Sir Philip Game
|26th Governor of New South Wales|
29 May 1930 –15 January 1935
|Lieutenant||Sir Philip Street|
|Preceded by||Sir Dudley de Chair|
|Succeeded by||Sir Alexander Hore-Ruthven|
|14th Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis|
1 November 1935 –1 June 1945
|Monarch|| George V |
|Preceded by||The Lord Trenchard|
|Succeeded by||Sir Harold Scott|
|Born||20 March 1876|
|Died||4 February 1961 84) (aged|
|Branch/service|| British Army (1893–1918)|
Royal Air Force (1918–29)
|Years of service||1893–1929|
|Commands|| Air Member for Personnel (1923–29)|
RAF India (1922–23)
South Western Area (1918–19)
|Battles/wars|| Second Boer War |
First World War
|Awards|| Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath |
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire
Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
Distinguished Service Order
Mentioned in Despatches (6)
Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Officer of the Legion of Honour (France)
Sir Philip Woolcott Game,(30 March 1876 – 4 February 1961) was a British Royal Air Force commander, who later served as Governor of New South Wales and Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (London). Born in Surrey in 1876, Game was educated at Charterhouse School and entered the military at Royal Military Academy Woolwich, gaining his commission in 1895. Serving with the Royal Artillery, Game saw action in the Second Boer War and the First World War. After serving with distinction and bravery, Game transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in early 1916 serving as General Trenchard's chief staff officer. Finishing the War as an acting major-general, Game remained in the Royal Air Force after the close of hostilities. Notably he served as Air Officer Commanding RAF India and Air Member for Personnel. He retired from the military in 1929, having reached the rank of air vice-marshal.
In March 1930, Game was appointed Governor of New South Wales, serving during a time of political instability and coming into conflict with the NSW Labor Government over attempts to abolish the New South Wales Legislative Council. Game dismissed the Government of Premier Jack Lang in May 1932. Ending his term in January 1935, Game returned to Britain and was appointed Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police in London. He held it during the tumultuous 1930s, the 1936 abdication crisis and the Second World War, before retiring at the end of the war in 1945.Between 1937 and 1949 he resided at Langham House, Ham Common, Surrey and was Vicar's Warden at St. Andrews church. Retiring with his wife Gwendoline to his home in Kent, Game died in February 1961, aged 84.
Game was born in Streatham, Surrey, on 30 March 1876 to George Beale Game, a merchant from Broadway, Worcestershire, and his wife Clara Vincent. Before entering the army, he was educated at Charterhouse School. Following officer training at the Royal Military Academy Woolwich, Game was commissioned as a second lieutenant on 2 November 1895 into the Royal Artillery. Promoted to lieutenant on 2 November 1898 and further promoted to captain on 3 June 1901, he served in the Second Boer War and was mentioned in despatches (including the final despatch by Lord Kitchener dated 23 June 1902). As a young artillery captain he was made officer in charge of the gun carriage bearing the coffin of Queen Victoria at her funeral in February 1901. In July 1902, he was appointed divisional adjutant of the IX division Royal Field Artillery, stationed at Middelburg, Cape Colony. Following brief postings in India and Ireland, Game attended the Staff College, Camberley in 1910 and was posted as a General Service Officer (GSO) at the War Office. He later won the Royal United Services Institute Gold Medal Essay. On 11 August 1908 he married Gwendolen Hughes-Gibb, the daughter of Francis Hughes-Gibb of Dorset, and was promoted as a major on 15 February 1912.
Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Game served on the front in France, including at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle. In the war he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order, the Légion d'honneur and the Order of the Crown of Italy and was five times Mentioned in Despatches.In early 1916 Game transferred to the Royal Flying Corps as a result of Hugh Trenchard's request for an experienced staff officer to serve in his headquarters. Game transferred to the Royal Air Force on its creation in 1918. At the end of the war, Game continued to work under Trenchard, but as Director of Training and Organisation in the RAF. In 1922 he was promoted to the rank of air vice-marshal and appointed Air Officer Commanding RAF India. The next year he took up the post of Air Member for Personnel and was appointed as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) a year later. Game retired suddenly on 1 January 1929, at the age of 52, allegedly owing to the rumours of his being appointed Chief of the Air Staff. On 1 March 1929 he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire in the military division (GBE).
At the height of the Great Depression, Game was appointed Governor of New South Wales in March 1930.He arrived in Sydney with his family in May 1930. On 30 June 1930, Game was appointed by King George V a Knight of Grace of the Venerable Order of St John (KStJ). At the October 1930 State elections the Bavin Nationalist Government was defeated and the Labor Party leader, Jack Lang, became Premier.
Lang’s previous term of office from 1925 to 1927 had brought him into conflict with Game’s predecessor, Sir Dudley de Chair, over the proposed appointment of additional members to the Legislative Council, in order to enable the abolition of the house, using the same techniques used to abolish the Queensland Legislative Council in 1922. His inability to gain control in the Upper House obstructed Lang’s legislative programme and in November 1930, claiming a mandate to abolish the Council, Lang's Labor MLCs put forward two bills, one to repeal section 7A of the NSW Constitution (which prevented the abolition of the Council without a referendum), the other to abolish the Council. Lang requested the necessary additional appointments to pass the legislation from Game. However, these requests were met with Game’s refusal.
Believing that a referendum was necessary before the bills could become law, the Legislative Council permitted the bills to pass without a division on 10 December. Lang then announced his intention of presenting the bills for Game's Royal assent without a referendum. The following day, two members of the Legislative Council, Thomas Playfair and Arthur Trethowan, applied for and were granted an injunction preventing the President of the Council, Sir John Peden, and the ministers from presenting the bills to the Governor without having held a referendum. On 23 December the Supreme Court of New South Wales in the case of Trethowan v Peden, upheld the injunction and ordered the government not to present for royal assent, unless ratified by the electors in a referendum, bills to abolish the council.Lang immediately prepared an appeal to the High Court of Australia. In the case of Attorney-General (New South Wales) v Trethowan , the appeal was rejected by a majority of the court. Lang then appealed this decision to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. On 31 May 1932 the Privy Council dismissed the government's appeal.
Reflecting his status as a representative of the British Government, Game at all times informed the Dominions Office of political developments. In hard financial times, NSW soon came into conflict with the federal government as Lang’s unorthodox financial policy opposed the economic orthodoxy advocated by Sir Otto Niemeyer, who was the main financial advisor to the Federal Scullin Labor Government and later the Lyons United Australia Party Government. In July 1931, in a personal contribution towards economic recovery, Game notified Treasury to make a 25% deduction from his own monthly salary.
Lang's Government soon introduced legislation to cope with the economic problems the state was facing. Its first move was the Reduction of Interest Bill, which was intended to default on payments of overseas debts to British bondholders in an attempt to negotiate the interest rate. The Legislative Council prevented passage on 26 March 1931 by resolving that the bill be read again in six months time. Lang again asked for additional members to force his legislation through. Game, aware of the weight of opinion in the MacDonald Government in London, the Scullin Government in Canberra, and Sydney against the Lang administration's financial policies, refused. On 28 March the Federal Labor Party expelled the New South Wales Labor Party for its opposition to the financial policy of the Federal government. Despite various petitions and demands that he dismiss Lang, Game declined to act. Game later informed the Dominions Secretary, James Henry Thomas, on 29 March 1931 that he was not convinced that Lang would lose an election at this time.
In March and June 1931 Lang repeatedly requested the necessary 80 appointments to swamp the council and prevent obstruction to his legislation. Game again refused, offering 21 appointments, which were enough to pass some of the legislation but not the most controversial bills, including the bill to default on debts.Finally, in a compromise move with Lang, on 19 November 1931 Game assented to 25 appointments, reasoning that it would not be possible to refuse Lang's requests until the Privy Council case was resolved. His telegram to the Dominions Secretary the next day explained further: "I foresee if I refuse now I shall most probably be placed in position before long where...I should not be able to stop at twenty five but should have sooner or later to give sufficient appointments to carry rejected legislation. Such numbers might give Government a permanent majority to carry any and every extreme measure, and extreme factions would probably gain ascendancy owing to what they would represent as my obstinate partiality. Should I refuse appointments until appeal case is heard and should it result in abolition extremists would be in an even stronger position. After reviewing all arguments and considering possibilities I have reached conclusion that my proper and wiser course is to accept advice and have done so."
During this Game questioned the result if Lang won the appeal to the Privy Council and the Legislative Council was abolished. Various correspondence between him and London confirms that had Lang succeeded, Game may have refused assent to the abolition bills, thereby making it the first time it had been withheld since 1708. This potential situation disappeared, however, with the judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council on 31 May 1932. The judgment dismissed the appeal by the Government of New South Wales. The bills repealing Section 7A and abolishing the Legislative Council could not therefore be presented to the Governor for assent until they had been passed in a referendum.Faced with other problems, Lang's plans for abolition ultimately failed. His successor as Premier, Bertram Stevens, later passed major reforms to replace the appointed Legislative Council, by a Council elected by the whole parliament to terms equivalent to four Assembly terms. This was passed by referendum in 1933.
In March 1932, in anticipation of the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, when Lang decided that he would cut the ribbon and incurred the displeasure of the King, Game reassured the King that Lang had the right to cut the ribbon. Game and his family found much amusement in the controversy thrown up over the matter and the question of whether Game, as governor, should have a 17-gun salute. The far-right New Guard were nevertheless enraged over Lang's decision, culminating in Francis de Groot's cutting of the ribbon just before the scheduled official opening on 19 March 1932. The ribbon was hastily reattached and Lang opened the bridge with Game looking on, and he later gave a speech commemorating the occasion.
When the United Australia Party Government of Joseph Lyons came to power in January 1932, it passed the Financial Agreement Enforcement Act, thereby forcing the NSW government to adhere to its debt commitments and to cut government spending. Lang appealed the decision to the High Court. When the court ruled that the law was valid, Lang ordered Treasury officials to withdraw all the state's funds from government bank accounts so that the federal government could not gain access to the money. Game advised Lang that in his view this action was illegal, and that if Lang did not reverse it he would dismiss the government. Lang stood firm, and issued a leaflet in defiance of Game. Game then reluctantly decided to exercise his reserve powers and called Lang to Government House to dismiss him. However, Lang was not the first to hear of his dismissal. The pianist Isador Goodman, who had been befriended by Sir Philip and Lady Game, was at Government House for dinner that night. There were a number of interruptions, and Goodman asked if he perhaps ought to leave. Game replied, "No, that's not necessary. You see, I am about to dismiss the Premier."
On 13 May 1932 Game dismissed Lang's government and appointed the UAP leader, Bertram Stevens, as Premier. Stevens formed a coalition with Michael Bruxner's Country Party and immediately called an election, at which Lang's NSW Labor Party was heavily defeated. This was the first case of an Australian government with the confidence of the lower house of Parliament being dismissed by a vice-regal representative, the second case being when Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed Gough Whitlam's government on 11 November 1975. Game himself felt his decision was the right one, despite his personal liking of Lang. He wrote to his mother-in-law on 2 July 1932: "Still with all his faults of omission and commission I had and still have a personal liking for Lang and a great deal of sympathy for his ideals and I did not at all relish being forced to dismiss him. But I felt faced with the alternative of doing so or reducing the job of Governor all over the Empire to a farce."Lang himself, despite objecting to his dismissal, conceded that he too liked Game, regarding him as fair and polite, and having had good relations with him.
During his governorship Game was the patron of several organisations including the District and Bush Nursing Associations and the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales, and was Chief Scout of the NSW Boy Scouts Association. Lady Game was President of the District and Bush Nursing Associations and the Girl Guides Association. The rest of his term was fairly uneventful, and he returned to Britain following the expiration of his term on 15 January 1935. Before he left Sydney he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG), on the recommendation of Premier Stevens, for his service as governor.In honour of their service to the state, Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council named a major road in Lindfield as Lady Game Drive and a nearby park as Sir Phillip Game Reserve. In memory of Game's time as governor, a portrait was commissioned by public subscription and painted by R.G. Eves. It was then displayed at the National Art Gallery of New South Wales before being presented to Government House.
Upon his return to Britain, Game served as Metropolitan Police Commissioner from 1935 until 1945. Not long after his appointment in November 1935, Game was responsible for the policing of the funeral of King George V and subsequently the abdication crisis of King Edward VIII and the 1937 coronation of King George VI.For his work in the 1937 coronation, Game was appointed by King George VI a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) on 11 May 1937. Serving as Commissioner during very tumultuous times, Game had to deal with Fascist and Communist demonstrations, a bombing campaign waged by the Irish Republican Army and, during the Second World War, the organisation of the police role in air-raid precautions and relief. He dealt effectively with those problems and the consequent improvement in police morale was an important factor in the survival of London during the concentrated German air attack of 1940–41. In 1943, in an attempt to prevent burglaries, Game urged householders not to keep furs, adapting a verse from Chapter 9 of Ecclesiastes saying, "they are no doubt warmer, and look nicer than a tweed coat, but a live dog is better than a dead lion."
Towards the end of his time as Metropolitan Police Commissioner, Game worked to establish a boys' club. The Sir Philip Game Boys' Club, situated in Croydon, was opened in 1946. The Club was officially opened on 19 July 1947 by the then Home Secretary, James Chuter Ede, in the presence of Game. New premises were built and completed in 1964 and were officially opened on 8 May 1966 by the then Home Secretary, Sir Frank Soskice, in the presence of Lady Game, who unveiled a plaque in the memory of her husband.Game was the last senior armed forces officer to be appointed Metropolitan Police Commissioner: with the exception of his immediate successor, a senior civil servant, all successive commissioners have been career police officers. On 2 May 1945 Game was appointed a Knight Grand Cross (GCB) in the Civil Division of the Order of the Bath (he was already a Knight Commander in the Military Division of the same Order); and he retired soon after on 1 June 1945.
He died at his home, Blackenhall, Sevenoaks, Kent, on 4 February 1961, survived by his wife, daughter and by his elder son, who had married Vera Blackburn, daughter of Sir Charles Blackburn. His second son had been killed in action at Taranto, Italy, in 1943.His daughter Rosemary recalled her childhood and her father's work in her 1989 memoir, Growing Up at Government House.
|Viceregal styles of|
Sir Philip Game
|Reference style||His Excellency|
|Spoken style||Your Excellency|
|Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)||1945|
|Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB)||1924|
|Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)||1919|
|Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO)||1937|
|Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)||1929|
|Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG)||1935|
|Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO)||1915|
|Knight of Grace of the Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem (KStJ)||1929|
|Queen's South Africa Medal|
|British War Medal|
|Victory Medal with palm for Mentioned in Dispatches|
|King George V Silver Jubilee Medal||1935|
|King George VI Coronation Medal||1937|
|Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal||1953|
|Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy||1917|
|Officer of the Legion of Honour||1917|
The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the Australian states perform constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level. The governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current governor is retired judge Margaret Beazley, who succeeded David Hurley on 2 May 2019.
John Thomas Lang, usually referred to as J. T. Lang during his career and familiarly known as "Jack" and nicknamed "The Big Fella", was an Australian politician who twice served as the 23rd Premier of New South Wales from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1930 to 1932. He was dismissed by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Philip Game, at the climax of the 1932 constitutional crisis and resoundingly lost the resulting election and subsequent elections as Leader of the Opposition. He later formed Lang Labor and was briefly a member of the Australian House of Representatives.
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The following lists events that happened during 1932 in Australia.
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The 1932 dismissal of Premier Jack Lang by New South Wales Governor Philip Game was the first real constitutional crisis in Australia. Lang remains the only Australian premier to be removed from office by his governor, using the reserve powers of the Crown.
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A referendum concerning the abolition of the New South Wales Legislative Council was put to New South Wales voters on 29 April 1961. The abolition was specifically rejected by voters. The text of the question was:
Do you approve of the Bill entitled "A Bill for an Act to Abolish the Legislative Council to provide that another Legislative Council shall not be created, constituted or established nor shall any Chamber, Assembly or House, other than the Legislative Assembly, designed to form part of the Legislative Parliament of New South Wales, be created, constituted or established until a bill for the purpose has been approved by the electors in a referendum to amend the Constitution Act, 1902 and certain other Acts; and for purposes connected therewith."
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Sir John Beverley Peden was an Australian jurist and politician. Born in Randwick to farmer Magnus Jackson Peden, a mayor of Randwick, and Elizabeth Neathway Brown, he attended public school at Bega before studying at Sydney Grammar School and the University of Sydney, where he received a Bachelor of Arts in 1892 and a Bachelor of Laws in 1898. He was an assistant lecturer in Latin at the university from 1896 to 1898, when he was called to the bar. He lectured in law from 1903 and became a professor and faculty Dean in 1910. Appointed to the New South Wales Legislative Council as a Nationalist in 1917, from 1929 to 1946 he was President of the Council; he was both the last President appointed directly by the governor, and the first elected by his fellow councillors. Peden died in Paddington in 1946.
Members of the New South Wales Legislative Council were mostly elected at the 1933 election. A further 15 were elected by a joint sitting of the New South Wales Parliament in December 1936. The President was Sir John Peden.</ref>
Members of the New South Wales Legislative Council who served from 1930 to 1932 were appointed for life by the Governor on the advice of the Premier. This list includes members between the 1930 state election on 25 October 1930 and the 1932 state election on 11 June 1932. The President was Sir John Peden.</ref> The Premier Jack Lang had been seeking to swamp the council, however the Governor Sir Philip Game had declined to do so in November 1930, March, June and September 1931 when Lang sought 70 new members be appointed. In November 1931 Lang dropped his request to 25 new members and the governor agreed to the request. This raised the number of members of the council from 85 to 110.
Governor of NSW
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