The Earl of Swinton
|Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations|
24 November 1952 –7 April 1955
|Prime Minister||Winston Churchill|
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Salisbury|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Home|
|Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster|
31 October 1951 –24 November 1952
|Monarch|| George VI |
|Prime Minister||Winston Churchill|
|Preceded by||The Viscount Alexander of Hillsborough|
|Succeeded by||The Earl of Woolton|
|Secretary of State for Air|
7 June 1935 –16 May 1938
|Monarch|| George V |
|Prime Minister|| Stanley Baldwin |
|Preceded by||The Marquess of Londonderry|
|Succeeded by||Kingsley Wood|
|Secretary of State for the Colonies|
5 November 1931 –7 June 1935
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||James Henry Thomas|
|Succeeded by||Malcolm MacDonald|
|President of the Board of Trade|
25 August 1931 –5 November 1931
|Prime Minister||Ramsay MacDonald|
|Preceded by||William Graham|
|Succeeded by||Walter Runciman|
6 November 1924 –4 June 1929
|Prime Minister||Stanley Baldwin|
|Preceded by||Sidney Webb|
|Succeeded by||William Graham|
24 October 1922 –22 January 1924
|Prime Minister|| Bonar Law |
|Preceded by||Stanley Baldwin|
|Succeeded by||Sidney Webb|
| Member of the House of Lords |
4 December 1935 –27 July 1972
|Preceded by||Peerage created|
|Succeeded by||The 2nd Earl of Swinton|
| Member of Parliament |
14 December 1918 –14 November 1935
|Preceded by||constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Reginald Blair|
|Born||1 May 1884|
East Ayton, Yorkshire, England
|Died||27 July 1972 88) (aged|
Swinton, Yorkshire, England
|Resting place||Masham, Yorkshire, England|
|Spouse(s)||Mary Boynton (died 1974)|
|Alma mater||Winchester School|
Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton, GBE , CH , MC , PC (1 May 1884 – 27 July 1972), known as Philip Lloyd-Greame until 1924 and as The Viscount Swinton between 1935 and 1955, was a prominent British Conservative politician from the 1920s until the 1950s.
The Military Cross (MC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, and formerly awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 4 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 11 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors.
Beginning life as Philip Lloyd-Greame, he was the younger son of Lieutenant-Colonel Yarburgh George Lloyd-Greame (1840–1928) of Sewerby House, Bridlington, Yorkshire, by his wife Dora Letitia O'Brien, a daughter of the Right Reverend James Thomas O'Brien, Bishop of Ossory. His paternal grandfather was Yarburgh Gamaliel Lloyd, later Lloyd-Greame (1813–1890), who inherited Sewerby House by the will of his maternal uncle Yarburgh Greame, later Yarburgh (1782–1856).[ citation needed ]
Bridlington is a coastal town and civil parish on the Holderness Coast of the North Sea, situated in the unitary authority and ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire approximately 28 miles (45 km) north of Hull and 34 miles (55 km) east of York. The Gypsey Race river runs through the town and emerges into the North Sea in the town harbour. In the 2011 Census the population of the parish was 35,369.
The Bishop of Ossory is an episcopal title which takes its name after the ancient of Kingdom of Ossory in the Province of Leinster, Ireland. In the Roman Catholic Church it remains a separate title, but in the Church of Ireland it has been united with other bishoprics.
He was educated at Winchester College, an all-boys public school in Winchester. He studied law at University College, Oxford, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in 1905. Then became an Honorary Fellow of his college and was admitted to the Inner Temple.[ citation needed ]
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years. It is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868.
A public school in England and Wales traditionally refers to one of seven schools given independence from direct jurisdiction by the Public Schools Act 1868: Charterhouse, Eton College, Harrow School, Rugby School, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School, and Winchester College. These were all-male boarding schools, but many now accept day pupils as well as boarders, and the 'public school' label now includes two day schools, St Paul's and the Merchant Taylors'.
University College, is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It has a claim to being the oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1249 by William of Durham.
He joined the British Army in 1914, following the start of the First World War. He was mentioned in despatches and promoted to the rank of Major. In 1916, he was awarded the Military Cross (MC) while serving on the Western Front front as a brigade major to the 124th Brigade of the 41st Division. During the war, Cunliffe-Lister spent time with Winston Churchill at his advanced HQ Lawrence Farm.They later worked together in the Stanley Baldwin ministries of the 1920s, when Cunliffe-Lister served as a minister of state. In 1917 he was appointed joint secretary to the Minister of National Service. He was noticed by David Lloyd George, who recruited the young man to be chairman of the Labour sub-committee of the war cabinet in Downing Street. At the end of the war, he stood as a Conservative candidate in the Coupon election of 1918.
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described.
Major (Maj) is a military rank which is used by both the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank is superior to captain, and subordinate to lieutenant colonel. The insignia for a major is a crown. The equivalent rank in the Royal Navy is lieutenant commander, and squadron leader in the Royal Air Force.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War. Following the outbreak of war in August 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne. Following the Race to the Sea, both sides dug in along a meandering line of fortified trenches, stretching from the North Sea to the Swiss frontier with France, which changed little except during early 1917 and in 1918.
He agreed to join the Coalition slate and was elected for Hendon. He would hold this seat until his elevation to the House of Lords in 1935. His strong intellect was immediately recognizable as a member of the National Expenditure select committee scrutinizing the controversial McKenna Duties and Homes Fit For Heroes, after which in 1920 he was knighted.
Hendon is a constituency created in 1997 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Matthew Offord of the Conservative Party. An earlier version of the seat existed between 1918-45.
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
He achieved his first ministerial post as Additional Under-Secretary Foreign Affairs in 1920 and took charge of the Overseas Trade Department in 1921 as Additional Parliamentary Secretary. In 1922 he became a Privy Counsellorand was appointed President of the Board of Trade, an office he would hold with two breaks until 1931. This fast elevation to the Cabinet came about because of the collapse of the Lloyd George Coalition Government, which forced the new Prime Minister Bonar Law to promote many inexperienced MPs.
The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has been a junior position in the British government since 1782, subordinate to both the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and since 1945 also to the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. The post has been based at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which was created in 1968, by the merger of the Foreign Office, where the position was initially based, and the Commonwealth Office. Notable holders of the office include Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, and Anthony Eden. The current holders are Alistair Burt and Henry Bellingham.
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade. This is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, first established as a temporary committee of inquiry in the 17th century, that evolved gradually into a government department with a diverse range of functions. The current holder is Liam Fox, the Secretary of State for International Trade.
Andrew Bonar Law, commonly called Bonar Law, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1922 to 1923.
In 1923, Law was forced to resign due to failing health and there was discussion as to whether he would be succeeded by Stanley Baldwin or Lord Curzon. As the last survivor of Law's Cabinet, Lloyd-Greame would later assert that it was Cabinet hostility to Curzon that prevented his appointment as Prime Minister, when he returned from the Imperial Economic Council. On 27 November 1924 Lloyd-Greame changed his surname to Cunliffe-Lister so as to be able to inherit property from his wife's family. Raised to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in 1929.
In 1931 Cunliffe-Lister was one of the Conservatives chosen to negotiate with the Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald as the latter's government collapsed and was replaced by the multi-party National Government. As a sign of his prominence within the party, Cunliffe-Lister was one of just four Conservatives in the emergency Cabinet of 10, serving for the third and final time as President of the Board of Trade.
The National Government won a massive election victory in the 1931 general election but was internally divided on the question of protective tariffs. So as to balance the Cabinet Cunliffe-Lister was replaced at the Board of Trade by the supposed Free Trader Walter Runciman, and instead became Secretary of State for the Colonies, which he would hold until June 1935. When MacDonald retired as Prime Minister and was succeed by Stanley Baldwin a Cabinet reshuffle took place in which Cunliffe-Lister became Secretary of State for Air. At the 1935 general election he did not contest his seat and was instead ennobled as Viscount Swinton,retaining his ministerial office for the next three years into the premiership of Neville Chamberlain he took the strategic post of Secretary of State for Air responsible for Britain air defences in the lead up to war.
As Swinton was now in the House of Lords his hands were free to be Chairman of the UK Commercial Corporation responsible for boosting enterprise and output. So Chamberlain appointed the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Lord Winterton (an Irish peer who sat in the House of Commons) to speak for the Air Ministry in the Commons. This arrangement did not prove successful and in May 1938 there was a disastrous debate on air and it became clear to Chamberlain that the Secretary of State must sit in the House of Commons. Swinton was dismissed, his political career seemingly over.
After serving as Minister Resident in West Africa and being made a Companion of Honour in 1943,during the Second World War Swinton's career revived when he was appointed as the first Minister of Civil Aviation, a post he held until the end of the war. During 1944 he served on the Executive Committee and on the Steering Committee at the Convention on International Civil Aviation done in Chicago, formally representing the United Kingdom.
When Winston Churchill formed his peacetime government in 1951 he appointed Swinton as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Minister for War Materials a year later. As Deputy Leader of the House of Lords Lord Swinton was also Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations for three years. When in 1955 Churchill retired, Swinton insisted on retiring too, and he was further ennobled as the Earl of Swinton.Towards the end of his life, Swinton was an Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford.
Philip Lloyd-Greame married Mary Constance "Molly" Boynton (died 1974) on 5 September 1912. [ better source needed ] She was the granddaughter of industrialist Samuel Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Baron Masham who had bought the castle in 1882. In 1924, Philip and Molly Lloyd-Greame took the name of Cunliffe-Lister and moved to Swinton Park (sold in 1980 by the 2nd Earl and bought back 2000 by his nephew, Lord Masham and the latter's family).
Their elder son, John, was killed in the Second World War, leaving two sons of his own, of whom the elder grandson succeeded his grandfather as the 2nd Earl of Swinton, and was succeeded 2006 by his younger brother as the 3rd Earl of Swinton. The third Earl has two sons, both of whom are now married.
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, was a British Conservative Party statesman who dominated the government of the United Kingdom between the world wars, serving as Prime Minister on three occasions.
Earl of Swinton is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1955 for the prominent Conservative politician Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Viscount Swinton. He had already been created Viscount Swinton, of Masham in the County of York, in 1935, and was made Baron Masham, of Ellington in the County of York, at the same time he was given the earldom. Born Philip Lloyd-Greame, he was the husband of Mary Constance "Molly" Boynton, granddaughter Samuel Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Baron Masham. When his wife inherited the large Masham estates in 1924, they assumed the surname of Cunliffe-Lister in lieu of Lloyd-Greame.
Samuel John Gurney Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood,, more commonly known as Sir Samuel Hoare, was a senior British Conservative politician who served in various Cabinet posts in the Conservative and National governments of the 1920s and 1930s.
Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, was a British statesman who served as Governor of Queensland from 1905 to 1909, Governor of New South Wales from 1909 to 1913, and Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921, where he was responsible for the creation of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms. After serving a short time as First Lord of the Admiralty in the government of Ramsay MacDonald, he was appointed the Agent-General for New South Wales by the government of Jack Lang before his retirement.
Herbrand Edward Dundonald Brassey Sackville, 9th Earl De La Warr,, styled Lord Buckhurst until 1915, was a British politician. He was the first hereditary peer to join the Labour Party and became a government minister at the age of 23.
Henry David Reginald Margesson, 1st Viscount Margesson, PC was a British Conservative politician, most popularly remembered for his tenure as Government Chief Whip in the 1930s. His reputation was of a stern disciplinarian who was one of the harshest and most effective whips. His sense of the popular mood made him know when to sacrifice unpopular ministers. He protected the appeasement-supporting government as long as he could.
Maurice Pascal Alers Hankey, 1st Baron Hankey, was a British civil servant who gained prominence as the first Cabinet Secretary and who later made the rare transition from the civil service to ministerial office. He is best known as the highly efficient top aide to Prime Minister David Lloyd George and the War Cabinet that directed Britain in the First World War.
Arthur Hamilton Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham,, was an English soldier, diplomat, politician, philanthropist and patron of the arts. After military postings and an assignment to the British Embassy in Washington, he retired from the military in 1900. He entered politics, was first elected in 1900, and later served as Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and First Lord of the Admiralty following the First World War. He donated his country house, Chequers, to the nation as a retreat for the Prime Minister, and co-founded the Courtauld Institute of Art.
The Conservative government of the United Kingdom that began in 1922 and ended in 1924 consisted of two ministries: the Law ministry and then the first Baldwin ministry.
Heslington Hall is a Grade II* listed rebuilt manor house near the village of Heslington, North Yorkshire, England, within the city of York. The hall is part of the campus of the University of York.
Robert Munro, 1st Baron Alness, was a Scottish lawyer, judge and Liberal politician. He served as Secretary for Scotland between 1916 and 1922 in David Lloyd George's coalition government and as Lord Justice Clerk between 1922 and 1933.
Winston Churchill formed the third Churchill ministry in the United Kingdom after the 1951 general election. He was reappointed as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George VI and oversaw the accession of Queen Elizabeth II in 1952 and her coronation.
Baron Masham is a title that has been created three times, once in the Peerage of Great Britain and twice in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was first created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1712 when the courtier Samuel Masham was made Baron Masham, of Otes. In 1723 he also succeeded as fourth Baronet of High Lever. Thw barony became extinct on the death of the second Baron in 1776. The Masham baronetcy, of High Lever in the County of Essex, was created by James I in the Baronetage of England on 20 December 1621 for Samuel Masham. The third Baronet was Member of Parliament for Essex. The baronetcy became extinct along with the barony in 1776.
William Douglas Weir, 1st Viscount Weir GCB PC was a Scottish industrialist and politician, who served as President of the Air Council in 1918.
Vere Brabazon Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough was an Anglo-Irish businessman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the 14th since Canadian Confederation.
David Yarburgh Cunliffe-Lister, 2nd Earl of Swinton, JP, DL was a British peer and politician.
Nicholas John Cunliffe-Lister, 3rd Earl of Swinton, styled Nicholas Cunliffe-Lister from 1974 to 2006, is a British peer.
Richard William Alan Onslow, 5th Earl of Onslow, styled Viscount Cranley until 1911, was a British peer, diplomat, parliamentary secretary and government minister.
Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone, was a British Liberal statesman. The youngest son of William Ewart Gladstone, he was Home Secretary from 1905 to 1910 and Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1910 to 1914.
The 1959 Dissolution Honours List was issued on 19 September 1959 to mark the dissolution of the United Kingdom parliament prior to the 1959 general election.
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Hendon |
Sir Reginald Blair
| President of the Board of Trade |
| President of the Board of Trade |
| President of the Board of Trade |
James Henry Thomas
| Secretary of State for the Colonies |
The Marquess of Londonderry
| Secretary of State for Air |
|New office|| Minister of Civil Aviation |
The Lord Winster
A. V. Alexander
| Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster |
The Lord Woolton
The Marquess of Salisbury
| Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations |
The Earl of Home
Sir Winston Churchill
| Senior Privy Counsellor |
The Duke of Gloucester
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Earl of Swinton |
| Viscount Swinton |