Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich

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Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
Peter Quasdanovich.jpg
Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich
Born12 June 1738 (1738-06-12)
Sichelberg (Žumberak), modern-day Croatia
Died13 August 1802 (1802-08-14) (aged 64)
Vienna, Austria
Allegiance Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Habsburg Monarchy
Years of service1752–1797
RankFeldmarschall-Leutnant
Battles/wars
Awards Military Order of Maria Theresa, Knight (1779), Commander (1795)

Peter Vitus Freiherr von Quosdanovich (Croatian: Petar Vid Gvozdanović; 12 June 1738 – 13 August 1802) was a Croatian nobleman and general of the Habsburg Monarchy. He achieved the rank of Feldmarschall-Lieutenant and was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa. He played a major role in several battles against the French Army of Italy led by Napoleon during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Croatian language South Slavic language

Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.

Habsburg Monarchy former Central European country (1526–1804)

Habsburg Monarchy is an umbrella term used by historians for the lands and kingdoms of the House of Habsburg, especially for those of the Austrian branch. Although from 1438 until 1806 the head of the House of Habsburg was also Holy Roman Emperor, the empire itself is not considered a part of the Habsburg Monarchy.

Military Order of Maria Theresa order of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

The Military Order of Maria Theresa was the highest military honour of the Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Contents

Early years

Petar Vid Gvozdanović was born in Žumberak (Sichelburg) in modern-day Croatia, and joined the Varaždin Grenz Hussar Regiment # 41 in 1752. He fought in the Seven Years' War. He distinguished himself in the War of the Bavarian Succession of 1778-9. He was promoted to colonel of the Slavonian Hussar regiment and decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa. He fought during the Austro–Turkish War (1787–1791), becoming a General-Major and taking over the command of Alt Gradisca. He was a relative of Karl Paul von Quosdanovich.

Varaždin City in Varaždin County, Croatia

Varaždin is a city in Northern Croatia, 81 km (50 mi) north of Zagreb. The total population is 46,946, with 38,839 on 34.22 km2 (13.21 sq mi) of the city settlement itself (2011). The centre of Varaždin County is located near the Drava River, at 46.312°N 16.361°E. It is mainly known for its baroque buildings, music, textile, food and IT industry.

Grenz infantry or Grenzers were light infantry troops who came from the Military Frontier in the Habsburg Monarchy. This borderland formed a buffer zone between Christian Europe and the Ottoman Empire, and the troops were originally raised to defend Austria against the Ottoman Turks. When there was no danger of war against the Ottomans, the Grenzer regiments were employed by the Habsburgs in other theatres of war, although one battalion of each regiment would always remain guarding the border.

Hussar light cavalry specialized in scouting and raiding

A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The title and distinctive dress of these horsemen were subsequently widely adopted by light cavalry regiments in European armies in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

Wars with France

During the War of the First Coalition Quosdanovich first commanded a brigade, then a division. At the crucial defeat at Fleurus he commanded the second column. On 24 September 1795, while leading a division, he scored an impressive victory over two French divisions at the Battle of Handschuhsheim (now a district of Heidelberg). In July 1796 he transferred to Italy, where he led a corps under Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser and József Alvinczi in four attempts to break the French Siege of Mantua. In the first, he lost the Battle of Lonato after a complicated series of maneuvers between 29 July and 4 August 1796. During the second relief, he participated in the Battle of Bassano on 8 September, but avoided being trapped in Mantua with Wurmser. In the third relief of Mantua he led the Friaul Corps in the Second Battle of Bassano and the Battle of Arcole. He led two brigades at the crucial Battle of Rivoli. [1] [2] [3] He retired from the army in 1797 and died at Vienna on 13 August 1802. [4]

War of the First Coalition 1790s war to contain Revolutionary France

The War of the First Coalition is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic. Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.

Battle of Fleurus (1794) battle in 1794

The Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, was an engagement between the army of the First French Republic, under General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and the Coalition Army, commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, in the most significant battle of the Flanders Campaign in the Low Countries during the French Revolutionary Wars. Both sides had forces in the area of around 80,000 men but the French were able to concentrate their troops and defeat the First Coalition. The Allied defeat led to the permanent loss of the Austrian Netherlands and to the destruction of the Dutch Republic. The battle marked a turning point for the French army, which remained ascendant for the rest of the War of the First Coalition. The French use of the reconnaissance balloon l'Entreprenant was the first military use of an aircraft that influenced the result of a battle.

The Battle of Handschuhsheim or Battle of Heidelberg saw an 8,000-man force from Habsburg Austria under Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich face 12,000 men from the Republican French army led by Georges Joseph Dufour. Thanks to a devastating cavalry charge, the Austrians routed the French with disproportionate losses. The fight occurred during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. Handschuhsheim is now a district of Heidelberg, but it was a village north of the city in 1795.

See also

Croatian nobility privileged social class in Croatia during the Antiquity and Medieval periods of the countrys history

Croatian nobility was a privileged social class in Croatia during the Antiquity and Medieval periods of the country's history. Noble families in the Kingdom of Croatia included high ranking populates from Slavonia, Dalmatia, Istria, Bosnia and Republic of Ragusa. Members belonged to an elite social hierarchy, normally placed immediately behind blood royalty, that possessed considerably more privileges or eminence than most other classes in a society. Membership thereof typically was often hereditary. Historically, membership in the nobility and the prerogatives thereof have been regulated or acknowledged by the monarch. Acquisition of sufficient power, wealth, military prowess or royal favour enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. The country's royalty was heavily influenced by France's nobility resulting members of the Royal Courts to assume French titles and practices during French occupation. The controversial assumption of French practices contributed to wide spread political and social elitism among the nobles and monarch. The nobility regarded the peasant class as an unseen and irrelevant substrata of people which lead to high causality revolts and beheadings as well as sporadic periods of intense domestic violence.

Footnotes

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Karl Paul von Quosdanovich

Karlo Pavao Gvozdanović was a Croatian nobleman and general in the Habsburg Monarchy imperial army service. He achieved the rank of major general and was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa in 1801 and the Commander's Cross of the same order of merit in 1814.

References

Books

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External sources