The Lord Carrington
Carrington in 1984
|Father of the House of Lords|
22 February 2007 –9 July 2018
|Preceded by||The Earl Jellicoe|
|Succeeded by||The Lord Denham|
|6th Secretary General of NATO|
25 June 1984 –1 July 1988
|Preceded by||Joseph Luns|
|Succeeded by||Manfred Wörner|
|Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs|
4 May 1979 –5 April 1982
|Prime Minister||Margaret Thatcher|
|Preceded by||David Owen|
|Succeeded by||Francis Pym|
| Member of the House of Lords |
| Life peerage |
17 November 1999 –9 July 2018
| Hereditary peerage |
9 October 1945 –11 November 1999
|Preceded by||The 5th Baron Carrington|
|Succeeded by||Seat abolished|
(House of Lords Act 1999)
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington
6 June 1919
Chelsea, London, England
|Died||9 July 2018 99)(aged|
(m. 1942;died 2009)
|Children||3, including Rupert|
|Alma mater||Royal Military College, Sandhurst|
|Years of service||1939–1949|
(inactive from 1945)
|Battles/wars||Second World War|
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC, PC, DL (6 June 1919 – 9 July 2018), was a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary from 1970 to 1974, Foreign Secretary from 1979 to 1982, chairman of British General Electric Company from 1983 to 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988. Before his death in 2018, he was the last surviving member of the 1951–55 government of Winston Churchill, the Eden government, and the Macmillan government, as well as of the cabinets of Alec Douglas-Home and Edward Heath. Following the House of Lords Act 1999, which removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, Carrington was created a life peer as Baron Carington of Upton.
The Military Cross (MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and formerly awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the governing party, having been so since the 2010 general election, where a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats was formed. In 2015, the Conservatives led by David Cameron won a surprise majority and formed the first majority Conservative government since 1992. However, the snap election on 8 June 2017 resulted in a hung parliament, and the party lost its parliamentary majority. It is reliant on the support of a Northern Irish political party, the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), in order to command a majority in the House of Commons through a confidence-and-supply deal. The party leader, Theresa May, has served as both Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister since July 2016. It is the largest party in local government with 9,008 councillors. The Conservative Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United Kingdom, the other being its modern rival, the Labour Party.
Carrington was Foreign Secretary in 1982 when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands. He took full responsibility for the failure of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to foresee this and resigned. As NATO Secretary General, he helped prevent a war between Greece and Turkey during the 1987 Aegean crisis.
On 2 April 1982, Argentine forces launched the invasion of the Falkland Islands, beginning the Falklands War. The Argentines mounted amphibious landings, and the invasion ended with the surrender of Government House.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It is responsible for protecting and promoting British interests worldwide. It was created in 1968 by merging the Foreign Office and the Commonwealth Office.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO’s Headquarters are located in Haren, Brussels, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium.
The surname "Carrington" (with two r's) was adopted by royal licence dated 1839 by his direct male ancestor Robert Carrington, 2nd Baron Carrington, in lieu of Smith.The latter's father, Robert Smith, MP for Nottingham, was created Baron Carrington in 1796 (Peerage of Ireland) and 1797 (Peerage of Great Britain). The spelling of the surname was changed by royal licence to "Carington" (with one r) in 1880 by the 2nd Baron's sons, but the spelling of the title did not change.
Robert John Carrington, 2nd Baron Carrington,, was a politician and a baron in the Peerage of Great Britain. He was the son of Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington, and Anne Boldero-Barnard. He adopted the name "Carrington" in 1839.
Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington, was a British banker and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1779 to 1797 when he was raised to the peerage.
Baron Carrington is a title that has been created three times, once in the Peerage of England, once in the Peerage of Ireland and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1643 in favour of Sir Charles Smyth. Only a few days later he was created Viscount Carrington in the Peerage of Ireland. For more information, see this title.
Born in Chelsea on 6 June 1919,Peter Carington was the only son of the 5th Baron Carrington by his wife, the Hon. Sybil Marion Colville, a daughter of Charles Colville, 2nd Viscount Colville of Culross. He was a great-nephew of the Liberal statesman Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire, and also of politician and courtier the Hon. Sir William Carington. Brought up as a small child at the Millaton House in Devon, he was educated at two independent schools: Sandroyd School from 1928 to 1932, based at the time in the town of Cobham, Surrey (now the site of Reed's School), and Eton College.
Chelsea is an affluent area of West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames. Its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour. Its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, which is now in a pipe above Sloane Square Underground station. The modern eastern boundary is Chelsea Bridge Road and the lower half of Sloane Street, including Sloane Square. To the north and northwest, the area fades into Knightsbridge and Brompton, but it is considered that the area north of King's Road as far northwest as Fulham Road is part of Chelsea.
Rupert Victor John Carington, 5th Baron Carrington was a British peer.
The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable is an honorific style that is used before the names of certain classes of people.
Having trained at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Carrington was commissioned into the Grenadier Guards as a second lieutenant on 26 January 1939.He served with the regiment during the Second World War. He was promoted to lieutenant on 1 January 1941, and later rose to the rank of temporary captain and acting major. He was awarded the Military Cross (MC) on 1 March 1945 "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services in North West Europe". After the war, Carrington remained in the army until 1949.
The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.
The Grenadier Guards is an infantry regiment of the British Army. It is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. It is not, however, the most senior regiment of the Army, this position being held by the Life Guards. Although the Coldstream Guards were formed before the Grenadier Guards, the regiment is ranked after the Grenadiers in seniority as, having been a regiment of the New Model Army, the Coldstream Guards served the Crown for four fewer years than the Grenadiers.
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
In 1938, Carrington succeeded his father as 6th Baron Carrington. Although he became eligible to take his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday in 1940, he was on active service at the time, and did not do so until 9 October 1945.After leaving the Army, he became involved in politics and served in the Conservative governments of Winston Churchill and Anthony Eden as Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Agriculture and Food from November 1951 to October 1954. During the Crichel Down affair, which led to the resignation of Minister Thomas Dugdale, Carrington tendered his resignation, which was refused by the Prime Minister. Carrington then became Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Defence from October 1954 to October 1956. The latter year he was appointed High Commissioner to Australia, a post he held until October 1959. He was also appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire on 2 July 1951. He became a Privy Counsellor in 1959.
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in Europe in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, for most of his parliamentary career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but for twenty years from 1904 was instead a member of the Liberal Party.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
After his return to Britain he served under Harold Macmillan as First Lord of the Admiralty until October 1963,and was then Minister without Portfolio and Leader of the House of Lords under Alec Douglas-Home until October 1964, when the Conservatives fell from power. From 1964 to 1970 he was Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. When the Conservatives returned to power in 1970 under Edward Heath, Carrington became Defence Secretary, where he remained until 1974 when the Conservatives were voted out in favour of Harold Wilson's Labour. In a 1977 letter discussing the policy of torture of Irish republican internees during Operation Demetrius in August 1971, the then Home Secretary Merlyn Rees attributed the origins of the policy in particular to Carrington: '"It is my view (confirmed by Brian Faulkner before his death [NI's prime minister at the time]) that the decision to use methods of torture in Northern Ireland in 1971/72 was taken by ministers – in particular Lord Carrington, then secretary of state for defence."
Carrington had become Shadow Defence Secretary in 1968 after Enoch Powell was dismissed from the position following his controversial Rivers of Blood speech on immigration.He also served as Chairman of the Conservative Party from 1972 to 1974, and was briefly Secretary of State for Energy from January to March 1974.
Carrington was again Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords from 1974 to 1979. In 1979 he was made Foreign Secretary and Minister for Overseas Development as part of the first Cabinet of Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher spoke very highly of Carrington, stating that "Peter had great panache and the ability to identify immediately the main points in any argument; and he could express himself in pungent terms. We had disagreements, but there were never any hard feelings."
Carrington chaired the Lancaster House conference in 1979, attended by Ian Smith, Abel Muzorewa, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, and Josiah Tongogara, which brought to an end Rhodesia's Bush War. He later expressed his support for Mugabe over Smith.
Carrington was Foreign Secretary when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands on 2 April, 1982. He resigned from the position on 5 April, taking full responsibility for the complacency of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in its failure to foresee this developmentand for the misleading signals sent by the Foreign Office on British intentions for retaining control over the Falklands. In her autobiography, Margaret Thatcher was later to express her sorrow at his departure. Since his resignation, no other member of the House of Lords has held any of the four Great Offices of State.
Lord Carrington then served as Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988. He was also appointed Chancellor of the Order of St Michael and St George on 1 August 1984,serving until June 1994.
In 1991, he presided over diplomatic talks about the breakup of Yugoslavia and attempted to pass a plan that would end the wars and result in each republic becoming an independent nation.
Apart from his political posts, he was the Chancellor of the University of Reading and served as chairman of several companies, including Christie's, and as a director of many others, including Barclays Bank, Schweppes and the Daily Telegraph . He also chaired the Bilderberg conferences from 1990 to 1998, being succeeded in 1999 by Étienne Davignon.From 1983 to 2002, he was president of the Pilgrims Society. He was appointed Chancellor of the Order of the Garter on 8 November 1994, a role from which he retired in October 2012.
After the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, Carrington, along with all former Leaders of the House of Lords, was given a life peerage on 17 November 1999 as Baron Carington of Upton, of Upton in the County of Nottinghamshire.He was the longest-serving member of the House of Lords, and following the retirement of Lord Barber of Tewkesbury in 2016, had been the oldest. He was the second longest-serving member of the Privy Council after the Duke of Edinburgh. He died on 9 July 2018, aged 99, of natural causes.
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Lord Carrington married Iona McClean (19 March 1920 – 7 June 2009), daughter of Lt.-Colonel Sir Francis Kennedy McClean AFC , on 25 April 1942. They had three children:
Lord Carrington's wife, Lady Carrington, died on 7 June 2009, aged 89.
Carrington was a guest on BBC Radio 4's long-running programme Desert Island Discs in 1975and on the same station's A Good Read in 2004.
In February 1982 Carrington was portrayed by Rowan Atkinson in a Not the Nine O'Clock News parody of Question Time , pedantically discussing an imminent nuclear holocaust.
Carrington was portrayed by James Fox in the 2002 BBC production of Ian Curteis's The Falklands Play .He was also briefly portrayed by James Smith in the 2011 film The Iron Lady , and by Jeff Rawle in the 2014 play Handbagged .
|Ancestors of Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington|
Janet Mary Young, Baroness Young, was a British Conservative politician. She served as the first ever female Leader of the House of Lords from 1981 to 1983, first as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and from 1982 as Lord Privy Seal. She was the only woman ever appointed to the Cabinet by Margaret Thatcher.
Frederick Edward Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, is a retired British civil servant, now sitting in the House of Lords as a crossbencher.
James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury,, known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.
Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy and Governor-General of India from 1910–16.
John Julian Ganzoni, 2nd Baron Belstead, Baron Ganzoni, was a British Conservative politician and peer who served as Leader of the House of Lords under Margaret Thatcher from 1988 to 1990.
William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore, 4th Baron Harlech, was a British Conservative politician and banker.
Rupert Charles Ponsonby, 7th Baron de Mauley, is a British hereditary peer, former Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and retired Territorial Army officer.
Charles Robert Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire,, known as the Lord Carrington from 1868 to 1895, and as the Earl Carrington from 1895 to 1912, was a British Liberal politician and aristocrat.
Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes, was Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II from 1990 to 1999, and is also known as a brother-in-law of Diana, Princess of Wales and first cousin of Ronald Ferguson, the father of Sarah, Duchess of York.
John Archibald Boyd-Carpenter, Baron Boyd-Carpenter, PC, DL was a British Conservative politician.
Cranley Gordon Douglas Onslow, Baron Onslow of Woking, was a British politician and served as the Conservative MP for Woking from 1964 to 1997.
Bertram Stanley Mitford Bowyer, 2nd Baron Denham, KBE, PC is a British Conservative politician and member of the House of Lords as one of the remaining hereditary peers. He is one of the few people to serve in the governments of five different Prime Ministers.
Ralph Assheton, 1st Baron Clitheroe, was an English aristocrat and politician.
Roland Calvert Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe DL was a member of the British aristocracy. He became Baron Ashcombe on the death of his father Henry Cubitt, 2nd Baron Ashcombe, in 1947. He is also the maternal grandfather of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, now the wife of Charles, Prince of Wales.
Rupert Clement George Carington, 4th Baron Carrington,, known as the Hon. Rupert Carington from 1868 to 1928, was a British soldier and Liberal Party politician.
Rupert Francis John Carington, 7th Baron Carrington,, is a British businessman and crossbench member of the House of Lords who succeeded his father as the 7th Baron Carrington on 9 July 2018.
The Earl of Listowel
| Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries |
Served alongside: Richard Nugent
The Earl St Aldwyn
| Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Defence |
The Earl of Gosford
The Earl of Selkirk
| First Lord of the Admiralty |
The Earl Jellicoe
| Minister without Portfolio |
The Viscount Hailsham
| Leader of the House of Lords |
The Earl of Longford
| Secretary of State for Defence |
|New office|| Secretary of State for Energy |
| Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs |
| High Commissioner to Australia |
|Party political offices|
The Viscount Hailsham
| Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords |
The Earl Jellicoe
| Chairman of the Conservative Party |
The Lord Windlesham
| Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords |
The Lord Soames
The Lord Sherfield
| Chancellor of the University of Reading |
The Marquess of Abergavenny
| Chancellor of the Order of the Garter |
The Duke of Abercorn
The Earl Jellicoe
| Father of the House of Lords |
The Lord Denham
|Peerage of Ireland|
| Baron Carrington |
|Peerage of Great Britain|
| Baron Carrington |
Member of the House of Lords