Persian Cossack Brigade

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Cossack Brigade
Persian: تیپ قزاق
Persian Cossack Brigade.jpg
Persian Cossack Brigade in Tabriz in 1909
Active1879–1921
Disbanded6 December 1921
Country Flag of Persia (1907).svg Persia
AllegianceFlag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire (18791920)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire (1921)
Branch Persian Army [1]
Type Cavalry [1]
Role Special operations
Garrison/HQ Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, Mashhad, Ardabil, Hamadan , Urmia, Mazandaran and Gilan
Engagements
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Col. Vladimir Liakhov
BG Reza Khan
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The Persian Cossack Brigade or Iranian Cossack Brigade [2] (Persian : بریگاد قزاق, translit.  Berīgād-e qazzāq) was a Cossack-style cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran). It was modelled after the Caucasian Cossack regiments of the Imperial Russian Army. Until 1920, it was commanded by Russian officers, while its rank and file were composed of ethnic Caucasians and later on Persians as well. During much of the Brigade's history it was the most functional and effective military unit of the Qajar Dynasty. Acting on occasion as kingmakers, this force played a pivotal role in modern Iranian history during the Revolution of 1905–1911, the rise of Reza Shah, and the foundation of the Pahlavi Dynasty.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

Cossacks Ethnic group from Ukraine and Southern Russia

Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don, Terek and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia.

Contents

Origin, purpose and makeup

The Cossack Brigade was formed by Nasir al-Din Shah in 1879, using as a model the Caucasian Cossack regiments of the Imperial Russian Army which had impressed him when travelling through southern Russia in 1878. Together with a Swedish trained and officered gendarmerie, the Cossack Brigade came to comprise the most effective military force available to the Iranian crown in the years prior to World War I.

Imperial Russian Army land armed force of the Russian Empire

The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.

In spite of its name the Brigade was not a typical Cossack force as employed in the neighbouring Russian Empire. The Cossack regiments of the Imperial Russian Army were based on a feudal-style system under which military service was given in return for long-term grants of land. By contrast the Persian Cossack Brigade was recruited on a conventional basis, from a mix of volunteers and conscripts. Neither did it have the status of a guard unit. However, effectively it was an elite cossack-style cavalry unit. [3] Late 19th century photographs show that Russian style uniforms were worn, in contrast to the indigenous dress of other Persian forces at the time. The rank and file of the Brigade were always Caucasian Muhajir and later Persian as well, but until 1920 its commanders were Russian officers who were also employed in the Russian army, such as Vladimir Liakhov. Such secondments were encouraged by the Imperial Russian Government who saw the Cossack Brigade as a means of extending Russian influence in a key area of international rivalry. After the October Revolution in 1917, many of these Russian officers left the country to join the "White" forces. The command of the Persian Cossack Division was subsequently transferred to Iranian officers. Most notable among these officers was General Reza Khan, who started his military career as a private soldier in the Cossack Brigade and rose through its ranks to become a brigadier general.

Peoples of the Caucasus

The peoples of the Caucasus are diverse comprising more than 50 ethnic groups throughout the Caucasus region.

Vladimir Liakhov Russian Cossack

Polkovnik (Colonel) Vladimir Platonovitch Liakhov was the commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade during the rule of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar. He gained considerable notoriety after shelling the Majlis of Iran and execution of several constitutionalist leaders on June 23, 1908. As a sign of gratitude, Mohammad Ali Shah appointed him as the Military Governor of Tehran.

October Revolution Bolshevik uprising during the Russian Revolution of 1917

The October Revolution, officially known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and commonly referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917. The Bolshevik Party and the left fraction of Socialist Revolutionary Party - a fraction calling to stop the war and land to the peasants with overwhelming support from the countryside - actually had a majority in the Russian population.

Detailed history

Persian Cossacks, One of 274 Vintage Photographs. Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn Museum - Persian Cossacks One of 274 Vintage Photographs.jpg
Persian Cossacks, One of 274 Vintage Photographs. Brooklyn Museum.

At the time of the Persian Cossack Brigade's formation the Shah’s royal cavalry was described as having no training or discipline. The Qajar state at this point was very weak, lacking any professional military forces. In wars against the British the royal cavalry had been defeated, and had even seen much difficulties against Turcoman nomads. The Tsar Alexander II approved Russian military advisors travelling to Persia to fulfill the Shah’s request. The brigade was then formed in 1879 by Lieutenant-Colonel Domantovich, a Russian officer.

Early development of the Cossack Brigade

Russian interests and lack of funding slowed the initial development of the brigade into a professional fighting force. The initial strength of the brigade was 400 men drawn from immigrants known as Caucasian muhajirs, who were descendants of Circassians and Transcaucasian Muslims who had migrated to Iran to avoid Russian rule. [4] They possessed special privileges as a hereditary military caste. Domantovich made rapid progress with their training and the Shah ordered the strength of the new brigade to be increased to 600 men drawn from the regular army. The rapid progress of the Cossack Brigade caused concern in Russia due to fear that it may become a true fighting force rather than a tool of the Russian government. Domantovich was dismissed as commander in 1881 and replaced by the less effective Colonel Charkovsij, over the protests of the Shah. Charkovsij added four artillery pieces to the arsenal of the Brigade in 1883 but made no other improvements. In 1886 Colonel Karavaev became commander. During his time, the Brigade faced with budget cuts and thus had its numbers diminished. In 1890 Colonel Shneur took over and was unable to pay the men. After many desertions, combined with a cholera epidemic, the strength was reduced to 450 men, and eventually cut down to 200. Shneur left in 1893 leaving command to a junior officer. By this time the brigade was rapidly disintegrating and the Shah was under pressure to disband it and give the Germans control over army training. It was further cut to just 150 men with one Russian officer. At this point it seemed that the Brigade would end as a failed experiment and be nothing more than a footnote in Persian history.

Circassians North Caucasian ethnic group

The Circassians, also known by their endonym Adyghe, are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russo-Circassian War in 1864.

Turning point

The Persian Cossack Brigade was saved by the arrival of Colonel Kosagoskij who was to become the most effective commanding officer in its history. The immediate problem that he faced was the Muhajir aristocracy in the brigade, who considered themselves as an entitled elite. This privileged group often refused to work and reacted poorly to attempts at discipline. The Muhajir faction mutinied in 1895, dividing the brigade and seizing a large portion of its funds, encouraged by the Shah’s son who was Minister of War. Under pressure from Russia the Cossack Brigade was reunified under Kosagoskij’s command and the muhajirs were treated like other regular soldiers. The result was a great improvement in efficiency, resulting in a well-organized, well trained, and obedient force.

Role following assassination of Nasir-ed-Din Shah

The first major event involving the Brigade arose from the assassination of Nasir-ed-Din Shah on May 1, 1896. Chaos broke loose as different factions sought to take power, and mobs rampaged in the streets. The police were unable to control them and the regular army could not be relied upon to do so. Kosagovskij was given free rein by the Prime Minister Amin os-Soltan to “Act in accordance with your own understanding and wisdom.” Kosagovskij quickly mobilized the brigade and had them occupy the whole of Tehran in order to keep order in the city. The Brigade also became involved in intrigues between different factions of the Persian government. Nayeb os-Saltenah, the local commander of the forces in Tehran was likely to seize power from the legitimate heir, Mozaffar ad-Din Shah, who was in Tabriz. Kosagovski, backed by the Brigade, the Russians and British, warned Saltenah that only Mozaffar ad-Din Shah would be recognized as the legitimate heir. On June 7, 1896 Mozaffar ad-Din Shah entered Tehran escorted by the Cossacks. The Brigade on this date established themselves as kingmakers and in the future would serve as important tools for both the Russians and the Shah in maintaining control of Persia. The Russian influence inside Persia expanded tremendously as the Brigade was able to exert massive control in internal Persian politics and intrigues.

Mirza Ali Asghar Khan Amin al-Soltan Prime Minister of Iran

Mirza Ali Asghar Khan, also known by his honorific titles of Amin al-Soltan and Atabak, was the last prime minister of Iran under Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.

As the brigade was numerically enlarging and drastically growing in military strength, eventually civilian volunteers were also accepted into its ranks, including members of ethnic and religious minorities. [3] For example, from the mid-1890s until 1903, the highest-ranking Persian officer in the brigade was the chief of staff, Mīrzā Mādrūs/Mārtīrūs Khan, an Armenian from New Julfa, near Isfahan, who had been educated at the Lazarevskiĭ Institute, a secondary school for Armenians founded in Moscow by an Armenian merchant. [3]

Armenians ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland

Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.

New Julfa Place in Isfahan Province, Iran

New Julfa is the Armenian quarter of Isfahan, Iran, located along the south bank of the Zayande River.

Isfahan City in Iran

Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.

By 1903 the Brigade was reported to have grown to 1,500 men, with 200 Russian officers. This proportion of officers to other ranks was far higher than the one to thirty ratio that was usual in armies of that period and was regarded with concern by contemporary British commentators, who noted that the Brigade was effectively under the direct control of the Imperial Russian Legation in Tehran. The Brigade itself now included cavalry, infantry and artillery elements. It was independent of the regular Persian Army and under the command of a colonel of the Russian General Staff with the local rank of Field Marshal. The Persian rank and file were paid regularly on a monthly basis, at a cost amounting to 40,000 roubles. [5]

Role during the Revolution of 1905-1911

The second major event the Cossack Brigade played a role in was the 1906 Constitutional Revolution, as a result of intense political pressure and rebellion. Mozaffar ad-Din Shah gave in to the rebels, and died shortly after signing the Constitution. It was the Persian Cossack Brigade that helped keeping his son Muhammad Ali Shah on the throne. As a consequence however, he was considered to be a Russian puppet. He later attempted to overthrow the government established by the Constitution using the Persian Cossack Brigade in January 1907. It surrounded the Majles (parliament) and shelled the building with heavy artillery. He was briefly successful and with the help of Colonel Liakhov, the Brigade commander, he governed Tehran for a year acting as a military dictator. Liakhov was appointed military governor of Tehran. In the ensuing civil strife forces from Azerbaijan led by Sattar Khan and Yeprem Khan retook Tehran from the Cossack Brigade, it forced the Shah to abdicate. Here the Brigade failed in ensuring the power of the Shah. Nonetheless the Brigade retained a great deal of importance as a tool for both the Russians and the Shah. Furthermore, Russian influence greatly expanded during this time period with Russian forces occupying several parts of Iran (mostly the north), and the country became divided into spheres of influence between the Russians and the British as agreed in the Anglo-Russian Agreement signed in August 1907.

Role in World War I

During World War I the war spilled over into Persian territory as Ottoman, Russian, and British forces entered Persia. The Russian Command in 1916 expanded the Cossack Brigade to full divisional strength of roughly 8,000 men. The Brigade engaged in combat against Ottoman troops and helped to secure Russian interests in northern Persia. The British-created South Persia Rifles performed the same function in southern Iran for the British. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the British took over the Cossack Brigade and removed Russian officers, replacing them with British and Iranian ones. This was an important transition point in the history of the Brigade as it now came under complete British and Iranian control and was effectively purged of Russian influence. Following the war Persia found itself devastated and divided as various regions of the country had broken away. In the 1920s, in order to re-exert central control, the Shah deployed the Cossack Brigade to crush the Azadistan movement in Tabriz. It was successful though it failed to be as effective in putting down another rebellion movement in the North, called the Jangali movement.

Role in the rise of Reza Shah

The Persian Cossack Brigade c. 1920 Persiancosackbrigade.jpg
The Persian Cossack Brigade c. 1920

With Iran in chaos and facing fragmentation there was a political vacuum in Tehran, which had no functioning government. It is in this context of fragmentation and disorder that Reza Khan, an officer from the Cossack Brigade, rose to power as Iran’s “man on horseback” who would save the country from chaos. Reza Khan had joined the Brigade when he was sixteen years old and became the first Persian to be appointed as Brigadier-General of the Brigade. He had risen rapidly through the ranks of the Brigade following the British purge though he had learned much from the previous Russian officers. On 14 January 1921, the British General Ironside chose to promote Reza Khan, who had been leading the Tabriz battalion, to lead the entire brigade. [6] About a month later, under British direction, Reza Khan led his 3,000-4,000 strong detachment of the Cossack Brigade based in Qazvin and Hamadan to Tehran in 1921 and seized the capital.

With this coup Reza Khan established himself as the most powerful person in Iran. The coup was largely bloodless and faced little resistance. Reza Khan's later modernization and enlargement of the army would utilise the Cossack Brigade as its core. Prior to World War I the Cossack Brigade constituted, together with the Swedish trained gendarmerie, the only truly professional military forces in Iran.

With his expanded forces and the Cossack Brigade, Reza Khan launched military actions to eliminate separatist and dissident movements in Tabriz, Mashhad, and the Jangalis in Gilan, Simko and the Kurds. The Brigade, with a strength of 7,000-8,000 men at the time, was merged with the gendarmerie and other forces to form the new Iranian Army of 40,000 which would be led by Iranian officers, many of them friends and cronies of Reza Khan from his days as an officer in the Cossack Brigade. These officers from the Cossack brigade received appointments and patronage in key positions in the new government and military. Using the Cossack Brigade as a springboard, Reza Khan found himself able to place himself in a position of power, centralizing the country, removing the Shah and crown himself as new Shah, thus establishing the Pahlavi Dynasty. He was then called Reza Shah.

Legacy

The Cossack Brigade had helped establish the first centralized Iranian state since the time of the Safavids. While the history of the Cossack Brigade as a distinct entity ended with the rise of Reza Shah their influence on Iran has endured. The foundation of the centralized state established by Reza Shah persists to the present day.

Commanders

CommanderPeriod
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Lieutenant-Colonel Aleksey Domantovich April 1879 – 1882
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Pyotr Charkovsky1883–1885
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Aleksandr Kuzmin-Karavayev 1885–1891
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Aleksandr Shnyeur 1891–1894
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Vladimir Kossogovsky May 1894 - 1903
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Fyodor Chernozoubov 1903–1906
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Vladimir Liakhov 1906 – November 1909
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Nikolay Vadbolsky Nov 1909 – 1914
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Nikolay Prozorkievitch 1914 – August 1915
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg General Vladimir von Maydell August 1915 – February 1917
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Colonel Georgy Klerzhe February 1917 – early 1918
State Flag of Iran (1925).svg Colonel Vsevolod Starosselsky early 1918 – October 1920
State Flag of Iran (1925).svg Brigadier-General Reza Khan October 1920 – December 1921
State Flag of Iran (1925).svg Major-General Ghassem Khan Vali 1922 – ?

Notable senior officers

Stations

Major

Minor

Military ranks and non-military titles

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 Atkin, Muriel (October 31, 2011) [December 15, 1993]. "COSSACK BRIGADE". Encyclopædia Iranica . Fasc. 3. VI. New York City: Bibliotheca Persica Press. pp. 329–333. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
    • Although according to Domantovich, the first commandant of the Iranian Cossack Brigade, this initiative came from the Shah himself, Field-Marshal Ahmad (...) -- Cronin, Stephanie. (1997). "The Army and Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran, 1921-1926". I.B.Tauris. ISBN   978-1860641053 p. 54
    • (...) (later Riza Shah Pahlavi), and indeed within four years he rose from the rank of colonel in the Iranian Cossack Brigade to the Iranian throne. -- Shahvar, Soli. (2009). "Forgotten Schools: The Baha'Is and Modern Education in Iran, 1899-1934". I.B.Tauris. ISBN   978-0857712714 p. 5
    • Reza Khan, who had been a brigadier general in the Iranian Cossack Brigade before ousting Iran's last Qajar king in 1925. -- Wawro, Geoffrey. (2010). Penguin (chapter 10 - Reza Khan). ISBN   978-1101197684
    • One of the principal components of Riza Khan's new army in the nineteen-twenties was the Iranian Cossack Brigade. -- (1998) "Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies". The Institute. (original from the University of Michigan). pp 178, 183.
  2. 1 2 3 Cossack Brigade - Iranicaonline retrieved July 2015
  3. "The Iranian Armed Forces in Politics, Revolution and War: Part One" . Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. page 98 "The Navy and Army Illustrated" April 21st, 1900
  5. Cyrus Ghani; Sīrūs Ghanī (6 January 2001). Iran and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. I.B.Tauris. pp. 147–. ISBN   978-1-86064-629-4.

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