A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Petras (Greek : Πετράς) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan town on northeastern Crete.
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
The Minoan civilization represents the first advanced civilization in Europe. It gave rise to massive building complexes, tools, sophisticated artwork, seafaring ships and ship building technology, and writing systems, much of which has endured as archaeological treasures. It established an extensive trade network, with copper, fishing and architecture as specialties. The Minoans were instrumental in bringing early Greek culture and mythos to many neighboring peoples. Much of the information on this culture has been misrepresented in the works and contentions of many scientific and theological interests, which have left out much definitive evidence and as a result, the less provable aspects are more widely known or accepted.
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065.
Petras is just east of the modern Cretan town, Siteia. The site is situated on top of a small plateau and overlooks the sea north of Crete.
Metaxia Tsipopoulou began excavations at Petras in 1985.
The main building, which was two stories when it stood, is 2800 square meters.
Petras has a drainage system, double staircases, dadoes, frescoes and cut slab pavements. Marks appear on the architecture of double axes, stars, branches, double triangles and Linear A signs. Petras has yielded 3 Linear A tablets from its archives, plus a few other short Linear A texts.
Linear A is a writing system used by the Minoans (Cretans) from 1800 to 1450 BC that belongs to an independent group that is distinct from Egyptian and Babylonian systems. During the second millennium, there are four major branches: the Cretan Hieroglyphic Script, Linear A, Linear B, and Cypro-Minoan. Along with Cretan hieroglyphic, it is one of two undeciphered writing systems used by ancient Minoan and peripheral peoples. Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. It is related to the Linear B script, which succeeded the Linear A and was used by the Mycenaean civilization.
A hieroglyphic archive inscribed in Cretan hieroglyphs was excavated starting in 1995. According to the excavator, Metaxia Tsipopoulou, the archive was still in use at the time of palace destruction. Definitive edition was published in 2010.
Cretan hieroglyphs are generally considered undeciphered hieroglyphs found on artefacts of early Bronze Age Crete, during the Minoan era. It predates Linear A by about a century, but the two writing systems continued to be used in parallel for most of their history.
The central building shares many of the features that are used to identify a Minoan palace apart from a regular building: pier and door partitions, alternating columns and pillars, and ashlar masonry.
Additions and building modifications were occurring as late as Late Minoan IB.
Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
Pyrgos is an archaeological site of the Minoan civilization near Myrtos in the municipality of Ierapetra on the south coast of Crete.
Gournia is the site of a Minoan palace complex on the island of Crete, Greece, excavated in the early 20th century by the American archaeologist, Harriet Boyd-Hawes. The original name for the site is unknown. The modern name comes from the abundant hollow vessels found all over the site. Gournia lies in the municipality of Ierapetra in the prefecture of Lasithi.
Sitia is a port town and a municipality in Lasithi, Crete, Greece. The town has 9,912 inhabitants (2011) and the municipality has 18,318 (2011). It lies east of Agios Nikolaos and northeast of Ierapetra. Sitia port is on the Sea of Crete, part of the Aegean Sea and is one of the economic centers of the Lasithi region. European route E75, which ends in Vardø, starts in Sitia. Sitia is served by the Sitia Public Airport. Sitia has not experienced the effects of mass tourism even though there is a long beach along the road leading to Vai and several places of historical interest.
The Minoan language is the language of the ancient Minoan civilization of Crete written in the Cretan hieroglyphs and later in the Linear A syllabary. As the Cretan hieroglyphs are undeciphered and Linear A only partly deciphered, the Minoan language is unknown and unclassified: indeed, with the existing evidence, it seems impossible to be certain that the two scripts record the same language, or even that a single language is recorded in each. The Eteocretan language, attested in a few alphabetic inscriptions from Crete 1,000 years later, is possibly a descendant of Minoan, but it is itself unclassified.
Karfi is an archaeological site high up in the Dikti Mountains in eastern Crete, Greece. The ancient name of the site is unknown; "Karfi" is a local toponym for the prominent knob of limestone that marks the peak of the site, especially when viewed from the north. Located approximately 1100 meters above sea level, and overlooking the northern entrance to the Lasithi Plateau, the dramatic situation of Karfi is somewhat akin to that of the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu in Peru. While there is some evidence that the site was used during the Middle Minoan period as a peak sanctuary, Karfi is best known as a large and extensively excavated town of the Late Minoan IIIC period at the beginning of the Greek "Dark Ages."
Sklavokampos is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan settlement in Crete, used during the Late Minoan period.
Vasiliki is the name of a village in the municipality of Ierapetra, in the prefecture of Lasithi, on Crete, and the name of the nearby Minoan archeological site. The site took its name from the village.
Achladia is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan villa on eastern Crete.
Mochlos is a modern island in the Gulf of Mirabello in eastern Crete, and the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan settlement. There is evidence that Mochlos was not an island in Minoan times, but was attached to the mainland and acted as an eastern harbor.
Monastiraki is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan town on the island of Crete.
Apesokari is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan cemetery. It is also a modern village with a population of 103 (2011) and is built at 155 m above sea level. It is in the municipality of Gortyna in the south of Heraklion regional unit, Greece.
Armeni is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan cemetery on Crete, roughly eight kilometers south of the modern town of Rethymnon.
Vathypetro is an archaeological site, four kilometres south of the town of Archanes on Crete (Greece). It contains some of the oldest wine presses in the world. Excavations began in 1949 by the Greek archaeologist Spyridon Marinatos. The estate contains a manor house or villa which had a prominent role in the rural region around Archanes. The complex consists of several buildings, courtyards and workshop spaces. Next to the individual houses is the Minoan wine press, a plant for the production of olive, a Minoan kiln and ceramics, and the remains of an ancient pottery workshop.
The Heraklion Archaeological Museum is a museum located in Heraklion on Crete. It is one of the greatest museums in Greece and the best in the world for Minoan art, as it contains the most notable and complete collection of artefacts of the Minoan civilization of Crete.
The Minoan chronology dating system is a measure of the phases of the Minoan civilization. Initially established as a relative dating system by English archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans between 1900 and 1903 via pottery and artifact analysis during his excavations at Knossos on Crete, new technologies including carbon dating and DNA analysis have lead to significant revisions to the date ranges.
Priniatikos Pyrgos is an archaeological site near Istron River, in the eastern Cretan regional unit of Lasithi, (Greece). The nearest big town is Agios Nikolaos, Crete. The site is on a coastal promontory. It appears to have been first settled in the Final Neolithic, circa 3000 BC. Nearby, there's a small resort town of Kalo Chorio, Lasithi. It is not to be confused with Myrtos Pyrgos on the south coast.
Roussolakkos is the site of an important Minoan city, located near to Palekastro, Crete. It is the only Minoan city to have survived intact. Its harbor, outlying settlements, sanctuaries and quarries are preserved under sediments accumulating over more than 2,000 years. It was here, the ancient authors tell us, that Diktaian Zeus was born and where this young god founded his holy city. A temple to Zeus was built at the nearby Elaea promontory. It was also here that Jason and the Argonauts confronted Talos, the man of bronze, a generation before the Trojan War.
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