Peter Kropotkin

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Peter Kropotkin
Peter Kropotkin circa 1900.jpg
Kropotkin c. 1900 (aged 57)
Born
Prince Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin

(1842-12-09)December 9, 1842
DiedFebruary 8, 1921(1921-02-08) (aged 78)
Alma mater Saint Petersburg Imperial University (no degree) [1]
Spouse(s)Sofia Ananyeva-Rabinovich
Era
Region
School Anarcho-communism
Main interests
Notable ideas
Signature
Peter Kropotkin signature.svg

Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin ( /krˈpɒtkɪn/ ; [10] Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist, geographer [11] and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.

Revolutionary person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution

A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.

Anarcho-communism a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of capitalism, wage labour and private property

Anarcho-communism is a political philosophy and anarchist school of thought which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy, and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".

Contents

Born into an aristocratic land-owning family, he attended a military school and later served as an officer in Siberia, where he participated in several geological expeditions. He was imprisoned for his activism in 1874 and managed to escape two years later. He spent the next 41 years in exile in Switzerland, France (where he was imprisoned for almost four years) and in England. He returned to Russia after the Russian Revolution in 1917 but was disappointed by the Bolshevik form of state socialism.

Russian Revolution 20th-century revolution leading to the downfall of the Russian monarchy

The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire which started with the abolishment of monarchy and concluded with the establishment of the Soviet Union by the bolsheviks and the end of the civil war.

Kropotkin was a proponent of a decentralised communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations of self-governing communities and worker-run enterprises. He wrote many books, pamphlets, and articles, the most prominent being The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops ; and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution . He also contributed the article on anarchism to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition [12] and left unfinished a work on anarchist ethical philosophy.

<i>The Conquest of Bread</i> Book by Peter Kropotkin

The Conquest of Bread is an 1892 book by the Russian anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin. Originally written in French, it first appeared as a series of articles in the anarchist journal Le Révolté. It was first published in Paris with a preface by Élisée Reclus, who also suggested the title. Between 1892 and 1894, it was serialized in part in the London journal Freedom, of which Kropotkin was a co-founder. In the work, Kropotkin points out what he considers to be the defects of the economic systems of feudalism and capitalism and why he believes they thrive on and maintain poverty and scarcity. He goes on to propose a more decentralized economic system based on mutual aid and voluntary cooperation, asserting that the tendencies for this kind of organization already exist, both in evolution and in human society.

<i>Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution</i> book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a 1902 essay collection by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. The essays, initially published in the English periodical The Nineteenth Century between 1890 and 1896, explore the role of mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity in the animal kingdom and human societies both past and present. It is an argument against theories of social Darwinism that emphasize competition and survival of the fittest, and against the romantic depictions by writers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who thought that cooperation was motivated by universal love. Instead Kropotkin argues that mutual aid has pragmatic advantages for the survival of human and animal communities and, along with the conscience, has been promoted through natural selection.

<i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i> Eleventh Edition 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopaedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Biography

Early life

Pyotr Kropotkin was born in Moscow, into an ancient Russian princely family. His father, major general Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, was a descendant of the Smolensk branch, [13] of the Rurik dynasty which had ruled Russia before the rise of the Romanovs. Kropotkin's father owned large tracts of land and nearly 1,200 male serfs in three provinces. [14] His mother was the daughter of a Cossack general. [14]

Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.

Kropotkin family

Princes Kropotkin is an ancient Russian noble family of Rurik stock descending from Prince Dmitry Vasilyevich nicknamed Kropotka, a nephew of the last Grand Duke of Smolensk, Yuri Svyatoslavich. Princes Kropotkin are listed in the 5th part of the Kazan, Kaluga, Mogilyov, Moscow, Ryazan, Saint-Petersburg and Tula genealogical books and 2nd part of the Moscow genealogical book.

Smolensk City in Smolensk Oblast, Russia

Smolensk is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, 360 kilometers (220 mi) west-southwest of Moscow. Population: 326,861 (2010 Census); 325,137 (2002 Census); 341,483 (1989 Census).

"Under the influence of republican teachings", Kropotkin dropped his princely title at age 12, and "even rebuked his friends, when they so referred to him." [15]

Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach.

In 1857, at age 14, Kropotkin enrolled in the Corps of Pages at St. Petersburg. [16] Only 150 boys – mostly children of nobility belonging to the court – were educated in this privileged corps, which combined the character of a military school endowed with exclusive rights and of a court institution attached to the Imperial Household. Kropotkin's memoirs detail the hazing and other abuse of pages for which the Corps had become notorious. [17]

Page Corps

The Page Corps was a military academy in Imperial Russia, which prepared sons of the nobility and of senior officers for military service. Similarly, the Imperial School of Jurisprudence prepared boys for civil service. Although not established until 1943, the modern equivalent of the Page Corps and other Imperial military academies can be said to be the Suvorov Military Schools.

Hazing Rituals of humiliation used to initiate someone into a group

Hazing, initiation ceremonies, bastardisation, ragging, or deposition, refers to the practice of rituals, challenges, and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, sorority, team, or club.

In Moscow, Kropotkin developed what would become a lifelong interest in the condition of the peasantry. Although his work as a page for Tsar Alexander II made Kropotkin skeptical about the tsar's "liberal" reputation, [18] Kropotkin was greatly pleased by the tsar's decision to emancipate the serfs in 1861. [19] In St. Petersburg, he read widely on his own account and gave special attention to the works of the French encyclopædists and French history. The years 1857–1861 witnessed a growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, and Kropotkin came under the influence of the new liberal-revolutionary literature, which largely expressed his own aspirations. [20]

In 1862, Kropotkin graduated first in his class from the Corps of Pages and entered the Tsarist army. [21] The members of the corps had the prescriptive right to choose the regiment to which they would be attached. Following a desire to "be someone useful", Kropotkin chose the difficult route of serving in a Cossack regiment in eastern Siberia. [21] For some time, he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita. Later he was appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk. [22]

Geographical expeditions in Siberia

Kropotkin in 1864 Peter Kropotkin 1864.png
Kropotkin in 1864

The administrator under whom Kropotkin served, General Boleslar Kazimirovich Kukel (1829–1869), was a liberal and a democrat who maintained personal connections to various Russian radical political figures exiled to Siberia. These included the writer M. I. Mikhailov (1826–1865), to whom Kukel sent Kropotkin to warn the exiled intellectual that Moscow police agents were on the scene to examine his ongoing political activities in confinement. [23] As a result of this assignment, Kropotkin made the acquaintance of Mikhailov, who provided the young Tsarist functionary with a copy of a book by the French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon — Kropotkin's first introduction to anarchist ideas. [23] Kukel was subsequently dismissed from his administrative position, and Kropotkin moved from administration to state-sponsored scientific endeavors. [23]

In 1864 Kropotkin accepted a position in a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and soon was attached to another expedition up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria. The expeditions yielded valuable geographical results. The impossibility of obtaining any real administrative reforms in Siberia now induced Kropotkin to devote himself almost entirely to scientific exploration, in which he continued to be highly successful. [24]

Kropotkin continued his political reading, including works by such prominent liberal thinkers as John Stuart Mill and Alexander Herzen. These readings, along with his experiences among peasants in Siberia, led him to declare himself an anarchist by 1872. [25]

In 1867, Kropotkin resigned his commission in the army and returned to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Saint Petersburg Imperial University to study mathematics, becoming at the same time secretary to the geography section of the Russian Geographical Society. [26] His departure from a family tradition of military service prompted his father to disinherit him, "leaving him a 'prince' with no visible means of support". [27]

In 1871, Kropotkin explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Society. [26] In 1873, he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he showed that the existing maps entirely misrepresented the physical features of Asia; the main structural lines were in fact from southwest to northeast, not from north to south or from east to west as had been previously supposed. During this work, he was offered the secretaryship of the Society, but he had decided that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existing knowledge among the people at large. Accordingly, he refused the offer and returned to St. Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party. [28]

Activism in Switzerland and France

Kropotkin visited Switzerland in 1872 and became a member of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA) at Geneva. However, he found that he did not like IWA's style of socialism. Instead, he studied the programme of the more radical Jura federation at Neuchâtel and spent time in the company of the leading members, and adopted the creed of anarchism. [29]

Activism in Russia and arrest

On returning to Russia, Kropotkin's friend Dmitri Klements introduced him to the Circle of Tchaikovsky, a socialist/populist group created in 1872. Kropotkin worked to spread revolutionary propaganda among peasants and workers and acted as a bridge between the Circle and the aristocracy. Throughout this period, Kropotkin maintained his position within the Geographical Society in order to provide cover for his activities. [30]

In 1872, Kropotkin was arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress for subversive political activity, as a result of his work with the Circle of Tchaikovsky. Because of his aristocratic background, he received special privileges in prison, such as permission to continue his geographical work in his cell. He delivered his report on the subject of the Ice Age in 1876, where he argued that it had taken place in not as distant a past as initially thought. [31]

Escape and exile

In 1876, just before his trial, Kropotkin was moved to a low-security prison in St. Petersburg, from which he escaped with the help of his friends. On the night of the escape, Kropotkin and his friends celebrated by dining in one of the finest restaurants in St. Petersburg, assuming correctly that the police would not think to look for them there. After this, he boarded a boat and headed to England. [32] After a short stay there, he moved to Switzerland where he joined the Jura Federation. In 1877, he moved to Paris, where he helped start the socialist movement. In 1878, he returned to Switzerland where he edited the Jura Federation's revolutionary newspaper Le Révolté and published various revolutionary pamphlets. [33]

Kropotkin by Nadar Kropotkin Nadar.png
Kropotkin by Nadar

In 1881, shortly after the assassination of Tsar Alexander II, he was expelled from Switzerland. After a short stay at Thonon (Savoy), he stayed in London for nearly a year. [34] He attended the Anarchist Congress in London from July 14, 1881. [35] Other delegates included Marie Le Compte, Errico Malatesta, Saverio Merlino, Louise Michel, Nicholas Tchaikovsky, and Émile Gautier. While respecting "complete autonomy of local groups", the congress defined propaganda actions that all could follow and agreed that propaganda by the deed was the path to social revolution. [35] The Radical of July 23, 1881 reported that the congress met on July 18 at the Cleveland Hall, Fitzroy Square, with speeches by Marie Le Compte, "the transatlantic agitator", Louise Michel, and Kropotkin. [36] Later Le Compte and Kropotkin gave talks to the Homerton Social Democratic Club and the Stratford Radical and Dialectical Club. [37]

Kropotkin returned to Thonon in late 1882. Soon he was arrested by the French government, tried at Lyon, and sentenced by a police-court magistrate (under a special law passed on the fall of the Paris Commune) to five years' imprisonment, on the ground that he had belonged to the IWA (1883). The French Chamber repeatedly agitated on his behalf, and he was released in 1886. He was invited to Britain by Henry Seymour and Charlotte Wilson and all three worked on Seymour's The Anarchist. Soon after Wilson and Kropotkin would split from the individualist anarchist Seymour and found the Freedom Press, an anarchist newspaper which continues to this day. Kropotkin was a regular contributor while Wilson was integral to the administrative and financial running of the paper until she resigned its editorship in 1895. He settled near London, living at various times in Harrow, then Bromley, where his daughter and only child, Alexandra, was born on April 15, 1887. [38] [39] He also lived for many years in Brighton. [40] While living in London, Kropotkin became friends with a number of prominent English-speaking socialists, including William Morris and George Bernard Shaw. [41]

In 1916 Kropotkin and Jean Grave drafted a document -Manifesto of the Sixteen- which advocated an Allied victory over Germany and the Central Powers during the First World War. Because of the Manifesto, Kropotkin found him self isolated by the mainstream [42] of the anarchist movement. [43]

Return to Russia

Kropotkin in Haparanda, 1917 Krapotkin in Haparanda.jpg
Kropotkin in Haparanda, 1917

In 1917, after the February Revolution, Kropotkin returned to Russia after 40 years of exile. His arrival was greeted by cheering crowds of tens of thousands of people. He was offered the ministry of education in the Provisional Government, which he promptly refused, feeling that working with them would be a violation of his anarchist principles. [44]

His enthusiasm for the changes occurring in the Russian Empire expanded when Bolsheviks seized power in the October Revolution. He had this to say about the October Revolution: "During all the activities of the present revolutionary political parties we must never forget that the October movement of the proletariat, which ended in a revolution, has proved to everybody that a social revolution is within the bounds of possibility. And this struggle, which takes place worldwide, has to be supported by all means - all the rest is secondary. The party of the Bolsheviks was right to adopt the old, purely proletarian name of "Communist Party". Even if it does not achieve everything that it would like to, it will nevertheless enlighten the path of the civilised countries for at least a century. Its ideas will slowly be adopted by the peoples in the same way as in the nineteenth century the world adopted the ideas of the Great French Revolution. That is the colossal achievement of the October Revolution." .... "I see the October Revolution as an attempt to bring the preceding February Revolution to its logical conclusion with a transition to communism and federalism." [45]

Even though he led a life on the margins of the revolutionary upheaval, Kropotkin became increasingly critical of the methods of the Bolshevik dictatorship and went on to express these feelings in writing. “Unhappily, this effort has been made in Russia under a strongly centralized party dictatorship. This effort was made in the same way as the extremely centralized and Jacobin endeavor of Babeuf. I owe it to you to say frankly that, according to my view, this effort to build a communist republic on the basis of a strongly centralized state communism under the iron law of party dictatorship is bound to end in failure. We are learning to know in Russia how not to introduce communism, even with a people tired of the old regime and opposing no active resistance to the experiments of the new rulers.” [46]

Death

Kropotkin's friend and comrade Emma Goldman, accompanied by Alexander Berkman, delivers a eulogy before crowds at Kropotkin's funeral in Moscow. Emma Goldman gives eulogy at Peter Kropotkin's funeral.jpg
Kropotkin's friend and comrade Emma Goldman, accompanied by Alexander Berkman, delivers a eulogy before crowds at Kropotkin's funeral in Moscow.

Kropotkin died of pneumonia on February 8, 1921, in the city of Dmitrov, and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. Thousands of people marched in his funeral procession, including, with Vladimir Lenin's approval, [47] anarchists carrying banners with anti-Bolshevik slogans. [48] The occasion, the last public demonstration of anarchists in Soviet Russia, saw engaged speeches by Emma Goldman and Aron Baron. In some versions of Peter Kropotkin's [49] Conquest of Bread, the mini-biography states that this would be the last time that Kropotkin's supporters would be allowed to freely rally in public.

In 1957 the Dvorets Sovetov station of the Moscow Metro was renamed Kropotkinskaya in his honor. [50]

Philosophy

Critique of capitalism

Kropotkin pointed out what he considered to be the fallacies of the economic systems of feudalism and capitalism. He believed they create poverty and artificial scarcity while promoting privilege. Instead, he proposed a more decentralized economic system based on mutual aid, mutual support, and voluntary cooperation, asserting that the tendencies for this kind of organization already exist, both in evolution and in human society. [51]

He disagreed with the Marxian critique of capitalism, including the labour theory of value, believing there was no necessary link between work performed and the prices of commodities. His attacks on the institution of wage-labour were based more on the power employers exerted over employees – which he claimed was made possible by the state protecting private ownership of productive resources – than the extraction of surplus value from their labour. [52]

Cooperation and competition

In 1902, Kropotkin published his book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution , which provided an alternative view of animal and human survival, beyond the claims of interpersonal competition and natural hierarchy proffered at the time by some "social Darwinists" such as Francis Galton. He argued that "it was an evolutionary emphasis on cooperation instead of competition in the Darwinian sense that made for the success of species, including the human". [53]

In the last chapter, he wrote: [54]

In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species[...] in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits[...] and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development[...] are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution. The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay.

Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902), Conclusion.

Kropotkin did not deny the presence of competitive urges in humans, but he did not see them as the driving force of history. [55] :262 He believed that seeking out conflict proved to be socially beneficial only in attempts to destroy unjust, authoritarian institutions such as the State or the Church, which he saw as stifling human creativity and impeding human instinctual drive towards cooperation. [56]

Kropotkin's observations of cooperative tendencies in indigenous peoples (pre-feudal, feudal, and those remaining in modern societies) led him to conclude that not all human societies were based on competition, such as those of industrialized Europe, and that many societies exhibited cooperation among individuals and groups as the norm. He also concluded that most pre-industrial and pre-authoritarian societies (where he claimed that leadership, central government, and class did not exist) actively defend against the accumulation of private property by, for example, equally distributing within the community a person's possessions when he died, or by not allowing a gift to be sold, bartered or used to create wealth (see Gift economy). [57]

Mutual aid

In his 1892 book The Conquest of Bread , Kropotkin proposed a system of economics based on mutual exchanges made in a system of voluntary cooperation. He believed that should a society be socially, culturally, and industrially developed enough to produce all the goods and services required by it, then no obstacle, such as preferential distribution, pricing or monetary exchange will prevent everyone to take what they need from the social product. He supported the eventual abolition of money or tokens of exchange for goods and services. [58]

Kropotkin believed that Bakunin's collectivist economic model was just a wage system by a different name [59] and that such a system would breed the same type of centralization and inequality as a capitalist wage system. He stated that it is impossible to determine the value of an individual's contributions to the products of social labor, and thought that anyone who was placed in a position of trying to make such determinations would wield authority over those whose wages they determined. [60]

According to Kirkpatrick Sale: [53]

With Mutual Aid especially, and later with Fields, Factories, and Workshops , Kropotkin was able to move away from the absurdist limitations of individual anarchism and no-laws anarchism that had flourished during this period and provide instead a vision of communal anarchism, following the models of independent cooperative communities he discovered while developing his theory of mutual aid. It was an anarchism that opposed centralized government and state-level laws as traditional anarchism did, but understood that at a certain small scale, communities and communes and co-ops could flourish and provide humans with a rich material life and wide areas of liberty without centralized control.

Self-sufficiency

Kropotkin's focus on local production led to his view that a country should strive for self-sufficiency  manufacture its own goods and grow its own food, lessening dependence on imports. To these ends, he advocated irrigation and greenhouses to boost local food production ability. [61]

Works

The Conquest of Bread by Peter Kropotkin, influential work which presents the economic vision of anarcho-communism La conquete du pain.jpg
The Conquest of Bread by Peter Kropotkin, influential work which presents the economic vision of anarcho-communism

Books

Pamphlets

Articles

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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  10. "Kropotkin". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  11. Stoddart, D. R. (1975). "Kropotkin, Reclus, and 'Relevant' Geography". Area. 7 (3): 188–190. JSTOR   20001005.
  12. Peter Kropotkin entry on 'anarchism' from the Encyclopædia Britannica (eleventh ed.), Internet Archive. Public Domain text.
  13. Woodcock, George & Avakumović, Ivan (1990). Peter Kropotkin: From Prince to Rebel. Black Rose Books. p. 13. ISBN   9780921689607.
  14. 1 2 Harman, Oren (2011). The Price of Altruism: George Price and the Search for the Origins of Kindness. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 20. ISBN   9780393339994.
  15. Roger N. Baldwin, "The Story of Kropotkin's Life," in Kropotkin's Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings, ed. by Baldwin (Orig. 1927; Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1970), p. 13.
  16. Martin A. Miller, "Introduction" to P. A. Kropotkin, Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970; p. 7.
  17. Kropotkin, Peter (1899). Memoirs of a Revolutionist. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 63.
  18. Winkle, Justin, ed. (2009). "Kropotkin, Petr Alexseyevich". The Concise New Makers of Modern Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 425. ISBN   9780415477826.
  19. Todes, Daniel Philip (1989). Darwin Without Malthus: The Struggle for Existence in Russian Evolutionary Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 124. ISBN   9780195058307.
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  21. 1 2 Miller, "Introduction," pg. 8.
  22. Kropotkin, Peter (1899). Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company. p. 198.
  23. 1 2 3 Miller, "Introduction," p. 9.
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  25. Ward, Dana (2010). "Alchemy in Clarens: Kropotkin and Reclus, 1877–1881". In Jun, Nathan J. & Wahl, Shane (eds.). New Perspectives on Anarchism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 211. ISBN   9780739132418.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  26. 1 2 Marshall, Peter (2010). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. PM Press. p. 311. ISBN   9781604860641.
  27. Riggenbach, Jeff (March 4, 2011). "The Anarchism of Peter Kropotkin". Mises Daily. Ludwig von Mises Institute.
  28. Kropotkin, Peter (1899). Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company. pp. 235–236.
  29. Kropotkin, Peter (1899). Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company. pp. 282–287.
  30. Cahm, Caroline (2002). Kropotkin: And the Rise of Revolutionary Anarchism, 1872–1886. Cambridge University Press. p. 44. ISBN   9780521891578.
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  32. Bell, Jeffrey A. (2002). "Kropotkin, Pyotr". In Bell, Jeffrey A. (ed.). Industrialization and Imperialism, 1800–1914: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 199. ISBN   9780313314513.
  33. Kropotkin, Peter (1899). Memoirs of a Revolutionist. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company. pp. 417–423.
  34. Kropotkin, Peter (2010). Memoirs of a Revolutionist. reproduction of 1899 edition. Dover Publications. p. 440. ISBN   978-0-486-47316-1.
  35. 1 2 Bantman, Constance (2006). "Internationalism without an International? Cross-Channel Anarchist Networks, 1880–1914" (PDF). Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire. 84 (84–4): 965. doi:10.3406/rbph.2006.5056.
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  38. "Alexandra Kropotkin" Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America by Paul Avrich (2005) AK Press pps. 16-18; Retrieved May 8, 2017
  39. Bromley Council guide to blue plaques
  40. Peter Marshall Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism , London: Fontana, 1993, p.315
  41. Gibbs, A. (2001). A Bernard Shaw Chronology. Springer. p. 365. ISBN   9780230599581.
  42. peter marshall, p 332, Demanding the impossible 1993
  43. THE PALGRAVE HANDBOOK OF ANARCHISM, Edited by Carl Levy and Matthew S. Adams, page 404 publication Palgrave Macmillan, 2019
  44. Burbank, Jane (1989). Intelligentsia and Revolution: Russian Views of Bolshevism, 1917–1922. Oxford University Press. p. 99. ISBN   9780195045734.
  45. "A meeting between V.I. Lenin and P. A. Kropotkin".
  46. "Letter to the Workers of Western Europe", in Kropotkin's Revolutionary Pamphlets. Dover Publications Inc. 1970. p. 254. ISBN   9780486225197.
  47. Goldman, Emma (1931). Living My Life. Dover Publications. pp. 867–868. ISBN   978-0-486-22543-2.
  48. "Papers of William Wess". cdm21047.contentdm.oclc.org.
  49. "The Biography of Prince Pyotr Kropotkin". July 9, 2016.
  50. Muscovites Step Up Effort To Rename Metro Station Honoring Tsar's Killer.
  51. Kropotkin, Peter (1902). Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. p. 223.
  52. Bekken, John (2009). Radical Economics and Labour. Chapter 2: Peter Kropotkin's anarchist economics for a new society. London & New York: Routledge. p. 223. ISBN   978-0-415-77723-0.
  53. 1 2 Sale, Kirkpatrick (July 1, 2010) Are Anarchists Revolting?, The American Conservative
  54. Kropotkin, Peter (1902). quotation from Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution.
  55. Gallaher, Carolyn; Dahlman, Carl T.; Gilmartin, Mary; Mountz, Alison; Shirlow, Peter (2009). Key Concepts in Political Geography. London: SAGE. p. 392. ISBN   978-1-4129-4672-8 . Retrieved July 31, 2014.
  56. Vucinich, Alexander (1988). Darwin in Russian Thought. University of California Press. p. 349. ISBN   9780520062832.
  57. Morris, David. Anarchism Is Not What You Think It Is – And There's a Whole Lot We Can Learn from It, AlterNet, February 13, 2012
  58. Kropotkin, Peter (1892). The Conquest of Bread. p. 201.
  59. Kropotkin wrote: "After the Collectivist Revolution instead of saying 'twopence' worth of soap, we shall say 'five minutes' worth of soap." (quoted in Brauer, Fae (2009). "Wild Beasts and Tame Primates: 'Le Douanier' Rosseau's Dream of Darwin's Evolution". In Larsen, Barbara Jean (ed.). The Art of Evolution: Darwin, Darwinisms, and Visual Culture. UPNE. p. 211. ISBN   9781584657750.)
  60. Avrich, Paul (2005). The Russian Anarchists. AK Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN   9781904859482.
  61. Adams, Matthew S. (June 4, 2015). Kropotkin, Read, and the Intellectual History of British Anarchism: Between Reason and Romanticism. Springer. ISBN   9781137392626.

Further reading

Books on Kropotkin

Journal articles