Perugia was a long-time papal residence during the 13th century. Five popes were elected here: Pope Honorius III (1216–1227), Pope Clement IV (1265–1268), Pope Honorius IV (1285–1287), Pope Celestine V (1294), and Pope Clement V (1305–1314).These elections took place in the Palazzo delle Canoniche adjoining the Perugia Cathedral.
Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of Rome and 148 km southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany, Lazio, and Marche.
Pope Honorius III, born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Clement IV, born Gui Foucois and also known as Guy le Gros, was bishop of Le Puy (1257–1260), archbishop of Narbonne (1259–1261), cardinal of Sabina (1261–1265), and Pope from 5 February 1265 until his death. His election as pope occurred at a conclave held at Perugia that lasted four months while cardinals argued over whether to call in Charles of Anjou, the youngest brother of Louis IX of France, to carry on the papal war against the Hohenstaufens. Pope Clement was a patron of Thomas Aquinas and of Roger Bacon, encouraging Bacon in the writing of his Opus Majus, which included important treatises on optics and the scientific method.
The Cathedral contained the tombs of Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), Pope Urban IV (1261–1264), and Pope Martin IV (1281–1285).These were destroyed by Gérard du Puy, the cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378).
Pope Innocent III, born Lotario dei Conti di Segni reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Urban IV, born Jacques Pantaléon, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1261 to his death in 1264. He was not a cardinal; only a few popes since his time have not been cardinals, including Gregory X, Urban V and Urban VI.
Pope Martin IV, born Simon de Brion, was Pope from 22 February 1281 to his death in 1285. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon.
During du Puy's tenure as papal governor during the War of the Eight Saints he pillaged the Duomo construction site for materials for his private fortress.According to Heywood, due to du Puy's construction, "so certain did it appear that the Papal Curia was about to be transferred to Perugia that foreign merchants began to negotiate for the hire of shops and warehouses in the city." The tomb of Pope Benedict XI (1303–1304) is still extant in S. Domenico.
The War of the Eight Saints (1375–1378) was a war between Pope Gregory XI and a coalition of Italian city-states led by Florence, which contributed to the end of the Avignon Papacy.
Pope Benedict XI, born Nicola Boccasini, was Pope from 22 October 1303 to his death on 7 July, 1304. He was also a member of the Order of Preachers.
San Domenico is a Roman Catholic basilica church, located on Piazza Giordano Bruno and via del Castellano in the city of Perugia, region of Umbria, central Italy.
At least five popes spent significant periods of residence in Perugia.
Pope Gregory IX was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for issuing the Decretales and instituting the Papal Inquisition in response to the failures of the episcopal inquisitions established during the time of Pope Lucius III through his papal bull Ad abolendam issued in 1184.
Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was the head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope Boniface IX was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 November 1389 to his death in 1404. He was the second Pope of the Western Schism. During this time the papal claiments of the Avignon Obedience, antipope Clement VII and Benedict XIII, maintained the Roman Curia in Avignon, under the protection of the French monarchy.
Pope Zacharias convinced Lombard King Ratchis to abandon his siege of the city in 749.The city was also included in the "Donation of Pepin", and thus added to the Papal States.
Ratchis was the Duke of Friuli (739–744) and King of the Lombards (744–749). His father was Duke Pemmo. His Roman wife was Tassia. He ruled in peace until he besieged Perugia for reasons unknown. Pope Zachary convinced him to lift the siege, and he abdicated and entered the abbey of Montecassino with his family. After the death of Aistulf in 756, he tried once again to reign over the Lombards, but he was defeated by Desiderius and retired to a cloister.
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.
Pope Innocent III (1198–1216) was in Perugia in September 1198 to consecrate S. Lorenzo; by October, he had left for Todi.Innocent III died in Perugia in 1216, where the cardinals gathered to elect Honorius III.
Todi is a town and comune (municipality) of the province of Perugia in central Italy. It is perched on a tall two-crested hill overlooking the east bank of the river Tiber, commanding distant views in every direction.
According to Heywood,
According to Heywood, Perugia "virtually assumed the position of Papal Vicar in Umbria."The two apparently had a falling out by the time of Martin IV, who excommunicated the entire city of Perugia for disobeying his order not to exact vengeance upon the Bishopric of Foligno, and he and his cardinals were burned in effigy in Perugia.
After the death of Frederick II, Pope Innocent IV (1243–1254) returned to Italy and reached Perugia in November 1251.He did not resume his journey towards Rome until 1253, when he was summoned by Senator Brancaleone. According to Heywood,
Pope Urban IV (1261–1264) resided in Perugia in 1264, while fleeing with his Curia from Pietro Di Vico, who was planning to ambush him in Orvieto.Urban Iv remained in Perugia until his death.
Pope Benedict XI (1303–1304) took refuge in Perugia upon his election where he died in July 1304, triggering an eleven-month election in the "Palazzo del Papa."Pope Clement V (1305–1314) was elected, who moved the papacy to Avignon, causing the Avignon Papacy.
Pope Boniface IX (1389–1404) resided in Perugia from September 1392 until 1393 during the Western Schism.His legate, Pileo, the archbishop of Ravenna had been guarding the citadel and the city in his absence. While in the city, Boniface IX recalled the Guelphic exiles and achieved a military victory against Giovanni Sciarra da Vico. One of these exiles was murdered in the streets in July 1393 and Pandolfo de' Baglioni, a noble, interfered with the Podesta's ability to hand down a sentence; in retaliation, an angry mob killed Pandolfo and much of his family. As the city erupted in violence, the pope and his aides fled to Assisi.
A portion of the Canonica (rectory), which had previously been "invaded" by the civic magistrates was occupied by the popes, and later became known as the Palazzo del Papa; it was later used as the residence of the papal governor (Palazzo del Governatore).The Canonica was connected to the Bishop's Palace by massive arches which now comprise the Via delle Volte. The Great Hall was capable of seating 600 persons. The palace, then the residence of the papal governor, burned to the ground in 1534. Pope Pius IV (1559-1565) granted the site and the remains to Cardinal Fulvio della Corgna.
The Piazza della Paglia was renamed Piazza del Papa in 1816, when a statute of Pope Julius III (1550–1555) was moved there.
In 1375, Perugia was one of the first cities to join Florence in rebellion against Gregory XI in the War of the Eight Saints.Pope Boniface IX (1389–1404) reclaimed the city in 1403. In 1416, Pope Martin V (1417–1431) recognized Braccio da Montone as lord of Perugia. Pope Julius II (1503–1513) conquered Gian Paolo Baglione in the city in 1506, and Pope Leo X (1513–1521) ordered him decapitated in 1520. Thereafter, Perugia was again an immediate dependency of the Holy See. The city rebelled against Pope Paul III's (1534–1549) salt tax in 1540. Pierluigi Farnese suppressed the rebellion for Paul III, who built a fortress in the city. Pope Julius III (1550–1555) restored many of the cities privileges thereafter. When the Perugians rebelled again in 1848 they demolished Paul III's tower. Pontifical troops retook the city again in 1859.
Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903), a former bishop of Perugia, made the see an archdiocese upon his election.
Pope Honorius IV, born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287. During his pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French political policy of his predecessor, Pope Martin IV.
Pope Boniface VIII was pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. Caetani was of baronial origin with family connections to the papacy. He spent his early career in abroad in diplomatic roles.
Decretals are letters of a pope that formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church.
Papal coats of arms are the personal coat of arms of popes of the Catholic Church. These have been a tradition since the Late Middle Ages, and has displayed his own, initially that of his family, and thus not unique to himself alone, but in some cases composed by him with symbols referring to his past or his aspirations. This personal coat of arms coexists with that of the Holy See.
Gérard du Puy was a French cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI.
Sicut Judaeis was a papal bull setting out the official position of the papacy regarding the treatment of Jews. The first bull by that name was issued in about 1120 by Calixtus II and served as a papal charter of protection to Jews. It was prompted by attacks on Jews by the First Crusade, during which over five thousand Jews were slaughtered in Europe. The bull forbade Christians, on pain of excommunication, from forcing Jews to convert, from harming them, from taking their property, from disturbing the celebration of their festivals, and from interfering with their cemeteries.
The papal election of 1216, was convoked after the death of Pope Innocent III in Perugia, elected Cardinal Cencio Camerario, who took the name of Honorius III.
The Banner of the Holy Roman Church was the battle standard of the Papal States during the Renaissance and a symbol of the Roman Catholic Church. The office of the Gonfalonier of the Church was originally intended to function as its bearer.
The papal conclave of 1303 elected Pope Benedict XI to succeed Pope Boniface VIII.
With a long history as a vantage point for anti-popes forces threatening Rome, Viterbo became a papal city in 1243. During the later thirteenth century, the ancient Italian city of Viterbo was the site of five papal elections and the residence of seven popes and their Curias, and it remains the location of four papal tombs. These popes resided in the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo alongside the Viterbo Cathedral intermittently for two decades, from 1257 to 1281; as a result, the papal palace in Viterbo, with that in Orvieto, are the most extensive thirteenth-century papal palaces to have survived.
Orvieto, Umbria, Italy, was the refuge of five popes during the 13th century: Urban IV (1261–1264), Gregory X (1271–1276), Martin IV (1281–1285), Nicholas IV (1288–1292) and Boniface VIII (1294–1303). During this time, the popes took up residence in the Papal Palace of Orvieto, which was adjacent to the Orvieto Cathedral and expanded onto the bishop's residence. None of these popes died in Orvieto, and thus no papal elections took place in there, nor are there any papal tombs.
Raniero Capocci, also known as Ranieri, Rainerio da Viterbo was an Italian cardinal and military leader, a fierce adversary of emperor Frederick II.
Matteo Rosso Orsini, was a Roman aristocrat, politician, diplomat, and Roman Catholic Cardinal. He was the nephew of Pope Nicholas III (1277-1280).
Simone Paltanieri, son of Pesce Paltanieri, member of a distinguished family, was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.
Giovanni Colonna was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church from the Roman noble family of Colonna. He is occasionally named "the Younger" to distinguish him from his near-contemporary cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, who is frequently considered as related to the Colonna family. As papal legate, he accompanied the Latin Emperor Peter II of Courtenay to Greece, where he was taken captive by Theodore Komnenos Doukas. Released from captivity, Colonna served in 1220–21 as regent of the Latin Empire before returning to Italy in 1223. Colonna participated in the conclaves of 1216, 1227, and 1241–43.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Perugia in the Umbria region of Italy.