Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands
|Location|| Livingston Island |
South Shetland Islands
|Length||4.3 nautical miles (8.0 km; 4.9 mi)|
|Width||1.6 nautical miles (3.0 km; 1.8 mi)|
Perunika Glacier (Bulgarian : ледник Перуника, romanized: lednik Perunika, IPA: [ˈlɛdnik pɛroˈnikɐ] ) is an 8 km long and 3 km wide (average) roughly crescent-shaped glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of Pimpirev Glacier, south of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Kaliakra Glacier, west of Huron Glacier, and north of Balkan Snowfield and the head of Huntress Glacier.
Bulgarian is a South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of Bulgarians.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage. Several different standards of transliteration exist, one of which was chosen and made mandatory for common use by the Bulgarian authorities in a law of 2009.
Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.
Its head is bounded by Pliska Ridge to the south-southwest, Nesebar Gap to the south, Wörner Gap to the east, and Bowles Ridge to the north-northeast. It drains northwestwards between Burdick Ridge and Bowles Ridge, then north of Rezen Knoll turns west-southwest and flows into the head of Emona Anchorage between Bulgarian Beach and Pimpirev Beach.
Pliska Ridge is a three-peaked ridge rising to 667 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its central and highest summit, Pliska Peak, is located 2.48 km east-northeast of Willan Nunatak, 1.81 km southeast of Burdick Peak, 3.53 km south-southwest of Mount Bowles, 3.68 km west-southwest of Kuzman Knoll, and 3.61 km northwest of Mount Friesland. The feature is 1.6 km long and 500 m wide, its axis trending due east-west, with precipitous southern slopes. It is ice-covered except for segments of its easternmost peak and is bounded to the northwest by Orpheus Gate, to the north by the head of Perunika Glacier, to the east by Nesebar Gap, and to the south and west by the head of Huntress Glacier, the latter flowing 6 km southwestwards into False Bay.
Nesebar Gap is a 1.3 km wide gap in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded to the west by Pliska Ridge and to the east by the northern slope of Mount Friesland, Tangra Mountains. It is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the north and Huntress Glacier to the south. The gap is part of an overland route between Orpheus Gate to the west, and Camp Academia locality and Lozen Saddle to the east.
Wörner Gap is a flat saddle extending 3 km in the south-north direction between Friesland Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its elevation decreases from 585 m in the south to 541 m in the middle, and 525 m in the north. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the west and Huron Glacier to the east, and is linked to the east to Kuzman Knoll, a conspicuous landmark in the area. The gap is visited by field parties from St. Kliment Ohridski Base and Juan Carlos I Base and is subject to Spanish and Bulgarian glaciological studies.
The glacier is heavily crevassed in its lower half, receiving ice influx also from Balkan Snowfield and from the part of the island’s ice cap that is located west of Hemus Peak and Gurev Gap and south of Saedinenie Snowfield, and is draining southwards. It exhibits pyroclastic phenomena typical of the region’s glaciology and resulting from volcanic activities at Deception Island not 40 km away.
Balkan Snowfield is an ice-covered plateau of elevation ranging from 150 to 280 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, situated south of lower Perunika Glacier, northwest of Huntress Glacier and north of Contell Glacier. It is 3 km long in southwest-northeast direction and 2 km wide, and bounded by Burdick Ridge to the east, Willan Nunatak and Castillo Nunatak to the southeast, and Krum Rock to the southwest. The feature slopes gently northwestwards with its foot bounded by the hills along Bulgarian Beach. It is named after the Balkans.
Hemus Peak is an ice-covered peak rising to 636 metres (2,087 ft) off the northwest extremity of Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island. The feature is breast-shaped, 850 metres (2,790 ft) long in east-west direction and 550 metres (1,800 ft) wide, and overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the northeast and Perunika Glacier to the southwest. Hemus is an ancient name of Stara Planina, the central mountain range separating northern from southern Bulgaria.
Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.
The glacier was mapped by the Spanish Servicio Geográfico del Ejército in 1991, the lower portion in greater detail. Bulgarian remapping of Perunika Glacier’s terminus from a survey made during the summer of 1995-96; mapping in 2005 and 2009 from the Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05.
A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time. Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating. The location of the terminus is often directly related to glacier mass balance, which is based on the amount of snowfall which occurs in the accumulation zone of a glacier, as compared to the amount that is melted in the ablation zone. The position of a glacier terminus is also impacted by localized or regional temperature change over time.
The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).
Perunika is the name of a village in the Rhodope Mountains in southern Bulgaria. A derivation of Perun, the name of ancient Slavic God.
The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Golyam Perelik is its highest peak at 2,191 meters (7,188 ft). The mountain range gives its name to the terrestrial ecoregion Rodope montane mixed forests that belongs in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome and the palearctic ecozone. The region is particularly notable for its karst areas with their deep river gorges, large caves and specific sculptured forms, such as the Trigrad Gorge.
In Slavic mythology, Perun is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of sky, thunder, lightning, storms, rain, law, war, fertility and oak trees. His other attributes were fire, mountains, wind, iris, eagle, firmament, horses and carts, weapons, and war. He was first associated with weapons made of stone and later with those of metal.
The glacier is centred at Coordinates: .
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Boyana Glacier in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica is situated southeast of Macy Glacier and west-southwest of Srebarna Glacier. It is bounded by Vazov Rock on the west, St. Naum Peak, Starosel Gate, Silistra Knoll and Kotel Gap on the north, and Christoff Cliff on the east. The glacier extends 3 km in east-west direction and 1.6 km in north-south direction, and flows southeastward into the Bransfield Strait between Vazov Point and Aytos Point.
Kaliakra Glacier is a glacier in northeastern Livingston Island, Antarctica extending 3.8 nautical miles in east-west direction and 4.3 nautical miles in north-south direction, and situated southeast of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Panega Glacier, north of Struma Glacier and upper Huron Glacier, and northeast of Perunika Glacier. It is bounded by Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge to the south, by Hemus Peak, Gurev Gap, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap, Leslie Hill, Leslie Gap and Radnevo Peak to the west, and Miziya Peak and Samuel Peak to the north. The glacier drains eastwards into Moon Bay south of Perperek Knoll and north of Sindel Point.
Kamchiya Glacier is located on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated south of the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait, and south of Tundzha Glacier, west-southwest of Pimpirev Glacier and east of Verila Glacier. The glacier extends 5 km along an east–west axis and is 2.2 km wide, draining into South Bay between Ereby Point and Memorable Beach.
Murgash Glacier is the 3.4 km long and 3.2 km wide glacier on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated southeast of Yakoruda Glacier, south of Teteven Glacier, southwest of Traub Glacier and west-northwest of Bravo Glacier. It is bounded by Lloyd Hill on the northwest, Tile Ridge on the east and Hebrizelm Hill on the southeast, and drains southwards into Kramolin Cove in McFarlane Strait between Yovkov Point and Kaspichan Point.
Panega Glacier on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southeast of the northeastern portion of Saedinenie Snowfield, south of Rose Valley Glacier, southwest of Debelt Glacier and north of lower Kaliakra Glacier. It drains the southeast slopes of Vidin Heights and flows into Moon Bay between Helis Nunatak and Perperek Knoll. The glacier extends 2 nautical miles in the southeast-northwest direction, and 1.6 nautical miles in the southwest-northeast direction. It is named after Zlatna Panega River in northern Bulgaria.
Pimpirev Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated south of the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait, southeast of Tundzha Glacier, southwest of Saedinenie Snowfield, west of Perunika Glacier and east-northeast of Kamchiya Glacier. The feature extends 5.5 km in a southeast-northwest direction, and 1.8 km in northwest-southeast direction. The glacier drains southeastwards towards Pimpirev Beach, mostly terminating on the shore, and on several occasions penetrating the South Bay waters east-northeast of Ereby Point.
Rayna Knyaginya Peak is a peak of elevation 680 m in western Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Perunika Glacier to the south and northwest, and Kaliakra Glacier to the northeast.
Rose Valley Glacier is a glacier on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated northeast of Saedinenie Snowfield, northwest of Debelt Glacier and north of Panega Glacier. It extends 5.2 km in southeast-northwest direction and 3.7 km in southwest-northeast direction, and drains the northeast slopes of Vidin Heights to flow into Lister Cove and McFarlane Strait between Pomorie Point and Inott Point.
Saedinenie Snowfield on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southwest of Rose Valley Glacier, west of Panega Glacier, northwest of Kaliakra Glacier, north of lower Perunika Glacier and east-northeast of Tundzha Glacier. It is bounded by Teres Ridge to the west, the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait to the south, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap and Leslie Hill to the southeast, and Leslie Gap and Vidin Heights to the east. The snowfield extends 4.7 km inland and 15.5 km in southwest-northeast direction, and drains into Hero Bay between Melta Point and Slab Point.
Sea Lion Glacier is the site of an isolated 350 metres (1,150 ft) long glacier on Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is located southwest of Hesperides Hill and northwest of Atlantic Club Ridge, separated from the latter by Sea Lion Tarn, and terminating on the South Bay coast.
Struma Glacier is a glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated south of lower Kaliakra Glacier and north of Huron Glacier. Bounded by Melnik Ridge to the north, Yankov Gap to the west and Bowles Ridge to the south, it is 4.8 km long and 1.5 km wide, and flows eastwards into Moon Bay south of Sindel Point and north of Elemag Point.
Tundzha Glacier is a glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east-southeast of Berkovitsa Glacier, west of Saedinenie Snowfield, northwest of Pimpirev Glacier, north of Kamchiya Glacier and east-northeast of Verila Glacier. It is bounded by Snow Peak to the west, Teres Ridge to the east and the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait to the south. The glacier extends 7.5 nautical miles in east-west direction and 2.4 nautical miles in the north-south direction, and drains northwards into Hero Bay between Avitohol Point and Siddins Point.
Urdoviza Glacier is a glacier on western Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of the northern portion of Etar Snowfield and north of Medven Glacier. It extends 1.5 nautical miles in the east-west direction and 1.5 nautical miles in the north-south direction, and is bounded by the eastern slopes of Oryahovo Heights and draining eastwards into Stoyanov Cove of Hero Bay between Agüero Point and Sandanski Point. Bulgarian mapping in 2005 and 2009.
Verila Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southeast of southern Etar Snowfield, southwest of Berkovitsa and Tundzha Glaciers, and west of Kamchiya Glacier. It is bounded by Rotch Dome to the west, Casanovas Peak and Snow Peak to the north, and Ustra Peak to the southeast. The glacier is roughly crescent-shaped, extending 7 nautical miles in an east-west direction and 2 nautical miles in a north-south direction, and drains southwards into Walker Bay, Bransfield Strait between John Beach and Liverpool Beach at Hannah Point. The glacier's bedrock is connected to Kaliman Island in Walker Bay by a 600 m long moraine tombolo. The area was visited by 19th century British and American sealers.
Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 m (3,317 ft) at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.
Huntress Glacier is a glacier 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) long and 3.7 kilometres (2.3 mi) wide flowing into the head of False Bay, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated east of Johnsons Glacier, southeast of Contell Glacier and Balkan Snowfield, south of upper Perunika Glacier, southwest of Huron Glacier and northwest of Macy Glacier, and is bounded by Friesland Ridge and the Tangra Mountains to the southeast, Nesebar Gap, Pliska Ridge, Burdick Ridge and Willan Nunatak to the north, and Charrúa Gap and Napier Peak to the northwest.
The Gleaner Heights are a series of elevations extending for 2 km (1.2 mi) southwest from Leslie Hill in the eastern part of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. They are separated from Leslie Hill by Elhovo Gap, and from Hemus Peak off the northwest extremity of Bowles Ridge by Gurev Gap. The feature is heavily glaciated, with a small rock exposure on its northwest slopes. Gleaner Heights surmount Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest, Kaliakra Glacier to the east and Perunika Glacier to the southwest. The first ascent was by the Bulgarian Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 25 December 2004, as part of Tangra 2004/05 survey.
Contell Glacier is 1.2 nmi long and 0.4 nautical miles wide glacier on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Atlantic Club Ridge to the northwest, Krum Rock to the north, Balkan Snowfield to the northeast, and Charrúa Ridge and Charrúa Gap to the south. It is crescent-shaped, running northwestwards in its upper course, then between Charrúa Ridge and Krum Rock turning west-southwestwards to flow into South Bay north of Johnsons Dock.
This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.