Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Last updated
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy

Петропавловск-Камчатский
Tri vulkana.JPG
Aerial view of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy with the Koryaksky volcano
Flag of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Kamchatka krai).png
Flag
Gerb pk.jpg
Coat of arms
Location of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Russia edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy
Location of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy
Outline Map of Kamchatka Krai.png
Red pog.svg
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy (Kamchatka Krai)
Coordinates: 53°01′N158°39′E / 53.017°N 158.650°E / 53.017; 158.650 Coordinates: 53°01′N158°39′E / 53.017°N 158.650°E / 53.017; 158.650
Country Russia
Federal subject Kamchatka Krai
FoundedOctober 17, 1740
Government
  Body City Duma
  HeadSergey Kondrashin
Area
  Total362.14 km2 (139.82 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
  Total179,780
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
181,216 (+0.8%)
  Rank 100th in 2010
  Density500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
  Subordinated toPetropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy City Under Krai Jurisdiction [1]
   Capital ofKamchatka Krai [1] , Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy City Under Krai Jurisdiction [1]
  Urban okrugPetropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Urban Okrug [4]
   Capital ofPetropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Urban Okrug [4]
Time zone UTC+12 (MSK+9   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [5] )
Postal code(s) [6]
683000 (main)
Dialing code(s) +7 4152
OKTMO ID30701000001
City DayOctober 17
Website pkgo.ru

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy (Russian:Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский, tr. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy,IPA:  [pʲɪtrɐˈpavləfsk kɐmˈtɕatskʲɪj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Its population is 179,780.

Contents

The city is widely known simply as Petropavlovsk (literally "city of Peter and Paul"). The adjective Kamchatsky ("Kamchatkan") was added to the official name in 1924.

Geography

The city is situated on high hills and surrounded by volcanoes. The surrounding terrain is mountainous enough that the horizon cannot be seen clearly from any point in town. Across Avacha Bay from the city in Vilyuchinsk is Russia's largest submarine base, the Rybachiy Nuclear Submarine Base, established during the Soviet period and still used by the Russian Navy. [7] The city is located 6,766 kilometres (4,204 mi) from Moscow and about 2,220 kilometres (1,380 mi) from Vladivostok.

History

Section of Mikhail Tebenkov's 1872 Petropavlovsk harbor chart Tebenkov-Petropavlosk.png
Section of Mikhail Tebenkov's 1872 Petropavlovsk harbor chart

Cossack units visited the area from 1697. The explorer and navigator Captain Vitus Bering (a Dane in the service of the Imperial Russian Navy) is considered[ by whom? ] to have founded the city in 1740, although navigator Ivan Fomich Yelagin  [ ru ] had laid the foundation a few months earlier. Bering reached Avacha Bay in late 1740 and in his capacity as the superior officer, named the new settlement "Petropavlovsk" (Peter and Paul) after his two ships, the St. Peter and the St. Paul , which had been built in Okhotsk for his second expedition of 1733–1742. The town's location on the eastern coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, on the sheltered Avacha Bay and at the mouth of the Avacha River, saw it develop to become the most important settlement in Kamchatka. It gained town status on April 9, 1812.

During the 1853–1855 Crimean War, Anglo-French forces put the city under siege (August–September 1854), but it never fell. The city had been fortified under the overall command of Nikolay Muravyov (Governor-General of the Eastern Siberia Governorate-General  [ ru ] from 1847 to 1861) in the preceding years, but possessed only a small garrison of a few hundred soldiers and sixty-seven cannon. After much exchange of fire, six hundred Anglo-French troops landed south of the city; two hundred and thirty Russian troops forced them to retreat after heavy fighting (1 September 1854). Four days later, a larger force of nine hundred Anglo-French troops landed east of the town, but again the Russians repelled the allies (5 September 1854). The allied ships then retreated from Russian Pacific waters (7 September 1854). The total Russian losses were reported[ by whom? ] at around a hundred men; the Anglo-French were said to have lost at least five times that number. [8]

At the time of the surrender of Japan in World War II (August/September 1945), United States Naval Construction Battalion 114 was in the Aleutians. In September 1945 the battalion received orders to send a detachment to the USSR to build a Naval Advance Base (a Fleet Weather Central) [9] – located ten miles outside Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy and code-named TAMA. [10] The original agreement gave the Seabees three weeks to complete the camp. Upon arrival the Soviets told the Seabees they had ten days, and were amazed that the Seabees achieved the task. [10] It was one of two that Stalin agreed to. The other was near Khabarovsk, in buildings provided by the Russians. [10] For mail Petropavlovsk was assigned Navy number 1169, FPO San Francisco. [11] The American use of these two bases proved short-lived.

Petropavlovsk was a great source of fish, particularly salmon, and crab meat for the Soviet Union in the 20th century. Following the end of the Soviet era in December 1991, fishing rights have also been granted to foreign interests. Poaching of salmon for their caviar at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy remains a problem amid lax law-enforcement and widespread corruption. [12]

Association football has a history in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy. The main stadium in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy is the 5,000-capacity Spartak Stadium – used mostly for association-football matches. The former association-football club FC Volcano were tenants of the stadium.

Administrative and municipal status

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy is the administrative center of the krai. [1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy City Under Krai Jurisdiction —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy City Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Urban Okrug. [4]

Tourism

The city has developed a tourist infrastructure. About twenty large tourism companies offer a wide range of services from bear hunting to paragliding. No roads connect the Kamchatka Peninsula to the rest of the world. Travel to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy is expensive but is growing in popularity because of the remarkable scenery throughout the peninsula. The city is served by Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Airport, which is linked to the town and its port via the A-401 road. During the warmer months cruise ships regularly stop there for the day.

Demographics

Ethnic Russians make up the majority of the population; the city on its own has more inhabitants than the entire neighboring Chukotka Autonomous Okrug or Magadan Oblast.

The population numbered 179,780 in 2010; 179,800 in 2011; 179,784 in 2012; and 181,618 in 2013.

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky night panorama.jpg
Panorama of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy at night

Climate

The climate at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy reasonably qualifies as cool-summer continental boreal climate (Köppen Dfc). However, this area's climate has strong oceanic influences due its proximity to the Pacific ocean. Average annual precipitation is 1,180 millimeters (46 in), or about 3 12 times as much as most of Siberia averages, mostly falling as frozen precipitation, primarily snow, from November to April. Average monthly precipitation is highest in autumn, with October the wettest month on average, closely followed by November. May through July are markedly the driest months on average; June is the single driest month. Winter temperatures are much milder than in Siberia. Here, average January daytime high temperatures are around −4.4 °C (24.1 °F), while average daytime high temperature in August, the warmest month, is 17 °C (63 °F). Thus, resulting from oceanic cooling, summer daytime high temperatures in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy are markedly cooler than in interior Siberia. In warmer-summer years, monthly high averages in July–August can reach 18 °C (64 °F) and higher. Days of above 20 °C (68 °F) can be expected an average of 19.6 days per summer. [13]

Despite the generally high precipitation, the weather is less cloudy than in the adjacent Kuril Islands that are one of the least sunny places in the world, [14] since the city is located behind a peninsula to the north that blocks some of the fog from the cold Oyashio Current offshore of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Oceanic water in Avacha Bay and adjacent bays is also warmer than coastal waters of Kuril Islands and Okhotsk sea coast (except Southern Kuriles and Southern Sakhalin).

In the spring (February to April), seawater may freeze.

Highest Temperature: 30.0 °C (86.0 °F) on July 2, 2012

Lowest Temperature: −31.7 °C (−25.1 °F) on February 14, 1917

Highest Daily Precipitation: 200.2 millimetres (7.88 in) on November 10, 2002

Wettest Year: 1,996 millimetres (78.6 in) in 1971

Driest Year: 432 millimetres (17.0 in) in 1947

Climate data for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy (1981–2010, extremes 1894–present Climate ID:32583)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.2
(41.4)
6.2
(43.2)
7.1
(44.8)
18.8
(65.8)
20.6
(69.1)
26.9
(80.4)
30.0
(86.0)
27.7
(81.9)
24.4
(75.9)
19.4
(66.9)
12.6
(54.7)
10.5
(50.9)
30.0
(86.0)
Average high °C (°F)−4.4
(24.1)
−3.7
(25.3)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.3
(37.9)
8.2
(46.8)
13.5
(56.3)
16.5
(61.7)
17.0
(62.6)
14.1
(57.4)
8.4
(47.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
5.9
(42.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−7.0
(19.4)
−6.3
(20.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.3
(32.5)
4.5
(40.1)
9.4
(48.9)
12.7
(54.9)
13.4
(56.1)
10.4
(50.7)
5.5
(41.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.1
(22.8)
2.8
(37.0)
Average low °C (°F)−9.2
(15.4)
−8.8
(16.2)
−6.3
(20.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.9
(35.4)
6.4
(43.5)
10.0
(50.0)
10.8
(51.4)
7.5
(45.5)
3.1
(37.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.3
(18.9)
0.3
(32.5)
Record low °C (°F)−28.6
(−19.5)
−31.7
(−25.1)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−14.8
(5.4)
−6.3
(20.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.5
(36.5)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.1
(30.0)
−7.5
(18.5)
−16.5
(2.3)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−31.7
(−25.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)118
(4.6)
80
(3.1)
84
(3.3)
90
(3.5)
64
(2.5)
53
(2.1)
62
(2.4)
91
(3.6)
112
(4.4)
172
(6.8)
145
(5.7)
109
(4.3)
1,177
(46.3)
Average rainy days10.41313151717171761108
Average snowy days1818181770.1000.0331517113
Average relative humidity (%)71686872757984837974707175
Mean monthly sunshine hours 105114176192193196169178178157122931,870
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net [15]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990) [16]
Climate data for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
-0.6
(30.9)
-0.5
(31.1)
-0.2
(31.6)
2.2
(36.0)
6.8
(44.2)
10.3
(50.5)
12.3
(54.1)
10.3
(50.5)
7.3
(45.1)
4.8
(40.6)
1.8
(35.2)
4.6
(40.3)
Source: Weather Atlas [17]

Politics

Results of the Russian legislative elections

Parties/Year200320072011
Communist Party 8.83%8.89%17.78%
Patriots of Russia
(including former Party of Peace and Unity)
0.35%2.31%2.53%
A Just Russia
(including former Rodina or Motherland-National Patriotic Union
Russian Party of Life
People's Party of the Russian Federation
and Russian Ecological Party "The Greens")
13.91%7.41%9.93%
Yabloko
(including former Union of People for education and research: "Партия СЛОН")
8.92%1.85%5.10%
Right Cause
(including former Citizens' Force
Democratic Party of Russia
and Union of Rightist Forces)
4.46%2.74%0.67%
United Russia
(including former Agrarian Party of Russia)
35.29%61.78%43.59%
Liberal Democratic Party 15.25%12.00%18.40%
Other minor parties12.12%

Twin towns – sister cities

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy is twinned with: [18]

Notable residents

Related Research Articles

Khabarovsk City in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia

Khabarovsk is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the Chinese border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok. The city was the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia from 2002 until December 2018, when Vladivostok took over that role. It is the largest city in the Russian Far East, having overtaken Vladivostok in 2015. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 577,441. It was previously known as Khabarovka. As typical of the interior of the Russian Far East, Khabarovsk has an extreme climate with very strong seasonal swings resulting in strong winter cold and relatively hot and humid summers.

Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula is a 1,250-kilometre-long (777 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (104,248 sq mi). The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk make up the peninsula's eastern and western coastlines, respectively. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-metre-deep (34,449 ft) Kuril–Kamchatka Trench.

Nikolskoye, Kamchatka Krai Selo in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Nikolskoye is a rural locality and the administrative center of Aleutsky District of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on Bering Island in the Commander Islands chain. Population: 676 (2010 Census); 808 (2002 Census); 1,356 (1989 Census). It is the only remaining inhabited locality in the district.

Palana, Russia Urban-type settlement in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Palana is an urban locality in Tigilsky District of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia which serves as the administrative center of Koryak Okrug. It is located on the west coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula on the right bank of the Palana River within 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) from the Sea of Okhotsk. Population: 3,155 (2010 Census); 3,928 (2002 Census); 4,343 (1989 Census).

Klyuchi, Kamchatka Krai

Klyuchi is a rural locality in Ust-Kamchatsky District of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Kamchatka River, 30 kilometers (19 mi) to the north of Klyuchevskaya Sopka volcano. It had a population of 5,726 (2010 Census); a marked decrease from that of 7,073 (2002 Census); the population at its peak numbered 11,251 (1989 Census).

Kamchatka Krai First-level administrative division of Russia

Kamchatka Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and it is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Kamchatka Krai has a population of 322,079 (2010).

Yelizovo Town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Yelizovo is a town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Avacha River 32 kilometers (20 mi) northwest of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Population: 39,569 (2010 Census); 41,533 (2002 Census); 46,929 (1989 Census).

Vilyuchinsk Town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Vilyuchinsk is a closed town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Kamchatka Peninsula about 20 kilometers (12 mi) across Avacha Bay from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Population: 22,905 (2010 Census); 24,166 (2002 Census).

Tilichiki Selo in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Tilichiki is a rural locality and the administrative center of Olyutorsky District of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. It is located on the Korfa Bay of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Korf, Russia Selo in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Korf is a rural locality and a port in Olyutorsky District of Koryak Okrug in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on a narrow sand spit opposite Tilichiki. Population: 18 ; 3,147 (1989 Census).

Kamchatka Time

Kamchatka Time or Petropavlovsk Time (PETT; Russian: камчатское время, kamchatskoye vremya), also known as Anadyr Time (ANAT), is a time zone in Russia, named after the Kamchatka Peninsula. It is 12 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+12:00) and 9 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+9). This time zone is used in the two easternmost regions of Russia after October 2014 and was also used before the time zone reform of 2010.

Aleutsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Aleutsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located to the east of the Kamchatka Peninsula on the Commander Islands. The area of the district is 1,580 square kilometers (610 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Nikolskoye. Population: 676 (2010 Census); 808 (2002 Census); 1,356 (1989 Census). All of the district's population resides in Nikolskoye.

Bystrinsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Bystrinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the southern central part of the krai. The area of the district is 23,377 square kilometers (9,026 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Esso. Population: 2,560 (2010 Census); 2,660 (2002 Census); 2,947 (1989 Census). The population of Esso accounts for 78.6% of the district's total population.

Ust-Bolsheretsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Ust-Bolsheretsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the southern and southwestern parts of the krai. The area of the district is 20,626 square kilometers (7,964 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ust-Bolsheretsk. Population: 8,331 (2010 Census); 10,347 (2002 Census); 14,188 (1989 Census). The population of Ust-Bolsheretsk accounts for 25.4% of the district's total population.

Ust-Kamchatsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Ust-Kamchatsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 40,837 square kilometers (15,767 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ust-Kamchatsk. Population: 11,744 (2010 Census); 15,084 (2002 Census); 28,867 (1989 Census). The population of Ust-Kamchatsk accounts for 37.1% of the district's total population.

Karaginsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Karaginsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the northern central part of the krai. The area of the district is 40,641 square kilometers (15,692 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ossora. Population: 4,076 (2010 Census); 5,656 (2002 Census); 8,777 (1989 Census). The population of Ossora accounts for 52.3% of the district's total population.

Olyutorsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Olyutorsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the northeast of the krai. The area of the district is 72,352 square kilometers (27,935 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tilichiki. Population: 5,036 (2010 Census); 7,170 (2002 Census); 12,833 (1989 Census). The population of Tilichiki accounts for 34.6% of the district's total population.

Penzhinsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Penzhinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the northwest of the krai. The area of the district is 116,086 square kilometers (44,821 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kamenskoye. Population: 2,340 (2010 Census); 2,990 (2002 Census); 5,301 (1989 Census). The population of Kamenskoye accounts for 28.0% of the district's total population.

Milkovo, Kamchatka Krai Rural locality in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Milkovo is a rural locality and the administrative center of Milkovsky District, Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Population: 8,251 (2010 Census); 9,243 (2002 Census); 12,132 (1989 Census).

Malka, Kamchatka Krai Place in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Malka, or Malki, is a village in the Yelizovsky District of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. It is to the northwest of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, on the main road running north up the Kamchatka Peninsula. It is part of the Nachikinskoe rural settlement, which has its headquarters in the village of Sokoch. It is known for its nearby hot springs, thought to have therapeutic value, and for a source of mineral waters.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Law #46
  2. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar; archive date: 26 July 2018; retrieved: 25 July 2018; archive URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar.
  4. 1 2 3 Law #220
  5. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. Black, Jeremy (2001). Western warfare 1775–1882. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 80. ISBN   978-0-253-21472-0.
  9. The 114th CB cruisebook, 1946, U.S.Navy Seabee Museum Archives, Port Hueneme, Ca, p.123-125
  10. 1 2 3 "Yanks in Siberia: U.S. Navy Weather Stations in Soviet East Asia, 1945," G. Patrick March, Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 57, No. 3 (Aug., 1988), pp. 327–342, Published by: University of California Press. Online here.
  11. US Navy Abbreviations of World War II,The Navy Department Library, U.S. Navy web site, Published:Thu Jul 23 2015
  12. Feifer, Gregory (July 22, 2007). "Poaching in Far Eastern Russia Threatens Ecosystem". NPR. Archived from the original on May 9, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
  13. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia
  14. See Climatological Norms of Simusir Island Archived September 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  15. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on December 1, 2019. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  16. "Petropavlovsk-Kamca Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  17. "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Russia - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  18. "Города-побратимы". pkgo.ru (in Russian). Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy. Retrieved February 5, 2020.

Sources

See also