Perpignan seen from the Palace of the Kings of Majorca
|Canton||Perpignan-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6|
|Intercommunality||Perpignan Méditerranée Métropole|
|• Mayor (2014-2020)||Jean-Marc Pujol (UMP) (Radical-LR)|
|68.07 km2 (26.28 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||8–95 m (26–312 ft) |
(avg. 30 m or 98 ft)
|Website||www.mairie-perpignan.fr (in French) www.ajuntament-perpinya.cat (in Catalan)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Perpignan ( // , US: // , French: [pɛʁpiɲɑ̃] (
American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.
Catalan is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia. It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".
A prefecture in France may refer to:
In 2016 Perpignan had 121,875 inhabitants (Perpignanais(e) in French, Perpinyanés(a) in Catalan) in the commune proper, and the metropolitan area had a total population of 268,577.
Perpignan is located in the center of the Roussillon plain, 13 km west of the Mediterranean coast. It is the southernmost of the cities of metropolitan France.
Metropolitan France, also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe. It comprises mainland France and Corsica, as well as other islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel and the Mediterranean Sea.
Pyrénées-Orientales, also known as Northern Catalonia, is a department of Occitanie adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea. It also surrounds the tiny Spanish exclave of Llívia, and thus has two distinct borders with Spain.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-five departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.
Perpignan is crossed by the largest river in Roussillon, the Têt, and by one of its tributaries, the Basse. Floods have occurred, as in 1892 when the rising of the Têt in Perpignan destroyed 39 houses, leaving more than 60 families homeless.
The Têt is the largest river in Pyrénées-Orientales, southwestern France. It is 116 kilometres (72 mi) long. The Têt has its source at the foot of the Pic Carlit in the Pyrenees. It crosses the Pyrénées-Orientales département from West to East and ends in the Mediterranean Sea, near Perpignan.
Perpignan experiences a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) similar to much of the Mediterranean coastline of France.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends northwards during the summer and migrates south during the winter due to increasing north-south temperature differences.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.
|Climate data for Perpignan (1981–2010 averages)|
|Record high °C (°F)||25.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||12.4|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||4.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||65.4|
|Average precipitation days||5.4||4.3||4.2||6.0||5.5||3.8||2.3||3.5||4.4||4.8||4.5||5.3||54.0|
|Average snowy days||0.9||0.6||0.4||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||0.4||2.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||70||68||64||64||66||62||59||63||68||73||71||71||66.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||141.2||160.8||209.6||218.0||235.8||268.9||298.2||267.4||222.2||167.6||149.2||126.1||2,464.9|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)|
The motorway A9 connects Perpignan with Barcelona and Montpellier.
The A9 autoroute is a motorway in southern France.
Perpignan is served by the Gare de Perpignan railway station, which offers connections to Paris, Barcelona, Toulouse, and several regional destinations. Salvador Dalí proclaimed it to be the "Cosmic Centre of the Universe" after experiencing a vision of cosmogonic ecstasy there in 1963.
The nearest airport is Perpignan–Rivesaltes Airport.
The name of Perpignan appears in 927 as Perpinianum, followed in 959 by Villa Perpiniano, Pirpinianum in the 11th century, Perpiniani in 1176. Perpenyà, which appears in the 13th century, is the most common form until the 15th century, and was still used in the 17th century. It probably derives from the Roman name Perpennius.
Though settlement in the area goes back to Roman times, the medieval town of Perpignan seems to have been founded around the beginning of the 10th century. Soon Perpignan became the capital of the counts of Roussillon. Historically, it was part of the region known as Septimania. In 1172 Count Girard II bequeathed his lands to the Counts of Barcelona. Perpignan acquired the institutions of a partly self-governing commune in 1197. French feudal rights over Roussillon were given up by Louis IX in the Treaty of Corbeil.
When James I the Conqueror, king of Aragon and count of Barcelona, founded the Kingdom of Majorca in 1276, Perpignan became the capital of the mainland territories of the new state. The succeeding decades are considered the golden age in the history of the city. It prospered as a centre of cloth manufacture, leather work, goldsmiths' work, and other luxury crafts. King Philippe III of France died there in 1285, as he was returning from his unsuccessful crusade against the Aragonese Crown.
In 1344 Peter IV of Aragon annexed the Kingdom of Majorca and Perpignan once more became part of the County of Barcelona. A few years later it lost approximately half of its population to the Black Death. It was attacked and occupied by Louis XI of France in 1463; a violent uprising against French rule in 1473 was harshly put down after a long siege, but in 1493 Charles VIII of France, wishing to conciliate Castile in order to free himself to invade Italy, restored it to Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Again besieged and captured by the French during the Thirty Years' War in September 1642, Perpignan was formally ceded by Spain 17 years later in the Treaty of the Pyrenees, and from then on remained a French possession.
|Mayor||Term start||Term end|
|Edmond Benoit||July 1910||May 1911|
|Léon Nérel||May 1911||May 1912|
|Joseph Denis||May 1912||May 1929|
|Victor Dalbiez||May 1929||May 1935|
|Jean Payra||May 1935||29 May 1937 (death)|
|Laurent Baudru||June 1937||December 1940|
|Antoine Castillon||December 1940||March 1941|
|Ferdinand Coudray||March 1941||August 1944|
|Félix Mercader||August 1944||11 March 1949 (death)|
|Félix Depardon||April 1949||March 1959|
|Paul Alduy||March 1959||May 1993|
|Jean-Paul Alduy||June 1993||27 April 2009 (election of 2008 cancelled)|
|Bernard Bacou (retired magistrate acting as mayor)||27 April 2009||5 July 2009|
|Jean-Paul Alduy||5 July 2009||15 October 2009 (resignation)|
|Jean-Marc Pujol||22 October 2009|
Perpignan is twinned with:
Since 2004, the free three-day Guitares au Palais is held each year in the last weekend of August in the Palace of the Kings of Majorca. The festival has a broad mainstream focus with pop-related music as well as traditional acoustic guitar music and alternative music. The festival has attracted international guests like Caetano Veloso (2007), Rumberos Catalans , Pedro Soler, Bernardo Sandoval, Peter Finger, and Aaron and Bryce Dessner (2008).
Each September, Perpignan hosts the internationally-renowned Visa pour l'Image festival of photojournalism. Free exhibitions are mounted in the Couvent des Minimes, Chapelle des Dominicaines and other buildings in the old town.
In 2008, Perpignan became Capital of Catalan Culture.In Perpignan many street name signs are in both French and Catalan.
Like the rest of the south of France, Perpignan is a rugby stronghold: their rugby union side, USAP Perpignan, is a regular competitor in the global elite Heineken Cup and seven times champion of the French Top 14 (most recently in 2009). A Perpignan-based rugby league club plays in Northern Hemisphere's Super League under the name Catalans Dragons. The Dragons' games in Perpignan against the Northern English-based sides are usually very popular with British rugby fans, with thousands of them descending on the city on the day of the game, including lots of vacationing rugby fans travelling up from the Spanish Costa Brava joining the ones who came directly from home.
Traditional commerce was in wine, olive oil, corks (the cork oak Quercus suber grows in Perpignan's mild climate), wool, leather, and iron. In May 1907 it was a seat of agitation by southern producers for government enforcement of wine quality following a collapse in prices. JOB rolling papers are currently manufactured in Perpignan.
The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist was begun in 1324 and finished in 1509.
The 13th century Palace of the Kings of Majorca sits on the high citadel, surrounded by ramparts, reinforced for Louis XI and Charles V, which were updated in the 17th century by Louis XIV's military engineer Vauban.
The walls surrounding the town, which had been designed by Vauban, were razed in 1904 to accommodate urban development. The main city door, the Castillet is a small fortress built in the 14th century, which has been preserved. It had also been used as a prison until the end of the 19th century.
The Hôtel Pams is a lavishly-decorated mansion designed for Jules Pams that illustrates the artistic taste of the wealthy bourgeois at the turn of the 20th century.
Les Halles de Vauban are a new addition to the banks of the city's canal. Opened in November 2017 the indoor markets are privately owned and cost €1.5 million. Split over 2 locations, vendors offer fresh fruit and vegetables, bread, flowers, cheese etc. There is a bar and central eating court with a range of tapas, burgers, omelettes and food from around the world.
Perpignan has a close connection with the sculptor Aristide Maillol, who attended school there.
Following a visit in 1963, the Catalan surrealist artist Salvador Dalí declared the city's railway station the centre of the Universe, saying that he always got his best ideas sitting in its waiting room. Dalí's painting La Gare de Perpignan commemorates his vision of "cosmogonic ecstasy" there on September 19, 1963. perpignan centre du monde» (French for "perpignan centre of the world").He followed that up some years later by declaring that the Iberian Peninsula rotated precisely at Perpignan station 132 million years ago – an event the artist invoked in his 1983 painting Topological Abduction of Europe – Homage to René Thom . Above the station is a monument in Dali's honour, and across the surface of one of the main platforms is painted, in big letters, «
Languedoc-Roussillon is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Occitanie. It comprises five departments, and borders the other French regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne, Midi-Pyrénées on the one side, and Spain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. It is the southernmost region of mainland France.
Roussillon is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia. It may also refer to Northern Catalonia or French Catalonia, the first used by Catalan-speakers and the second used by French-speakers, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales save Fenouillèdes. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.
The Senyera is a vexillological symbol based on the coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, which consists of four red stripes on a yellow field. This coat of arms, often called bars of Aragon, or simply "the four bars", historically represented the King of the Crown of Aragon.
The Crown of Aragon was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy and parts of Greece. The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.
Elne is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
James II was King of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1276 until his death. He was the second son of James I of Aragon and his wife, Violant, daughter of Andrew II of Hungary. In 1279, by the Treaty of Perpignan, he became a vassal of the Crown of Aragon.
Northern Catalonia, French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recently founded Catalan Republic. The area corresponds exactly to the modern French département of the Pyrénées-Orientales which were historically part of Catalonia since the old County of Barcelona, and lasted during the times of the Crown of Aragon and the Principality of Catalonia until they were given to France by Spain.
Canet-en-Roussillon is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Port-Vendres is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Villefranche-de-Conflent is historically a town in the Conflent region of Catalonia, and now a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Le Perthus is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France. Natives of Le Pertus are called Perthusiens and, in 2016, there were 586 inhabitants.
Banyuls-sur-Mer is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France. It was first settled by Greeks starting in 400 BCE.
The Palace of the Kings of Majorca, is a palace and a fortress with gardens overlooking the city of Perpignan in Pyrenees-Orientales, Occitanie, France.
Estagel is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Tautavel is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
The Château Royal de Collioure is a massive French royal castle in the town of Collioure, a few kilometers north of the Spanish border in the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales.
Perpignan is the railway station serving the city of Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales department, Occitanie, southern France. Part of the station was decorated in the style of Salvador Dalí, for whom the place held special significance, having proclaimed it to be the "Centre of the Universe" after experiencing a vision of cosmogonic ecstasy there in 1963 and made a painting called La Gare de Perpignan in 1965.
The Fort Saint-Elme is a military fort built between 1538 and 1552 by Charles V. It is located in the district of Collioure, 30 km south-east of Perpignan, in the department of Pyrénées-Orientales. It is designated as a monument historique of the Côte Vermeille. Since 2008, the fort has been a museum with medieval and Renaissance arms collections, exhibitions and a panorama over the area from the terrace.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Perpignan, France.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Perpignan .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Perpignan .|