Perpendicular

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The segment AB is perpendicular to the segment CD because the two angles it creates (indicated in orange and blue) are each 90 degrees. The segment AB can be called the perpendicular from A to the segment CD, using "perpendicular" as a noun. The point B is called the foot of the perpendicular from A to segment CD, or simply, the foot of A on CD. Perpendicular-coloured.svg
The segment AB is perpendicular to the segment CD because the two angles it creates (indicated in orange and blue) are each 90 degrees. The segment AB can be called the perpendicular from A to the segment CD, using "perpendicular" as a noun. The point B is called the foot of the perpendicular from A to segment CD, or simply, the foot of A on CD.

In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees). The property extends to other related geometric objects.

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A line is said to be perpendicular to another line if the two lines intersect at a right angle. [2] Explicitly, a first line is perpendicular to a second line if (1) the two lines meet; and (2) at the point of intersection the straight angle on one side of the first line is cut by the second line into two congruent angles. Perpendicularity can be shown to be symmetric, meaning if a first line is perpendicular to a second line, then the second line is also perpendicular to the first. For this reason, we may speak of two lines as being perpendicular (to each other) without specifying an order.

Perpendicularity easily extends to segments and rays. For example, a line segment is perpendicular to a line segment if, when each is extended in both directions to form an infinite line, these two resulting lines are perpendicular in the sense above. In symbols, means line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD. [3] For information regarding the perpendicular symbol see Up tack.

A line is said to be perpendicular to a plane if it is perpendicular to every line in the plane that it intersects. This definition depends on the definition of perpendicularity between lines.

Two planes in space are said to be perpendicular if the dihedral angle at which they meet is a right angle (90 degrees).

Perpendicularity is one particular instance of the more general mathematical concept of orthogonality; perpendicularity is the orthogonality of classical geometric objects. Thus, in advanced mathematics, the word "perpendicular" is sometimes used to describe much more complicated geometric orthogonality conditions, such as that between a surface and its normal.

Foot of a perpendicular

The word foot is frequently used in connection with perpendiculars. This usage is exemplified in the top diagram, above, and its caption. The diagram can be in any orientation. The foot is not necessarily at the bottom.

More precisely, let A be a point and m a line. If B is the point of intersection of m and the unique line through A that is perpendicular to m, then B is called the foot of this perpendicular through A.

Construction of the perpendicular

Perpendicular-construction.svg
Construction of the perpendicular (blue) to the line AB through the point P.
01-Rechter Winkel mittels Thaleskreis.gif
Construction of the perpendicular to the half-line h from the point P (applicable not only at the end point A, M is freely selectable), animation at the end with pause 10 s

To make the perpendicular to the line AB through the point P using compass-and-straightedge construction, proceed as follows (see figure left):

To prove that the PQ is perpendicular to AB, use the SSS congruence theorem for ' and QPB' to conclude that angles OPA' and OPB' are equal. Then use the SAS congruence theorem for triangles OPA' and OPB' to conclude that angles POA and POB are equal.

To make the perpendicular to the line g at or through the point P using Thales's theorem, see the animation at right.

The Pythagorean theorem can be used as the basis of methods of constructing right angles. For example, by counting links, three pieces of chain can be made with lengths in the ratio 3:4:5. These can be laid out to form a triangle, which will have a right angle opposite its longest side. This method is useful for laying out gardens and fields, where the dimensions are large, and great accuracy is not needed. The chains can be used repeatedly whenever required.

In relationship to parallel lines

The arrowhead marks indicate that the lines a and b, cut by the transversal line c, are parallel. Perpendicular transversal v3.svg
The arrowhead marks indicate that the lines a and b, cut by the transversal line c, are parallel.

If two lines (a and b) are both perpendicular to a third line (c), all of the angles formed along the third line are right angles. Therefore, in Euclidean geometry, any two lines that are both perpendicular to a third line are parallel to each other, because of the parallel postulate. Conversely, if one line is perpendicular to a second line, it is also perpendicular to any line parallel to that second line.

In the figure at the right, all of the orange-shaded angles are congruent to each other and all of the green-shaded angles are congruent to each other, because vertical angles are congruent and alternate interior angles formed by a transversal cutting parallel lines are congruent. Therefore, if lines a and b are parallel, any of the following conclusions leads to all of the others:

In computing distances

The distance from a point to a line is the distance to the nearest point on that line. That is the point at which a segment from it to the given point is perpendicular to the line.

Likewise, the distance from a point to a curve is measured by a line segment that is perpendicular to a tangent line to the curve at the nearest point on the curve.

Perpendicular regression fits a line to data points by minimizing the sum of squared perpendicular distances from the data points to the line.

The distance from a point to a plane is measured as the length from the point along a segment that is perpendicular to the plane, meaning that it is perpendicular to all lines in the plane that pass through the nearest point in the plane to the given point.

Graph of functions

In the two-dimensional plane, right angles can be formed by two intersected lines if the product of their slopes equals −1. Thus defining two linear functions: y1 = a1x + b1 and y2 = a2x + b2, the graphs of the functions will be perpendicular and will make four right angles where the lines intersect if a1a2 = −1. However, this method cannot be used if the slope is zero or undefined (the line is parallel to an axis).

For another method, let the two linear functions be: a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0. The lines will be perpendicular if and only if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0. This method is simplified from the dot product (or, more generally, the inner product) of vectors. In particular, two vectors are considered orthogonal if their inner product is zero.

In circles and other conics

Circles

Each diameter of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent line to that circle at the point where the diameter intersects the circle.

A line segment through a circle's center bisecting a chord is perpendicular to the chord.

If the intersection of any two perpendicular chords divides one chord into lengths a and b and divides the other chord into lengths c and d, then a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 equals the square of the diameter. [4]

The sum of the squared lengths of any two perpendicular chords intersecting at a given point is the same as that of any other two perpendicular chords intersecting at the same point, and is given by 8r2 – 4p2 (where r is the circle's radius and p is the distance from the center point to the point of intersection). [5]

Thales' theorem states that two lines both through the same point on a circle but going through opposite endpoints of a diameter are perpendicular. This is equivalent to saying that any diameter of a circle subtends a right angle at any point on the circle, except the two endpoints of the diameter.

Ellipses

The major and minor axes of an ellipse are perpendicular to each other and to the tangent lines to the ellipse at the points where the axes intersect the ellipse.

The major axis of an ellipse is perpendicular to the directrix and to each latus rectum.

Parabolas

In a parabola, the axis of symmetry is perpendicular to each of the latus rectum, the directrix, and the tangent line at the point where the axis intersects the parabola.

From a point on the tangent line to a parabola's vertex, the other tangent line to the parabola is perpendicular to the line from that point through the parabola's focus.

The orthoptic property of a parabola is that If two tangents to the parabola are perpendicular to each other, then they intersect on the directrix. Conversely, two tangents which intersect on the directrix are perpendicular. This implies that, seen from any point on its directrix, any parabola subtends a right angle.

Hyperbolas

The transverse axis of a hyperbola is perpendicular to the conjugate axis and to each directrix.

The product of the perpendicular distances from a point P on a hyperbola or on its conjugate hyperbola to the asymptotes is a constant independent of the location of P.

A rectangular hyperbola has asymptotes that are perpendicular to each other. It has an eccentricity equal to

In polygons

Triangles

The legs of a right triangle are perpendicular to each other.

The altitudes of a triangle are perpendicular to their respective bases. The perpendicular bisectors of the sides also play a prominent role in triangle geometry.

The Euler line of an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the triangle's base.

The Droz-Farny line theorem concerns a property of two perpendicular lines intersecting at a triangle's orthocenter.

Harcourt's theorem concerns the relationship of line segments through a vertex and perpendicular to any line tangent to the triangle's incircle.

Quadrilaterals

In a square or other rectangle, all pairs of adjacent sides are perpendicular. A right trapezoid is a trapezoid that has two pairs of adjacent sides that are perpendicular.

Each of the four maltitudes of a quadrilateral is a perpendicular to a side through the midpoint of the opposite side.

An orthodiagonal quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose diagonals are perpendicular. These include the square, the rhombus, and the kite. By Brahmagupta's theorem, in an orthodiagonal quadrilateral that is also cyclic, a line through the midpoint of one side and through the intersection point of the diagonals is perpendicular to the opposite side.

By van Aubel's theorem, if squares are constructed externally on the sides of a quadrilateral, the line segments connecting the centers of opposite squares are perpendicular and equal in length.

Lines in three dimensions

Up to three lines in three-dimensional space can be pairwise perpendicular, as exemplified by the x, y, and z axes of a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.

See also

Notes

  1. Kay (1969 , p. 114)
  2. Kay (1969 , p. 91)
  3. Kay (1969 , p. 91)
  4. Posamentier and Salkind, Challenging Problems in Geometry, Dover, 2nd edition, 1996: pp. 104–105, #4–23.
  5. College Mathematics Journal 29(4), September 1998, p. 331, problem 635.

Related Research Articles

Circle Simple curve of Euclidean geometry

A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted.

Hyperbola Plane curve: conic section

In mathematics, a hyperbola is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set. A hyperbola has two pieces, called connected components or branches, that are mirror images of each other and resemble two infinite bows. The hyperbola is one of the three kinds of conic section, formed by the intersection of a plane and a double cone. If the plane intersects both halves of the double cone but does not pass through the apex of the cones, then the conic is a hyperbola.

Parabola Plane curve: conic section

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits several other superficially different mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to define exactly the same curves.

Kite (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other. In contrast, a parallelogram also has two pairs of equal-length sides, but they are opposite to each other instead of being adjacent. Kite quadrilaterals are named for the wind-blown, flying kites, which often have this shape and which are in turn named for a bird. Kites are also known as deltoids, but the word "deltoid" may also refer to a deltoid curve, an unrelated geometric object.

Bisection

In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts, usually by a line, which is then called a bisector. The most often considered types of bisectors are the segment bisector and the angle bisector.

Altitude (triangle)

In geometry, an altitude of a triangle is a line segment through a vertex and perpendicular to a line containing the base. This line containing the opposite side is called the extended base of the altitude. The intersection of the extended base and the altitude is called the foot of the altitude. The length of the altitude, often simply called "the altitude", is the distance between the extended base and the vertex. The process of drawing the altitude from the vertex to the foot is known as dropping the altitude at that vertex. It is a special case of orthogonal projection.

Nine-point circle

In geometry, the nine-point circle is a circle that can be constructed for any given triangle. It is so named because it passes through nine significant concyclic points defined from the triangle. These nine points are:

Cyclic quadrilateral Quadrilateral whose vertices can all fall on a single circle

In Euclidean geometry, a cyclic quadrilateral or inscribed quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a single circle. This circle is called the circumcircle or circumscribed circle, and the vertices are said to be concyclic. The center of the circle and its radius are called the circumcenter and the circumradius respectively. Other names for these quadrilaterals are concyclic quadrilateral and chordal quadrilateral, the latter since the sides of the quadrilateral are chords of the circumcircle. Usually the quadrilateral is assumed to be convex, but there are also crossed cyclic quadrilaterals. The formulas and properties given below are valid in the convex case.

Midpoint

In geometry, the midpoint is the middle point of a line segment. It is equidistant from both endpoints, and it is the centroid both of the segment and of the endpoints. It bisects the segment.

Inscribed angle

In geometry, an inscribed angle is the angle formed in the interior of a circle when two secant lines intersect on the circle. It can also be defined as the angle subtended at a point on the circle by two given points on the circle.

Concyclic points

In geometry, a set of points are said to be concyclic if they lie on a common circle. All concyclic points are at the same distance from the center of the circle. Three points in the plane that do not all fall on a straight line are concyclic, but four or more such points in the plane are not necessarily concyclic.

Dandelin spheres

In geometry, the Dandelin spheres are one or two spheres that are tangent both to a plane and to a cone that intersects the plane. The intersection of the cone and the plane is a conic section, and the point at which either sphere touches the plane is a focus of the conic section, so the Dandelin spheres are also sometimes called focal spheres.

Ultraparallel theorem

In hyperbolic geometry, two lines may intersect, be ultraparallel, or be limiting parallel.

Equidistant

A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.

Lines in a plane or higher-dimensional space are said to be concurrent if they intersect at a single point.

In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear. In greater generality, the term has been used for aligned objects, that is, things being "in a line" or "in a row".

Ideal point

In hyperbolic geometry, an ideal point, omega point or point at infinity is a well defined point outside the hyperbolic plane or space. Given a line l and a point P not on l, right- and left-limiting parallels to l through P converge to l at ideal points.

Conic section Curve obtained by intersecting a cone and a plane

In mathematics, a conic section is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabola, and the ellipse; the circle is a special case of the ellipse, though historically it was sometimes called a fourth type. The ancient Greek mathematicians studied conic sections, culminating around 200 BC with Apollonius of Perga's systematic work on their properties.

In Euclidean plane geometry, a tangent line to a circle is a line that touches the circle at exactly one point, never entering the circle's interior. Tangent lines to circles form the subject of several theorems, and play an important role in many geometrical constructions and proofs. Since the tangent line to a circle at a point P is perpendicular to the radius to that point, theorems involving tangent lines often involve radial lines and orthogonal circles.

Extended side

In plane geometry, an extended side or sideline of a polygon is the line that contains one side of the polygon. The extension of a side arises in various contexts.

References