Persian Film, also known as Filmfarsi (Persian : فیلمفارسی), is a cinematic term used in Iranian cinema criticism. It was coined by Iranian film critic, Hushang Kavusi. The term is used to describe low-quality films mostly copied from the Bollywood cinema and with poor plots, mostly arranged with dance and singing. Filmfarsi were suppressed after the Iranian revolution by more strict laws on relations between men and women, as well as religious opposition to the content of the films. The suppression of the Filmfarsi genre encouraged the Iranian New Wave of modern films in Iranian cinema. Many of the Filmfarsi that survived the Iranian revolution did so thanks to the existence of illegal VHS copies.
According to BBC's Yousef Latifpour (یوسف لطیف پور), the plots of many Filmfarsi are based on "incredible accidents" or "exaggerated misunderstandings", where conflicts between tradition and modernism usually end "in favor of tradition".Within Filmfarsi, there existed unique genres of film such as "Jaheli" (جهلی), described by some as "hyper-masculine", in which tough male characters would save women from "a life of disgrace", such working as a prostitute or cabaret singer. Other common genres of Iranian film prior to the Iranian revolution included thrillers, melodramas, musicals and action movies. While the films varied in theme, many of them shared common traits such as a "low production value" and "one-dimensional archetypes".
The 1978 Cinema Rex fire is often seen as the catalyst for the demise of Filmfarsi; over 400 civilians were killed by Shiite revolutionaries while attending a screening of the controversial movie "The Deer".After Iran became an Islamic Republic in 1979, many commonly seen features of Filmfarsi, such as women acting as an object of "sexual desire" or not wearing a hijab, were now frowned upon, and the genre was actively suppressed.
The Cinema of Iran, also known as the Cinema of Persia, refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety of commercial films annually. Iranian art films have garnered international fame and now enjoy a global following. Iranian films are usually written and spoken in the Persian language. Iranian cinema has had many ups and downs.
Throughout history, women in Iran have played numerous roles, and contributed in many ways, to Iranian society. Historically, tradition maintained that women be confined to their homes so that they could manage the household and raise children. During the Pahlavi era, there was a drastic change towards women's segregation: ban of the veil, right to vote, right to education, equal salaries for men and women, and the right to hold public office. Women were active participants in the Islamic Revolution. Iran's constitution, adopted after the Islamic Revolution in 1979, proclaims equality for men and women under Article 20, while mandating legal code adhering to Sharia law. According to Sharia, women inherit half of what a man would, and compensation for the death of a woman is also half. Sharia law still favors men, but Article 21 of the constitution as well as a few parliament-passed laws give women some advantages. Women are allowed to drive, hold public office, and attend university. Not wearing a veil in public can be punished by law; and when in public, all hair and skin except the face and hands must be covered.
In the Western world, Persia was historically the common name for Iran. On the Nowruz of 1935, Reza Shah asked foreign delegates to use the Persian term Iran, the endonym of the country, in formal correspondence. Subsequently, the common adjective for citizens of Iran changed from Persian to Iranian. In 1959, the government of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah's son, announced that both "Persia" and "Iran" can be used interchangeably, in formal correspondence. However, the issue is still debated.
A cursory glance at the history of art reveals that social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles. As an example Flight by Morteza Katouzian is showing the marginalized people who have no freedom as result of political changes. In Iran, the social and political developments of the 1940s radically altered the evolution of this country's plastic arts and entirely altering its natural path.
Intellectual movements in Iran involve the Iranian experience of modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures that have been changing since the 19th century.
Bahrām Beyzāie is an Iranian playwright, theatre director, screenwriter, film editor, and ostād ("master") of Persian letters, arts and Iranian studies.
Samuel Khachikian was an Iranian film director, screenwriter, author, and film editor of Armenian descent. He was one of the most influential figures of Iranian cinema and was nicknamed "Iran's Hitchcock".
Parviz Sayyad is a celebrated actor, director, translator and screenwriter of Iranian cinema.
Ebrahim Hatamikia is an Iranian Film director, Screenwriter, Cinematographer and Actor. Hatamikia is known for films depicting the Iran–Iraq War's impact on Iran. His films are considered some of the best ever made in the Iranian war cinema and most notable for their attention to social changes brought about by the war. Also, he is best-known for his explorations of the trauma by the war; both on returning soldiers and those who await them, unable to mourn effectively without knowing the fate of their loved ones.
BBC Persian is the Persian language radio station and TV operated by the BBC which conveys the latest political, social, economical and sport news relevant to Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, and the world. Its headquarters are in London, United Kingdom.
Over the decades, the state of human rights in Iran has been found wanting. From the Imperial Pahlavi dynasty, through the Islamic Revolution (1979), to the era of the Islamic Republic of Iran, government treatment of Iranian citizens rights had been criticized by Iranians, by international human rights activists, by writers, by NGOs and the United States While the monarchy under the rule of the shahs was widely attacked by most Western watchdog organizations for having an abysmal human rights record, the current government of the Islamic Republic is considered still worse by many.
Bojnord, known in the Middle Ages as Buzanjird, is the capital city of North Khorasan Province, Iran. It is about 701 km (436 mi) from Tehran.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah (King) of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow in the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Due to his status as the last Shah of Iran, he is often known as simply the Shah.
Esfandiar Monfaredzadeh is an Iranian pioneer film composer, songwriter, and filmmaker. He is recognized for his contribution to film and pop music in Iran. His major works include Qeysar, Toughi, Dash Akol, Tangna, The Deers(Gavaznhā).
Prison rape or jail rape is rape occurring in prison. The phrase is commonly used to describe rape of inmates by other inmates, less commonly to the rape of inmates by staff, and rarely to rape of staff by inmates.
Khosrow Parvizi was an Iranian director.
Socialism inIran or Iranian socialism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century and encompasses various political parties in the country. Iran experienced a short Third World Socialism period at the zenith of the Tudeh Party after the abdication of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After failing to reach power, this form of third world socialism was replaced by Mosaddegh's populist, non-aligned Iranian nationalism of the National Front party as the main anti-monarchy force in Iran, reaching power (1949–1953), and it remained with that strength even in opposition until the rise of Islamism and the Iranian Revolution. The Tudehs have moved towards basic socialist communism since then.
Marjaneh Golchin is an Iranian actress. She started her career in television and starred in season 1 of “Mirror” directed by Gholamhossein Lotfi in 1985. She is best known for appearances in Shabash by Hamed Kolahdari and in series such as Shahgoosh by Davood Mirbagheri, Bezangah by Reza Attaran, 3 Dong 3 Dong by Shahed Ahmadlou and Armando directed by Ehsan Abdipoor.
Sheida Gharachedaghi is a Persian-Canadian composer and music educator, based in Montreal.
Fakhri Khorvash is an Iranian stage and film actress and director. She received the best actress award at the Sepas Film Festival in 1971 for her performance in the film Mr. Naive.