Philip Wharton, 4th Baron Wharton

Last updated

Lord Wharton, 1632, by Van Dyck. Philip, Lord Wharton.jpg
Lord Wharton, 1632, by Van Dyck.

Philip Wharton, 4th Baron Wharton (18 April 1613 – 4 February 1696) was an English soldier, politician and diplomat. He was a Parliamentarian during the English Civil War.

Contents

Wharton was the son of Sir Thomas Wharton of Aske Hall and his wife Lady Philadelphia Carey, daughter of Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth. His father died in 1622 and he inherited the peerage on the death of his grandfather in 1625.

Parliamentarianism

Wharton was appointed as the Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire by Parliament in July 1642. He led an armed force to seize the local magazine at Manchester, a puritan stronghold. However Lord Strange arrived first. Nevertheless, some of the local inhabitants resisted his entry to the town and suffered one casualty in repelling him. This is one of the first skirmishes of the First English Civil War. [1] He also served on the Committee for Both Kingdoms. [2] He was involved in unmasking a plot involving Thomas Ogle, which aimed to separate any unity between the Scottish Covenanters and the English Parliament, while simultaneously drawing the Independents to support the King in exchange for religious toleration. [3] He was a Puritan and a favourite of Oliver Cromwell.

After the restoration

Following the restoration of the monarchy, he frequently ran into difficulty with the Crown. In 1676 he was imprisoned in the Tower of London and later (in 1685) fled the country when King James II came to the throne.

He spent time while abroad in the Court of the Prince of Orange and subsequently his family line was back in Royal favour when the latter came to the throne of England in 1688. He was unfailing in his admiration for Cromwell, and his belief that Parliament had been in the right in the Civil War: in 1689 he angrily demanded that Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, withdraw a reference to the Civil War as a rebellion.

He had one surviving daughter, Elizabeth, by his first wife, Elizabeth Wandesford. [4] By his second wife, Jane, only daughter of Colonel Arthur Goodwin and heiress to the extensive Goodwin estates in Buckinghamshire, he had seven additional children: Anne, Margaret, Thomas Wharton, 1st Marquess of Wharton, Mary, Goodwin, Philadelphia, and Henry. [4] On 21 April 1658, his second wife Jane died and on 26 August 1661, he married for the third time. Lord Wharton married Anne Popham (née Carr), the widow of Colonel Edward Popham. Anne brought two children from her marriage with Edward: Letitia aged 13 and Alexander aged 12. Alexander was a deaf-mute and under the guidance of Dr. John Wallis in Oxford, was one of the first deaf people in the world to learn to speak. Lord Wharton and his third wife had a son named William, born around June/July 1662. [4] William died on 14 December 1687, killed in a duel.

Lord Wharton was a prominent art collector and patron. In the 1630s he commissioned a series of portraits painted by Anthony van Dyck of several members of his family, including himself, his wife Jane, his father-in-law Arthur Goodwin, and his daughters Philadelphia and Elizabeth.

Lord Wharton in a 1685 portrait by Kneller. 4thLordWharton.jpg
Lord Wharton in a 1685 portrait by Kneller.

Lord Wharton gave much support to church ministers, particularly those who shared his perspectives. [5] he also gave money to establish chapels at Ravenstonedale and Smarber and to provide for the ministers at both places. The latter survives as Low Row United Reformed Church.

In his will, he left land near York to support a Bible charity, which was devoted to the distribution of bibles to children for use outside of the church or school. The terms of the will require the recipient to learn by rote the 1st, 15th, 25th, 37th, 101st, 113th, 145th psalms. The will also requires the Shorter Catechism also be included. Many thousands of Bibles have been distributed and the Trust still distributes Bibles to under eighteen-year-olds. http://www.lordwhartonbibles.org.uk/ [6]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">English Civil War</span> Series of civil wars in England between 1642 and 1651

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists led by Charles I ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The wars also involved the Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates. The war ended with Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex</span> English Parliamentarian

Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, KB, PC was an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the 17th century. With the start of the Civil War in 1642, he became the first Captain-General and Chief Commander of the Parliamentarian army, also known as the Roundheads. However, he was unable and unwilling to score a decisive blow against the Royalist army of King Charles I. He was eventually overshadowed by the ascendancy of Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Fairfax, and resigned his commission in 1646.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester</span> English politician and commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War

Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, KG, KB, FRS was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Hampden</span> English politician (1595–1643)

John Hampden was an English landowner and politician whose opposition to arbitrary taxes imposed by Charles I made him a national figure. An ally of Parliamentarian leader John Pym, and cousin to Oliver Cromwell, he was one of the Five Members whose attempted arrest in January 1642 sparked the First English Civil War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Waller</span> 17th-century English military officer and politician

Sir William Waller was an English soldier and politician, who commanded Parliamentarian armies during the First English Civil War, before relinquishing his commission under the 1645 Self-denying Ordinance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland</span> 17th-century English noble

Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, KG, JP was an English aristocrat, and supporter of the Parliamentary cause in the First English Civil War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Upper Winchendon</span> Village in Aylesbury Dale district of Buckinghamshire, England

Upper Winchendon or Over Winchendon is a village and civil parish in the Aylesbury Vale District of Buckinghamshire, England. It is about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of Waddesdon and 4.5 miles (7 km) west of Aylesbury. A mid-air collision on 17 November 2017 between a plane and a helicopter just outside the village was referred to by much of the press as the "Waddesdon Manor air incident".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nathaniel Fiennes</span> 17th-century English politician and religious radical

Nathaniel Fiennes was a younger son of the Puritan nobleman and politician, William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele. He sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1659, and served with the Parliamentarian army in the First English Civil War. In 1643, he was dismissed from the army for alleged incompetence after surrendering Bristol and sentenced to death before being pardoned. Exonerated in 1645, he actively supported Oliver Cromwell during The Protectorate, being Lord Keeper of the Great Seal from 1655 to 1659.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wars of the Three Kingdoms</span> British civil wars, 1639–1651

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms is the term used for a series of related conflicts fought between 1639 and 1652 in England, Scotland and Ireland, then separate entities united in a personal union under Charles I of England. Beginning with the 1639 to 1640 Bishops' Wars, they include the First and Second English Civil Wars, the Irish Confederate Wars and the Anglo-Scottish war (1650–1652). They ended with the execution of Charles I and establishment of the Commonwealth of England, a unitary republic which controlled the British Isles until the Stuart Restoration in 1660.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford</span> British nobleman

William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford KG PC was an English nobleman and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he inherited his Peerage as 5th Earl of Bedford and removed to the House of Lords. He fought in the Parliamentarian army and later defected to the Royalists during the English Civil War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas Wharton, 1st Marquess of Wharton</span> English nobleman and politician

Thomas Wharton, 1st Marquess of Wharton PC was an English nobleman and politician. A man of great charm and political ability, he was also notorious for his debauched lifestyle.

The Committee of Both Kingdoms,, was a committee set up during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms by the Parliamentarian faction in association with representatives from the Scottish Covenanters, after they made an alliance in late 1643.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke</span> Puritan activist

Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke was a radical Puritan activist and leading member of the opposition to Charles I of England prior to the outbreak of the First English Civil War in August 1642. Appointed Parliamentarian commander in Staffordshire and Warwickshire, he was killed by a Royalist sniper at Lichfield on 2 March 1643.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Popham</span> English politician (1605–1669)

Alexander Popham of Littlecote, Wiltshire, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1669. He was patron of the philosopher John Locke.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arthur Goodwin</span> English politician

Arthur Goodwin of Upper Winchendon, Buckinghamshire was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1621 and 1643. He supported the Parliamentary cause during the English Civil War.

Goodwin Wharton was an English Whig politician and autobiographer, as well as an avid mystic, alchemist and treasure hunter. His unpublished manuscript autobiography, in the British Library, "ranks high in the annals of psychopathology" according to the historian Roy Porter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester</span>

John Paulet, 5th Marquess of Winchester, styled Lord John Paulet until 1621 and Lord St John from 1621 to 1628, was the third but eldest surviving son of William Paulet and his successor as 5th Marquess of Winchester.

Dr. Calybute Downing (1606–1643) was an English clergyman, a member of the Westminster Assembly. Also a civil lawyer, he is now remembered for political views, which moved from an absolutist position in the 1630s to a justification of resistance to authority by 1640, within a contractarian setting.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward Popham</span>

Edward Popham (1610–1651) was a General at Sea during the English Civil War.

Sir Thomas Saunders (1593–1653) was an English knight and Buckinghamshire landowner. He was a Member of Parliament, Deputy Lieutenant for Buckinghamshire, High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire and a Parliamentarian army officer during the English Civil War. His surname was often written as Sanders.

References

  1. C.V. Wedgewood (1958), The King's War 1641 - 1647, Collins, p. 285, OL   25430542M
  2. Journal of the House of Lords: volume 5: 1642–1643 (1802), pp. 175–76. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=34839&strquery="Lord%20Wharton". Date accessed: 13 April 2007.
  3. "House of Lords Journal Volume 6: 26 January 1644". Journal of the House of Lords (1767–1830). 6: 393–394. 1643. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 Clark, J. Kent (2004).Whig's Progress: Tom Wharton between Revolutions, pp.11,17-19. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Madison, N.J. ISBN   0-8386-3997-6
  5. Wadsworth, K W, Philip, Lord Wharton - Revolutionary Aristocrat? Journal of the United Reformed Church History Society Volume 4 No 8 May 1991(being the 1990 Annual Lecture of the Society)
  6. http://gmb.orpheusweb.co.uk/lowrow/bible.html Archived 19 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine Date accessed: 4 May 2008.
Honorary titles
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire
(Parliamentarian)

1642
Succeeded by
Vacant
Peerage of England
Preceded by Baron Wharton
1625–1695
Succeeded by