landed back at base.

Faced with a squadron consisting of himself, one flight commander, two sergeant pilots and the ground crews, it was planned to disband the squadron but Bandon put forward a case on behalf of his ground crews that the squadron should be re-equipped. That evening twelve new Blenheims were delivered together with their crews. The following day they carried out a practice flight and that night he led six of them on a raid into Germany. This quality of leadership earned him the Distinguished Service Order.

Promoted to temporary group captain he became Station Commander of two other RAF stations during the same year, spending only a few months at each. Firstly he commanded RAF West Raynham (also in Norfolk) before moving to nearby RAF Horsham St Faith. [5]

Air Commodore the Earl of Bandon, Air Officer Commanding No. 224 Group RAF, sits to the right of Keith Park at Kyaukpyu landing ground, Burma Bandon and Park in Burma WWII IWM SE 3407.jpg
Air Commodore the Earl of Bandon, Air Officer Commanding No. 224 Group RAF, sits to the right of Keith Park at Kyaukpyu landing ground, Burma

On 29 December 1942 he was posted overseas as the Air Staff Officer, HQ Air Forces in India. [5] The following year he moved to Air Staff Officer HQ South East Asia Command (SEAC). [5] Bandon returned to operational command in July 1944 when he was promoted to acting air commodore and appointed Air Officer Commanding No. 224 Group RAF. [5] During his time in command, 224 Group saw action in Burma, including fighting against the Japanese in the Arakan sector. [7] As AOC he very unofficially continued to fly on operational sorties, removing his air commodore rank badges and flying instead in a flying officer’s uniform.

Royal Observer Corps

In December 1945 the Earl became the fifth Commandant of the Royal Observer Corps, [5] taking over from the retiring Air Commodore Finlay Crerar. The Earl assumed command of the Corps at a time when it had been officially stood down from duty and placed on a care and maintenance basis. Although a period of stand-down had been ordered the Corps was not completely disbanded, as it was anticipated that the ROC must continue as an essential component of the UK’s future post-war air defence system.

The wholetime cadre of ROC officers remained in post and the ROC centres across the UK were maintained and kept in good condition. Humorous cartoons of the era depicted the wholetime officers tending flower beds in front of the ROC centres with uniform sleeves rolled up, sunning themselves in deck-chairs or sleepily answering the front door in nightgown and nightcap with a candle in their hand. Although no longer being paid, many observers continued to meet and train weekly in private and membership of the unofficial Royal Observer Corps Club expanded.

Cabinet approval was finally given for the Corps to be re-formed in January 1947 and Air Commodore the Earl of Bandon enthusiastically drew upon a considerable number of wartime experienced observers to form the nucleus around which the Corps was rebuilt, together with a massive influx of new and younger recruits. During the next two years the ROC was reorganised and vigorously retrained, but on geographical lines similar to those that existed at the end of the war. The speed of the newly introduced jet aircraft exercised the minds of the ROC senior officers as they strived to adapt to a modern environment.

With the ROC rebuilt and back to full readiness, on 1 February 1949 Lord Bandon handed over his once more fully operational command to his successor Air Commodore Richard Jordan. Having introduced the concept of annual ROC summer training camps in 1948 the Earl had formally opened the first two camps at RAF Thorney Island. In 1953 he returned as Air Vice-Marshal The Earl of Bandon to inspect the sixth annual camp at RAF Waterbeach and address the observers as a visiting VIP guest of honour.

Later RAF career

The Earl of Bandon (right) with Air Chief Marshal Lord Dowding, who is laying the foundation stone at the Battle of Britain Memorial Chapel at Biggin Hill. 24 July 1951. Lord Dowding at Biggin Hill.jpg
The Earl of Bandon (right) with Air Chief Marshal Lord Dowding, who is laying the foundation stone at the Battle of Britain Memorial Chapel at Biggin Hill. 24 July 1951.

After a period of sabbatical private study at the Imperial Defence College, the Earl became Air Officer Commanding No. 2 Group, Germany on 16 January 1950. [5] Seven months later he returned to the UK as AOC No. 11 Group RAF on promotion to acting air vice marshal, a rank that was made permanent on 1 Jan 1952. [5] In 1953 he was tasked with the formidable duty of planning the flypast for the Coronation Review of the RAF at RAF Odiham which took place on 15 July. This involved scheduling 640 aircraft to pass the reviewing point in 27 minutes. On completion of the flypast he marched to the saluting dais to pay his respects to Queen Elizabeth, who bestowed him on the spot as a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.

On 1 October 1953 he was appointed Assistant Chief of the Air Staff with responsibility for RAF training. [5] On 22 January 1956 he was promoted to acting air marshal and appointed as Commander in Chief of the 2nd Tactical Air Forces. [5] In July 1957 his promotion to air marshal was made permanent and he was appointed Commander in Chief, Far East Air Force. [8]

On 1 July 1959 Lord Bandon was promoted to air chief marshal and his final RAF appointment came on 1 March 1961 when he became Commander, Allied Air Forces Central Europe. [5]

The Earl's disregard for any regulations or items of protocol which he considered unimportant landed him in trouble on a number of occasions throughout his career, one such being in 1957 when he received a reprimand from George Ward, Secretary of State for Air, for stating to the British press that tactical nuclear weapons would soon be issued to air forces in Europe. Another reprimand arrived from Lord Mountbatten of Burma after his de facto hijacking of the Indian Ocean island of Gan as a RAF staging post. During his tenure as C in C, FEAF he took the opportunity of flying aboard Sunderland 'P-Peter' of 205/209 Sqn when it made the last ever flight by a RAF flying boat on 15 May 1959. He then took the salute at the disbandment of the Squadron at Changi on the 31st of the month.

He retired from the RAF on 6 February 1964 and took up residence at the family estate in Cork.

Private life

Bandon married Maybel Elizabeth Playfair, the daughter of Raymond Playfair, on 28 February 1933 at Nairobi Cathedral, in Kenya. [2] They divorced thirteen years later in 1946 just before he married Lois Russell, daughter of prominent Australian Francis Russell, on 2 October 1946. [2]

In retirement the Earl discovered the pleasures of fishing, particularly in the River Bandon which was well stocked with salmon, and in shooting, snipe and woodcock found in large numbers near Castle Bernard. [2] He was also developing an enthusiastic skill as a gardener with a particular knowledge of rhododendrons. The Earl died on 8 February 1979 at Bon Secours Hospital in County Cork. aged 74 and without male issue. Consequently, on his death all his titles became extinct. He was survived by Lois, Lady Bandon who died in 1999 and the two daughters from his first marriage, Lady Jennifer Jane Bernard, of Castle Bernard (30 Apr 1935 – 3 Jun 2010) and Lady Frances Elizabeth Bernard (born 4 February 1943). A portrait in oils (painted 1969) of the Earl, in his uniform as an Air Chief Marshal together with his robes as a peer of the realm, hangs in the main dining hall at the Royal Air Force College, Cranwell.

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References

  1. "No. 37758". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 October 1946. p. 5079.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  3. thepeerage.com Percy Ronald Gardner Bernard, 5th Earl of Bandon
  4. Dickinson, Dicky, Lt.Col; Hooper, Bill. Clangers in Uniform. Tunbridge Wells: Midas Books. p. 22. ISBN   0-85936-036-9.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation – Air Chief Marshal The Earl of Bandon
  6. "No. 34345". The London Gazette . 1 December 1936. p. 7741.
  7. "No. 39195". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 April 1951. p. 1906.
  8. "No. 41195". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 October 1957. p. 5829.
  9. http://www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk/online/content/bandon1800.htm
External image
Searchtool.svg Portrait in oils of Air Marshal the Earl of Bandon in the 1950s
Military offices
Preceded by
Alexander Gray
Air Officer Commanding No. 224 Group
1944–1945
Vacant
Title next held by
Valston Hancock
In 1957
Preceded by
Finlay Crerar
Commandant Royal Observer Corps
1945–1949
Succeeded by
Richard Jordan
Preceded by
Laurence Sinclair
Air Officer Commanding No. 2 Group
1950–1951
Succeeded by
Hector McGregor
Preceded by
Thomas Pike
Air Officer Commanding No. 11 Group
1951–1953
Succeeded by
Hubert Patch
Preceded by
Unknown
Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Training)
1953–1956
Succeeded by
George Harvey
Preceded by
Sir Harry Broadhurst
Commander-in-Chief Second Tactical Air Force
1956–1957
Succeeded by
Sir Humphrey Edwardes-Jones
Preceded by
Sir Francis Fressanges
Commander-in-Chief Far East Air Force
1957–1960
Succeeded by
Sir Anthony Selway
Preceded by
Sir Harry Broadhurst
Commander Allied Air Forces Central Europe
1961–1963
Succeeded by
Sir Edmund Hudleston
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
James Bernard
Earl of Bandon
1924–1979
Extinct