Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Last updated
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
PerelmanSchoolofMedicineLogoVertical.svg
Other name
Penn Med
Type Medical school
Established1765 (1765) [1]
Parent institution
University of Pennsylvania
Affiliation University of Pennsylvania Health System [1]
Dean J. Larry Jameson [1]
Executive Vice DeanJonathan Epstein
Academic staff
2,100 (full-time) [1]
1,200 (residents and fellows) [1]
Administrative staff
3,334 [1]
Students775 M.D. students
594 Ph.D. students
186 M.D.-Ph.D. students
329 masters students
704 post-doctoral fellows [1]
Address
3400 Civic Center Boulevard
, ,
PA
,
19104
,
US

39°56′51″N75°11′32″W / 39.947454°N 75.192356°W / 39.947454; -75.192356 Coordinates: 39°56′51″N75°11′32″W / 39.947454°N 75.192356°W / 39.947454; -75.192356
Campus Urban

The Perelman School of Medicine, commonly known as Penn Med, is the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. It is located in the University City section of Philadelphia. Founded in 1765, the Perelman School of Medicine is the oldest medical school in the United States and is one of the seven Ivy League medical schools. [2] Penn Med consistently ranks among the highest recipients of NIH research awards, [3] and it is currently tied for 3rd place on U.S. News & World Report's "Best Medical Schools: Research" list . [4]

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Master's degree (M.Sc), a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education.

University of Pennsylvania Private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Contents

History

JohnMorganPhysician.png
John Morgan, founding professor of the medical school
LibraryAndSurgeonsHall.png
Surgeon's Hall, at right, was the site of medical lectures between 1765 and 1801

The school of medicine was founded by Dr. John Morgan, a graduate of the College of Philadelphia (the precursor of the University of Pennsylvania) and the University of Edinburgh Medical School. [5] After training in Edinburgh and other European cities, Dr. Morgan returned to Philadelphia in 1765. With fellow University of Edinburgh Medical School graduate Dr. William Shippen Jr., Morgan persuaded the college's trustees to found the first medical school in the Original Thirteen Colonies. Only months before the medical school was created, Morgan delivered an address to the trustees and the citizens of Philadelphia, "Upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America" during which he expressed his desire for the new medical school to become a model institution: [6]

John Morgan (physician) Physician and professor in colonial Pennsylvania, United States

John Morgan, "founder of Public Medical Instruction in America," was co-founder of the Medical College at the University of Pennsylvania, the first medical school in Colonial America; and he served as the second "Chief physician & director general" of the Continental Army. He also founded the American Philosophical Society in 1766 in Philadelphia.

The University of Edinburgh Medical School is the medical school of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and part of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, the head of which is Sir John Savill. Moira Whyte has been head of the school since 2016. It was established in 1726, during the Scottish Enlightenment, making it the oldest medical school in the United Kingdom and is one of the oldest medical schools in the English-speaking world.

William Shippen Jr. (1736–1808); American physician, professor, and Continental Army officer

William Shippen Jr., was the first systematic teacher of anatomy, surgery and obstetrics in Colonial America and founded the first maternity hospital in America. He was the 3rd Director General of Hospitals of the Continental Army.

Perhaps this medical institution, the first of its kind in America, though small in its beginning, may receive a constant increase of strength, and annually exert new vigor. It may collect a number of young persons of more ordinary abilities, and so improve their knowledge as to spread its reputation to different parts. By sending these abroad duly qualified, or by exciting an emulation amongst men of parts and literature, it may give birth to other useful institutions of a similar nature, or occasional rise, by its example to numerous societies of different kinds, calculated to spread the light of knowledge through the whole American continent, wherever inhabited. [7]

That autumn, students enrolled for "anatomical lectures" and a course on "the theory and practice of physick." Modeling the school after the University of Edinburgh Medical School, medical lectures were supplemented with bedside teaching at the Pennsylvania Hospital. [8]

Pennsylvania Hospital Hospital in PA, United States

Pennsylvania Hospital is a private, non-profit, 515-bed teaching hospital located in Center City Philadelphia and affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System. Founded on May 11, 1751, by Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond, Pennsylvania Hospital is the earliest established public hospital in the United States. It is also home to America's first surgical amphitheatre and its first medical library. The hospital's main building, dating to 1756, is a National Historic Landmark.

The School of Medicine's early faculty included nationally renowned physicians and scientists such as Benjamin Rush, Philip Syng Physick, and Robert Hare. In the mid-1800s, prominent faculty members included William Pepper, Joseph Leidy, and Nathaniel Chapman (founding president of the American Medical Association). [9] William Osler and Howard Atwood Kelly, two of the "founding four" physicians of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were drawn from Penn's medical faculty. Later, in 1910, the landmark Flexner Report on medical education reviewed Penn as one of the relatively few medical schools of the era with high standards in medical instruction, facilities, and research. [10]

Benjamin Rush 18th and 19th-century American physician, educator, author

Benjamin Rush was a signer of the Declaration of Independence (U.S.) and a civic leader in Philadelphia, where he was a physician, politician, social reformer, humanitarian, and educator as well as the founder of Dickinson College. Rush attended the Continental Congress. His later self-description there was: "He aimed right." He served as Surgeon General of the Continental Army and became a professor of chemistry, medical theory, and clinical practice at the University of Pennsylvania.

Philip Syng Physick American physician

Philip Syng Physick was an American physician born in Philadelphia. He has been called "the father of American surgery."

Robert Hare (chemist) American chemist

Robert Hare was an early American chemist.

Name

In 2011, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine was renamed in recognition of a $225 million gift by Raymond and Ruth Perelman. Raymond G. Perelman and his son, Ronald Perelman, are both alumni of Penn's Wharton School. [11] It was the single largest gift made in the University's history, and it remains the largest donation ever made for naming rights to a medical school. [12]

Raymond G. Perelman was an American businessman and philanthropist who served as the founder, chairman and CEO of RGP Holdings. He was the father of Ronald Perelman and Jeffrey E. Perelman. He was known for his philanthropy and charitable giving, as well as his close ties with the city of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania.

Ronald Perelman Businessman, investor

Ronald Owen Perelman is an American banker, businessman, investor, and philanthropist. MacAndrews & Forbes Incorporated, his company, has invested in companies with interests in groceries, cigars, Liquorice, makeup, cars, photography, television, camping supplies, security, gaming, jewelry, banks, and comic book publishing. Perelman holds significant shares in companies such as AM General, Deluxe Entertainment, Revlon, SIGA Technologies RetailMeNot, Merisant, Scantron, Scientific Games Corporation, Valassis, vTv Therapeutics and Harland Clarke.

The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the business school of the University of Pennsylvania, a private Ivy League university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Established in 1881 through a donation from Joseph Wharton, the Wharton School is the world's oldest collegiate school of business. Furthermore, Wharton is the business school that has produced the highest number of billionaires in the US.

Campus and teaching hospitals

Medical and research facilities of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. PennMedandCHOPQuad2.jpg
Medical and research facilities of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Between 1765 and 1801, medical school lectures were held in Surgeon's Hall on 5th Street in Center City, Philadelphia. In 1801, medical instruction moved with the rest of the university to 9th Street. [13] In the 1870s, the university moved across the Schuylkill River to a location in West Philadelphia. As part of this move, the medical faculty persuaded the university trustees to construct a teaching hospital adjacent to the new academic facilities. [14] As a result, Penn's medical school and flagship teaching hospital form part of the university's main campus and are located in close proximity to the university's other schools and departments. Although they are independent institutions, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Wistar Institute are also located on or adjacent to Penn's campus.

The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, Pennsylvania Hospital, and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia serve as the medical school's main teaching hospitals. Additional teaching takes place at Chester County Hospital, Lancaster General Hospital, and the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. [15] [16] [17]

Medical advancements

The Agnew Clinic (1889) by Thomas Eakins shows a mastectomy being performed in the clinic of Penn surgeon David Hayes Agnew. The painting is notable for showing the increasing specialization of surgical techniques and accessories in the late 1800s. The Agnew Clinic - Thomas Eakins.jpg
The Agnew Clinic (1889) by Thomas Eakins shows a mastectomy being performed in the clinic of Penn surgeon David Hayes Agnew. The painting is notable for showing the increasing specialization of surgical techniques and accessories in the late 1800s.

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the School of Medicine was one of the earliest to encourage the development of the emerging medical specialties: neurosurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and radiology. Between 1910 and 1939, the chairman of the Department of Pharmacology, Alfred Newton Richards, played a significant role in developing the University as an authority of medical science, helping the United States to catch up with European medicine and begin to make significant advances in biomedical science.

In the 1950s and early 1960s, Dr. Jonathon E. Rhoads of the Department of Surgery (which he would later go on to head for many years), mentored Dr. Stanley Dudrick who pioneered the successful use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for patients unable to tolerate nutrition through their GI tract. [18]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Dr. C. William Schwab, a trauma surgeon, led numerous advances in the concept of damage control surgery for severely injured trauma patients. [19]

In the 1990s and 2000s, Dr. Paul Offit, a professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, lead the scientific advances behind the modern RotaTeq vaccine for infectious childhood diarrhea.

In 2006, Drs. Kaplan and Shore of the Department of Orthopedics discovered the causative mutation in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, an extremely rare disease of bone. [20]

Medical curriculum

Benchmark changes in the understanding of medical science and the practice of medicine have necessitated that the school change its methods of teaching, as well as its curriculum. Large changes were made in 1968, 1970, 1981, 1987, and 1997. The last significant change in 1997 brought about the institution of Curriculum 2000, "an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum which emphasizes small group instruction, self directed learning and flexibility." Three themes, Science of Medicine, Art and Practice of Medicine, and Professionalism and Humanism, were developed by focus groups consisting of department chairpersons, course directors, and students. [21]

Biomedical Graduate Studies

Biomedical Graduate Studies, contained within the Perelman School of Medicine, was established in 1985 and serves as the academic home within the University of Pennsylvania for roughly 700 students pursuing a PhD in the basic biomedical sciences. BGS consists of more than 600 faculty members across seven Penn schools and several associated institutes including Wistar Institute, Fox Chase Cancer Center, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. [22] There are eight graduate programs, labeled by the school as "graduate groups," that lead to a Ph.D. in basic biomedical sciences. [23]

All biomedical graduate studies students receive a stipend in addition to a full fellowship and tend to receive the degree within a median time frame of 5.4 years. [24] There is also the option for students to pursue an additional certificate in medicine, public health, and environmental health sciences. [25] Each graduate group has its own admission policy and training mission, and hence curriculum greatly varies. [22]

Governance

The Perelman School of Medicine and the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS) comprise "Penn Medicine". Penn Medicine is an organizational structure designed to integrate Penn's clinical, educational, and research functions. Penn Medicine is governed by a board of trustees which in turn reports to the trustees of the university. Ralph Mueller serves as CEO of UPHS while J. Larry Jameson serves as Dean of Medicine and Executive Vice President of the health system. [26]

Departments

The School of Medicine has departments in the following basic science subjects: Biochemistry and Biophysics, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cancer Biology, Cell and Developmental Biology, Genetics, Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Microbiology, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, and Physiology. The school also has departments in the following clinical practices: Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Dermatology, Emergency Medicine, Family Practice and Community Medicine, Medicine, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ophthalmology (See Scheie Eye Institute), Orthopaedic Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Pediatrics (See Children's Hospital of Philadelphia), Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Psychiatry, Radiation Oncology, Radiology, and Surgery. [27]

Centers and institutes

The Perelman School of Medicine, in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania Health System, has contained within it many centers and institutes dealing with clinical medicine, clinical research, basic science research, and translational research. [28]

Notable alumni

See also

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References

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  12. "Raymond and Ruth Perelman Donate $225 Million to the University of Pennsylvania's School of Medicine".
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